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Islam (//;note 1 Arabic: الإسلام, al-ʾIslām IPA: [ælʔɪsˈlæːm] ( listen)note 2) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Allāh), and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (c. 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim (sometimes spelled "Moslem").1
Muslims also believe that God is one and incomparable2 and that the purpose of existence is to worship God.3 Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus.4 Although a large majority of Muslims do maintain that the previous messages and revelations have been partially misinterpreted over time,5 they are nevertheless all obliged, according to the Qur'an, to treat the older scriptures with the utmost respect.6 As for the Qur'an, Muslims consider it to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of God.7 Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking and welfare, to family life and the environment.89
Most Muslims are of two denominations: Sunni (75–90%)10 or Shia (10–20%).11 About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia,12 the largest Muslim-majority country, 25% in South Asia,12 20% in the Middle East,13 and 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa.14 Sizable Muslim communities are also found in Europe, China, Russia, and the Americas. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world. With about 1.62 billion followers or 23% of the global population,1516 Islam is the second-largest religion by number of adherents and, according to many sources, the fastest-growing major religion in the world.171819
- 1 Etymology and meaning
- 2 Articles of faith
- 3 Five pillars
- 4 Law and jurisprudence
- 5 History
- 6 Denominations
- 7 Non-denominational Muslims
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Culture
- 10 Criticism
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Etymology and meaning
Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, safeness and peace.20 In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God".2122 Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, and means "submission" or "surrender." Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, and means "one who submits" or "one who surrenders." Believers demonstrate submission to God by serving God, following his commands, and rejecting polytheism. The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Qur'an. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal conviction: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam."23 Islam, by its own inner logic, embraces every possible facet of existence, for God has named Himself al-Muḥīṭ, the All-Embracing.24
Other verses connect Islām and dīn (usually translated as "religion"): "Today, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion."25 Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith.26 In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān (faith), and ihsān (excellence), where islām is defined theologically as Tawhid, historically by asserting that Muhammad is messenger of God, and doctrinally by mandating five basic and fundamental pillars of practice.2728
Articles of faith
Islam's most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd (Arabic: توحيد). God is described in chapter 112 of the Qur'an as:29 "Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him."(112:1-4) Muslims and Jews repudiate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and Muslims are not expected to visualize God.30313233 God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful" (See Names of God in Islam).34
Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "'Be' and so it is,"35 and that the purpose of existence is to worship God.36 He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in need or distress calls him.37 There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than (his) jugular vein."38 The reciprocal nature is mentioned in the hadith qudsi, "I am as My servant thinks (expects) I am."39
Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh (Arabic: إله) is the term used for a deity or a god in general.40 Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or Ḵẖudā in Urdu.
Belief in angels is fundamental to the faith of Islam. The Arabic word for angel (Arabic: ملك malak) means "messenger", like its counterparts in Hebrew (malʾákh) and Greek (angelos). According to the Qur'an, angels do not possess free will, and therefore worship and obey God in total obedience. Angels' duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. Muslims believe that angels are made of light. They are described as "messengers with wings—two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases..."41
The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted—either in interpretation, in text, or both.5 The Qur'an (literally, "Reading" or "Recitation") is viewed by Muslims as the final revelation and literal word of God and is widely regarded as the finest literary work in the Arabic language.4243
Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad by God through the archangel Gabriel (Jibrīl) on many occasions between 610 CE until his death on June 8, 632.44 While Muhammad was alive, all of these revelations were written down by his companions (sahabah), although the prime method of transmission was orally through memorization.45
The Qur'an is divided into 114 suras, or chapters, which combined, contain 6,236 āyāt, or verses. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and moral issues relevant to the Muslim community.46
The Qur'an is more concerned with moral guidance than legal instruction, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".47 Muslim jurists consult the hadith ("reports"), or the written record of Prophet Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Qur'an and assist with its interpretation. The science of Qur'anic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.48 Rules governing proper pronunciation is called tajwid.
Muslims usually view "the Qur'an" as the original scripture as revealed in Arabic and that any translations are necessarily deficient, which are regarded only as commentaries on the Qur'an.49
Muslims identify the prophets of Islam (Arabic: أنۢبياء anbiyāʾ ) as those humans chosen by God to be his messengers. According to the Qurʼan, the prophets were instructed by God to bring the "will of God" to the peoples of the nations. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam—submission to the will of God. The Qurʼan mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others.51
Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad as the last law bearing prophet (Seal of the Prophets) to convey the divine message to the whole world (to sum up and to finalize the word of God). In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the Sunnah (literally "trodden path"). This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith, which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. Hadith Qudsi is a sub-category of hadith, regarded as the words of God repeated by Muhammad differing from the Quran in that they are expressed in Muhammad's words, whereas the Qur'an is understood as the direct words of God. The classical Muslim jurist ash-Shafi'i (d. 820) emphasized the importance of the Sunnah in Islamic law, and Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives. The Sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Qur'an.52
Resurrection and judgment
Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", Yawm al-Qiyāmah (Arabic: يوم القيامة) is also crucial for Muslims. They believe the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God but unknown to man. The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the Qur'an and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of scholars. The Qur'an emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death.53
On Yawm al-Qiyāmah, Muslims believe all mankind will be judged on their good and bad deeds and consigned to Jannah (paradise) or Jahannam (hell). The Qurʼan in Surat al-Zalzalah describes this as, "So whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it (99:7) and whoever does an atom's weight of evil will see it (99:8)." The Qurʼan lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief in God (Arabic: كفر kufr), and dishonesty; however, the Qurʼan makes it clear God will forgive the sins of those who repent if he so wills. Good deeds, such as charity, prayer and compassion towards animals,5455 will be rewarded with entry to heaven. Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and bliss, with Qurʼanic references describing its features and the physical pleasures to come. Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.56
Yawm al-Qiyāmah is also identified in the Qur'an as Yawm ad-Dīn (Arabic: يوم الدين), "Day of Religion";57 as-sāʿah (Arabic: الساعة), "the Last Hour";58 and al-Qāriʿah (Arabic: القارعة), "The Clatterer".59
In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa'l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector'..."60 For Muslims, everything in the world that occurs, good or bad, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by God. According to Muslim theologians, although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he or she has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".61
The Pillars of Islam (arkan al-Islam; also arkan ad-din, "pillars of religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the creed (shahadah), (2) daily prayers (salat), (3) almsgiving (zakah), (4) fasting during Ramadan and (5) the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime. Both Shia and Sunni sects agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts.62
The Shahadah,63 which is the basic creed of Islam that must be recited under oath with the specific statement: "'ašhadu 'al-lā ilāha illā-llāhu wa 'ašhadu 'anna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh", or "I testify that there is no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God."64 This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.65
Ritual prayers, called Ṣalāh or Ṣalāt (Arabic: صلاة), must be performed five times a day. Salat is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Salat is compulsory but flexibility in the specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Qur'an.66 The prayers are done with the chest in direction of the kaaba though in the early days of Islam, they were done in direction of Jerusalem.
A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name, masjid. The word mosque in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated to Islamic worship, although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller, privately owned mosque and the larger, "collective" mosque (masjid jāmi').67 Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. Al-Masjid al-Nabawi the Prophets Mosque in Madina was also a place of refuge for the poor.68 Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets.69
"Zakāt" (Arabic: زكاة zakāh "alms") is giving a fixed portion of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it to help the poor or needy and for those employed to collect Zakat; also, for bringing hearts together, freeing captives, for those in debt (or bonded labour) and for the (stranded) traveller.7071 It is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to voluntary charity) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". Conservative estimates of annual zakat is estimated to be 15 times global humanitarian aid contributions.72 The amount of zakat to be paid on capital assets (e.g. money) is 2.5% (1/40) per year,73 for people who are not poor. The Qur'an and the hadith also urge a Muslim to give even more as an act of voluntary alms-giving called Sadaqah.74
Fasting, (Arabic: صوم ṣawm), from food and drink (among other things) must be performed from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadhan. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly.75
The pilgrimage, called the ḥajj (Arabic: حج), has to be done during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj include: spending a day and a night in the tents in the desert plain of Mina, then a day in the desert plain of Arafat praying and worshiping God, following the foot steps of Abraham. Then spending a night out in the open, sleeping on the desert sand in the desert plain of Muzdalifah, then moving to Jamarat, symbolically stoning the Devil recounting Abraham's actions.767778 Then going to Mecca and walking seven times around the Kaaba which Muslims believe was built as a place of worship by Abraham. Then walking seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah recounting the steps of Abraham's wife, while she was looking for water for her son Ismael in the desert before Mecca developed into a settlement.79
Law and jurisprudence
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The Shariʻah (literally "the path leading to the watering place") is Islamic law formed by traditional Islamic scholarship, which most Muslim groups adhere to. Shariʻah "constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his or her religious belief".80
The Quran set the rights, the responsibilities and the rules for people and for societies to adhere to. Muhammad provided an example, which is recorded in the hadith books, showing how he practically implemented those rules in a society.
Many of the Sharia laws that differ are devised through Ijtihad where there is no such ruling in the Quran or the Hadiths of Islamic prophet Muhammad regarding a similar case.8182 As Muhammad's companions went to new areas,83 they were pragmatic and in some cases continued to use the same ruling as was given in that area during pre-Islamic times. If the population felt comfortable with it, it was just and they used Ijtihad to deduce that it did not conflict with the Quran or the Hadith. This made it easier for the different communities to integrate into the Islamic State and that assisted in the quick expansion of the Islamic State. Since the Constitution of Medina, was drafted by the Islamic prophet Muhammad the Jews and the Christians continued to use their own laws in the Islamic State and had their own judges.848586
Much of the knowledge we have about Muhammad is narrated through Aisha, the wife of Muhammad. Aisha raised and taught her nephew Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr the grandson of Abu Bakr and the grandfather of Ja'far al-Sadiq. Aisha also taught her nephew Urwah ibn Zubayr. He then taught his son Hisham ibn Urwah, who was the main teacher of Malik ibn Anas.
When Umar bin Abdul Azeez became a Caliph in 7178788 he appointed a committee of jurist in Madina headed by Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr and it included Urwah ibn Zubayr to advise on legal matters89 The work of Malik ibn Anas and successive jurists is based on the work of this early committee in Madina. Muwatta90 by Malik ibn Anas was written as a consensus of the opinion, of these scholars.919293 The Muwatta90 by Malik ibn Anas also quotes 13 hadith narrated through Imam Jafar al-Sadiq.94
The early scholars of Islam including, imam Abu Hanifa, imam Malik ibn Anas and imam Jafar al-Sadiq worked together in Al-Masjid an-Nabawi in Medina along with over 70 other leading jurists and scholars. They did not distinguish between each other or classify them selves as Sunni or Shiʻah. They felt that they were following the religion of Abraham.95 In the books actually written by these original jurists and scholars, there are very few theological and judicial differences between them.
The method Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al-fiqh ("legal theory", or "principles of jurisprudence"). To reduce the divergence, in the 9th century, a student of Malik ibn Anas, the jurist ash-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence (including the four fundamental roots) in his book ar-Risālah.96 According to ash-Shafi'i, law has four fundamental roots, which are given precedence in this order: the Qur'an, the Hadith (the practice of Muhammad), the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas). Al-Shafi'i also codified a method to establish the reliability of hadith. Muhammad al-Bukhari97 then travelled around and collected over 300,000 hadith, but only included 2,602 distinct hadith in his book Sahih al-Bukhari,97 that passed these tests and he codified as authentic and correct. Sahih al-Bukhari is therefore considered by many to be the most authentic book after the Quran.9899 The Arabic word sahih translates as authentic or correct.
They all gave priority to the Qur'an and the Hadith and felt that Islam was completed during the time of Muhammad and they wanted people to refer to the Quran.100 Ahmad ibn Hanbal rejected the writing down and codifying of the religious rulings he gave. They knew that they might have fallen into error in some of their judgements and stated this clearly. They never introduced their rulings by saying, "This is the judgement of God and His prophet."101 There is also very little text actually written down by Jafar al-Sadiq himself. Since Jafar al-Sadiq (702-765) did not write any books, the books followed by the Twelver Shi'a were written by Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (864- 941), Ibn Babawayh (923-991), and Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274).102103 Since Jafar al-Sadiq and Zayd ibn Ali did not them selves write any books. But they worked closely with imam Abu Hanifa and imam Malik ibn Anas and the views of imam Jafar al-Sadiq and imam Zayd ibn Ali are in the early Hadith books written by imam Abu Hanifa and imam Malik ibn Anas,94 the oldest branch of the Shia, the Zaydis to this day and originally the Fatamids, use the Hanafi jurisprudence, as do most Sunnis.101104105
Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from matters of state, like governance and foreign relations, to issues of daily living. The Qur'an defines hudud as the punishments for five specific crimes: unlawful intercourse, false accusation of unlawful intercourse, consumption of alcohol, theft, and highway robbery. The Qur'an and Sunnah also contain laws of inheritance, marriage, and restitution for injuries and murder, as well as rules for fasting, charity, and prayer.
The differences between the denominations in Islam are primarily political and amplified after the Safavid invasion of Persia in the 1500s and the subsequent Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam due to the politics between the Safavids and the Ottoman Empire.106 After the demise of the Safavid dynasty, the new ruler of Persia, Nader Shah (1698 to 1747) himself a Sunni attempted to improve relations with Sunni nations by propagating the integration of Shiism by calling it Jaafari Madh'hab.107 Since Jafar al-Sadiq himself disapproved of people who disapproved of his great grand father Abu Bakr the first caliph.
There are many terms in Islam to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam, but "jurist" generally refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in several fields of Islamic studies. In a broader sense, the term ulema is used to describe the body of Muslim clergy who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences, such as a mufti, qadi, faqih, or muhaddith. Some Muslims include under this term the village mullahs, imams, and maulvis—who have attained only the lowest rungs on the ladder of Islamic scholarship; other Muslims would say that clerics must meet higher standards to be considered ulama (singular Aalim). Some Muslims practise ijtihad whereby they do not accept the authority of clergy.108 Education is considered very important to Muslims, so that they could distinguish between right and wrong, but when it comes to entry into heaven, the most noble in the sight of God are the most righteous and they may be honest, compassionate and helpful to others but not necessarily very educated.109
Etiquette and diet
Many practices fall in the category of adab, or Islamic etiquette. This includes greeting others with "as-salamu `alaykum" ("peace be unto you"), saying bismillah ("in the name of God") before meals, and using only the right hand for eating and drinking. Islamic hygienic practices mainly fall into the category of personal cleanliness and health. Circumcision of male offspring is also practiced in Islam. Islamic burial rituals include saying the Salat al-Janazah ("funeral prayer") over the bathed and enshrouded dead body, and burying it in a grave. Muslims are restricted in their diet. Prohibited foods include pork products, blood, carrion, and alcohol. All meat must come from a herbivorous animal slaughtered in the name of God by a Muslim, Jew, or Christian, with the exception of game that one has hunted or fished for oneself. Food permissible for Muslims is known as halal food.110
The basic unit of Islamic society is the family, and Islam defines the obligations and legal rights of family members. The father is seen as financially responsible for his family, and is obliged to cater for their well-being. The division of inheritance is specified in the Qur'an, which states that most of it is to pass to the immediate family, while a portion is set aside for the payment of debts and the making of bequests. With some exceptions, the woman's share of inheritance is generally half of that of a man with the same rights of succession.111 Marriage in Islam is a civil contract which consists of an offer and acceptance between two qualified parties in the presence of two witnesses. The groom is required to pay a bridal gift (mahr) to the bride, as stipulated in the contract.112
The Quran (verse 4:3)Quran 4:3 limits the number of wives to four and only if a man could treat them with fairness and equity. Most families in the Islamic world are monogamous as the rule is a conditional permission not a recommendation.113114
In case of family disputes, the QuranQuran 4:34 directs the husband to treat his spouse kindly and not to overlook her positive aspects, and exhort and appeal for reason. If this fails, the husband may express his displeasure by sleeping in a separate bed. As a last retort, the husband may tap or lightly strike her in a manner which causes no pain and leaves no mark on the body. This has been interpreted by early jurists as a symbolic use of the miswak. Even this measure has been discouraged in several hadeeth, and the prophet never retorted to that measure.115116117 A minority of Islamic scholars contest this interpretation and state that even tapping or striking is not allowed.118 The man of the house is allowed to beat young children; but not adult children.119
To reduce the gap between the rich and the poor, Islamic economic jurisprudence encourages trade,120 discourages the hoarding of wealth and outlaws interest-bearing loans (usury; the term is riba in Arabic).121122 Therefore, wealth is taxed through Zakat, but trade is not taxed. Usury, which allows the rich to get richer without sharing in the risk, is forbidden in Islam. Profit sharing and venture capital where the lender is also exposed to risk is acceptable.123 Hoarding of food for speculation is also discouraged.124
Grabbing other people's land is also prohibited. The prohibition of usury has resulted in the development of Islamic banking. During the time of Muhammad, any money that went to the state, was immediately used to help the poor. Then in 634, Umar formally established the welfare state Bayt al-mal. The Bayt al-mal or the welfare state was for the Muslim and Non-Muslim poor, needy, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled. The Bayt al-mal ran for hundreds of years under the Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century and continued through the Umayyad period and well into the Abbasid era. Umar also introduced Child Benefit and Pensions for the children and the elderly.125126127128
Mainstream Islamic law does not distinguish between "matters of church" and "matters of state"; the scholars function as both jurists and theologians. Currently no government conforms to Islamic economic jurisprudence, but steps have been taken to implement some of its tenets.129130131
Jihad means "to strive or struggle" (in the way of God). Jihad, in its broadest sense, is "exerting one's utmost power, efforts, endeavors, or ability in contending with an object of disapprobation". Depending on the object being a visible enemy, the Devil, and aspects of one's own self (such as sinful desires), different categories of jihad are defined.132 Jihad, when used without any qualifier, is understood in its military aspect.133134 Jihad also refers to one's striving to attain religious and moral perfection.135 Some Muslim authorities, especially among the Shi'a and Sufis, distinguish between the "greater jihad", which pertains to spiritual self-perfection, and the "lesser jihad", defined as warfare.136
Within Islamic jurisprudence, jihad is usually taken to mean military exertion against non-believer/non-Muslim/Muslim combatants who insulted Islam. The ultimate purpose of military jihad is debated, both within the Islamic community and without. Jihad is the only form of warfare permissible in Islamic law and may be declared against illegal works, terrorists, criminal groups, rebels, apostates, and leaders or states who oppress Muslims.137138 Most Muslims today interpret Jihad as only a defensive form of warfare.139 Jihad only becomes an individual duty for those vested with authority. For the rest of the populace, this happens only in the case of a general mobilization.138 For most Twelver Shias, offensive jihad can only be declared by a divinely appointed leader of the Muslim community, and as such is suspended since Muhammad al-Mahdi's140 occultation in 868 AD.141
Muslim tradition views Muhammad (c. 570 – June 8, 632) as the seal of the prophets.142 During the last 22 years of his life, beginning at age 40 in 610 CE, according to the earliest surviving biographies, Muhammad reported revelations that he believed to be from God conveyed to him through the archangel Gabriel (Jibril). Muhammad's companions memorized and recorded the content of these revelations, known as the Qur'an.143
During this time, Muhammad in Mecca preached to the people, imploring them to abandon polytheism and to worship one God. Although some converted to Islam, the leading Meccan authorities persecuted Muhammad and his followers. This resulted in the Migration to Abyssinia of some Muslims (to the Aksumite Empire). Many early converts to Islam were the poor and former slaves like Bilal ibn Rabah al-Habashi. The Meccan élite felt that Muhammad was destabilising their social order by preaching about one God and about racial equality, and that in the process he gave ideas to the poor and to their slaves.144145146147
After 12 years of the persecution of Muslims by the Meccans and the Meccan boycott of the Hashemites, Muhammad's relatives, Muhammad and the Muslims performed the Hijra ("emigration") to the city of Medina (formerly known as Yathrib) in 622. There, with the Medinan converts (Ansar) and the Meccan migrants (Muhajirun), Muhammad in Medina established his political and religious authority. A state was establishedby whom? in accordance with Islamic economic jurisprudence. The Constitution of Medina was formulated, instituting a number of rights and responsibilities for the Muslim, Jewish, Christian and pagan communities of Medina, bringing them within the fold of one community — the Ummah.148149
The Constitution established:
- the security of the community
- religious freedoms
- the role of Medina as a sacred place (barring all violence and weapons)
- the security of women
- stable tribal relations within Medina
- a tax system for supporting the community in time of conflict
- parameters for exogenous political alliances
- a system for granting protection of individuals
- a judicial system for resolving disputes where non-Muslims could also use their own laws
All the tribes signed the agreement to defend Medina from all external threats and to live in harmony amongst themselves. Within a few years, two battles took place against the Meccan forces: first, the Battle of Badr in 624 - a Muslim victory, and then a year later, when the Meccans returned to Medina, the Battle of Uhud, which ended inconclusively.
The Arab tribes in the rest of Arabia then formed a confederation and during the Battle of the Trench (March–April 627) besieged Medina, intent on finishing off Islam. In 628, the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah was signed between Mecca and the Muslims and was broken by Mecca two years later. After the signing of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah many more people converted to Islam. At the same time, Meccan trade routes were cut off as Muhammad brought surrounding desert tribes under his control.150 By 629 Muhammad was victorious in the nearly bloodless conquest of Mecca, and by the time of his death in 632 (at the age of 62) he had united the tribes of Arabia into a single religious polity.151
Caliphate and civil strife (632–750)
With Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community. Abu Bakr, a companion and close friend of Muhammad, was made the first caliph. Under Abu Bakr the Muslims expanded into Syria after putting down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy".152 The Quran was compiled into a single volume at this time.
His death in 634 resulted in the succession of Umar ibn al-Khattab as the caliph, followed by Uthman ibn al-Affan, Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hasan ibn Ali. The first caliphs are known as al-khulafā' ar-rāshidūn ("Rightly Guided Caliphs"). Under them, the territory under Muslim rule expanded deeply into the parts of the Persian and Byzantine territories.153
When Umar was assassinated by Persians in 644, the election of Uthman as successor was met with increasing opposition. The standard copies of the Quran were also distributed throughout the Islamic State. In 656, Uthman was also killed, and Ali assumed the position of caliph. After the first civil war (the "First Fitna"), Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in 661. Following a peace treaty, Mu'awiyah came to power and began the Umayyad dynasty.154
These disputes over religious and political leadership would give rise to schism in the Muslim community. The majority accepted the legitimacy of the three rulers prior to Ali, and became known as Sunnis. A minority disagreed, and believed that only Ali and some of his descendants should rule; they became known as the Shia.155 After Mu'awiyah's death in 680, conflict over succession broke out again in a civil war known as the "Second Fitna".
The Umayyad dynasty conquered the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Narbonnese Gaul and Sindh.156 Local populations of Jews and indigenous Christians, persecuted as religious minorities and taxed heavily to finance the Byzantine–Sassanid Wars, often aided Muslims to take over their lands from the Byzantines and Persians, resulting in exceptionally speedy conquests.157158 Since the Constitution of Medina, Jews and Christians continued to use their own laws in the Islamic State and had their own judges.848586
The descendants of Muhammad's uncle Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib rallied discontented non-Arab converts (mawali), poor Arabs, and some Shi'a against the Umayyads and overthrew them with the help of the general Abu Muslim, inaugurating the Abbasid dynasty in 750.159
Classical era (750–1258)
During this time, the Delhi Sultanate took over northern parts of Indian subcontinent. Religious missions converted Volga Bulgaria to Islam. Many Muslims also went to China to trade, virtually dominating the import and export industry of the Song Dynasty.160
The major hadith collections were compiled during the early Abbasid era. The Ja'fari jurisprudence was formed from the teachings of Ja'far al-Sadiq while the four Sunni Madh'habs, the Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki and Shafi'i, were established around the teachings of Abū Ḥanīfa, Ahmad bin Hanbal, Malik ibn Anas and al-Shafi'i respectively. Al-Shafi'i also codified a method to establish the reliability of hadith.161 Al-Tabari and Ibn Kathir completed the most commonly cited commentaries on the Quran, the Tafsir al-Tabari in the 9th century and the Tafsir ibn Kathir in the 14th century, respectively. Philosophers Al-Farabi and Avicenna sought to incorporate Greek principles into Islamic theology, while others like Al-Ghazali argued against them and ultimately prevailed.162
Caliphs such as Mamun al Rashid and Al-Mu'tasim made the mutazilite philosophy an official creed and imposed it upon Muslims to follow. Mu'tazila was a Greek influenced school of speculative theology called kalam, which refers to dialectic.163 Many orthodox Muslims rejected mutazilite doctrines and condemned their idea of the creation of the Quran. In inquisitions, Imam Hanbal refused to conform and was tortured and sent to an unlit Baghdad prison cell for nearly thirty months.164
The other branch of kalam was the Ash'ari school founded by Al-Ash'ari. Some Muslims began to question the piety of indulgence in a worldly life and emphasized poverty, humility and avoidance of sin based on renunciation of bodily desires. Ascetics such as Hasan al-Basri would inspire a movement that would evolve into Tasawwuf (Sufism).165 Beginning in the 13th century, Sufism underwent a transformation, largely because of efforts to legitimize and reorganize the movement by Al-Ghazali, who developed the model of the Sufi order—a community of spiritual teachers and students.166
This era is sometimes called the "Islamic Golden Age".167 Public hospitals established during this time (called Bimaristan hospitals), are considered "the first hospitals" in the modern sense of the word,168169 and issued the first medical diplomas to license doctors.170171 The Guinness World Records recognizes the University of Al Karaouine, founded in 859, as the world's oldest degree-granting university.172 The doctorate is argued to date back to the licenses to teach in Muslim law schools.173 Standards of experimental and quantification techniques, as well as the tradition of citation,174 were introduced. An important pioneer in this, Ibn Al-Haytham is regarded as the father of the modern scientific method and often referred to as the "world's first true scientist".175176 The government paid scientists the equivalent salary of professional athletes today.174 The data used by Copernicus for his heliocentric conclusions was gathered and Al-Jahiz proposed a theory of natural selection.177178 Rumi wrote some of the finest Persian poetry and is still one of the best selling poets in America.179180 Legal institutions introduced include the trust and charitable trust (Waqf).181182
The first Muslims states independent of a unified Muslim state emerged from the Berber Revolt (739/740-743). In 930, the Ismaili group known as the Qarmatians unsuccessfully rebelled against the Abbassids, sacked Mecca and stole the Black Stone, which was eventually retrieved.183 The Mongol Empire put an end to the Abbassid dynasty in 1258.184
Pre-Modern era (1258–20th century)
Islam spread with Muslim trade networks and Sufi orders activity that extended into Sub-Saharan Africa, Central Asia and the Malay archipelago.185186 The Ottomans challenged European powers on land and sea, and reached deep into Central Europe at the Siege of Vienna (1529). Under the Ottoman Empire, Islam spread to Southeast Europe, Crimea, and the Caucasus.187 The Muslims in China who were descended from earlier immigration began to assimilate by adopting Chinese names and culture while Nanjing became an important center of Islamic study.188189
The Muslim world was generally in serious political decline starting the 1800s, especially relative to the non-Muslim European powers. This decline was evident culturally; while Taqi al-Din founded an observatory in Istanbul and the Jai Singh Observatory was built in the 18th century, there was not a single Muslim country with a major observatory by the twentieth century.190 The Reconquista, launched against Muslim principalities in Iberia, succeeded in 1492 and Muslim Sicily was lost to the Normans. By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies, and won over several Mughal provinces of India.191 Further, by the 19th century the British Empire had formally ended the last Mughal dynasty in India.192 The Ottoman Empire disintegrated after World War I and the Caliphate was abolished in 1924.193194
The majority Shia group at that time, the Zaydis, used the Hanafi jurisprudence, as did most Sunnis.101104105 The Shia Safavid dynasty rose to power in 1501 and later conquered all of Iran.195 The ensuing mandatory conversion of Iran to Twelver Shia Islam for the largely Sunni population also ensured the final dominance of the Twelver sect within Shiism over the Zaidi sect, the largest group amongst the Shia before the Safavid Dynasty, and the Ismaili sect.196
A revival movement during this period an 18th-century Salafi movement led by Ibn Abd al-Wahhab in today's Saudi Arabia. Referred to as Wahhabi, their self designation is Muwahiddun (unitarians). Building upon earlier efforts such as those by Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn al-Qayyim, the movement allegedly seeks to uphold monotheism and purify Islam of what they see as later innovations. Their zeal against idolatrous shrines led to the desecration of shrines around the world, including that of Muhammad and his companions in Mecca and Medina.197198 In the 19th century, the Deobandi and Barelwi movements were initiated.
Modern times (20th century–present)
Contact with industrialized nations brought Muslim populations to new areas through economic migration. Many Muslims migrated as indentured servants, from mostly India and Indonesia, to the Caribbean, forming the largest Muslim populations by percentage in the Americas.199 The resulting urbanization and increase in trade in sub-Saharan Africa brought Muslims to settle in new areas and spread their faith, likely doubling its Muslim population between 1869 and 1914.200 Muslim immigrants, many as guest workers, began arriving, largely from former colonies, into several Western European nations since the 1960s.
New Muslim intellectuals are beginning to arise, and are increasingly separating perennial Islamic beliefs from archaic cultural traditions.201 Liberal Islam is a movement that attempts to reconcile religious tradition with modern norms of secular governance and human rights. Its supporters say that there are multiple ways to read Islam's sacred texts, and stress the need to leave room for "independent thought on religious matters".202 Women's issues receive a significant weight in the modern discourse on Islam.203
Secular powers such as Chinese Red Guards closed many mosques and destroyed Qurans and Communist Albania became the first country to ban the practice of every religion.204205 About half a million Muslims were killed in Cambodia by communists whom, it is argued, viewed them as their primary enemy and wished to exterminate them since they stood out and worshipped their own god.206 In Turkey, the military carried out coups to oust Islamist governments and headscarves were, as well as in Tunisia, banned in official buildings.207208
Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani, along with his acolyte Muhammad Abduh, have been credited as forerunners of the Islamic revival.209 Abul A'la Maududi helped influence modern political Islam.210 Islamist groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood advocate Islam as a comprehensive political solution, often in spite of being banned.211 In Iran, revolution replaced a secular regime with an Islamic state. In Turkey, the Islamist AK Party has democratically been in power for about a decade, while Islamist parties did well in elections following the Arab Spring.212 The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), consisting of Muslim countries, was established in 1969 after the burning of the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.213
Piety appears to be deepening worldwide.214215216 In many places, the prevalence of the Islamic veil is growing increasingly common217 and the percentage of Muslims favoring Sharia laws has increased.218 With religious guidance increasingly available electronically, Muslims are able to access views that are strict enough for them rather than rely on state clerics who are often seen as stooges.215 Some organizations began using the media to promote Islam such as the 24-hour TV channel, Peace TV.219 Perhaps as a result of these efforts, most experts agree that Islam is growing faster than any other faith in East and West Africa.220221
The largest denomination in Islam is Sunni Islam, which makes up 75%–90% of all Muslims.10 Sunni Muslims also go by the name Ahl as-Sunnah which means "people of the tradition [of Muhammad]".222223 These hadiths, recounting Muhammad's words, actions, and personal characteristics, are preserved in traditions known as Al-Kutub Al-Sittah (six major books).
Sunnis believe that the first four caliphs were the rightful successors to Muhammad; since God did not specify any particular leaders to succeed him and those leaders were elected. Sunnis believe that anyone who is righteous and just could be a caliph but they have to act according to the Qur'an and the Hadith, the example of Muhammad and give the people their rights.
The Sunnis follow the Quran, then the Hadith. Then for legal matters not found in the Quran or the Hadith, they follow four madh'habs (schools of thought): Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki and Shafi'i, established around the teachings of Abū Ḥanīfa, Ahmad bin Hanbal, Malik ibn Anas and al-Shafi'i respectively.
All four accept the validity of the others and a Muslim may choose any one that he or she finds agreeable.224
Ahle Sunnat Barelvi and Deobandi movements of Sunni Islam accept the validity of all four Sunni schools of thought.225 Ahle Sunnat Barelvi movement is South Asian revivalist movement of Sunni Islam with over 200 million followers.226 They believe themselves South Asia's heirs and representatives of the earliest Muslim community. The movement emphasizes primacy of Islamic law in all matters with adherence to Sufi practices and personal devotion to the Prophet Muhammad. Since partition of India and Pakistan in 1947, it has addressed leading political issues for Muslims. It has spread to South Africa, Europe, United States of America and in Australia with the help of their missionary movement Dawat-e-Islami and World Islamic Mission.227228 While Deobandi is an Indo-Pakistani reformist scholars movement centered in the Dar al-Ulum of Deoband.needs copy edit The school was founded in 1867)229 Alternatively, the Salafi (also known as Wahabi or Ahl al-Hadith) is an ultra-orthodox Islamic movement which either rejects or doesn't strictly follow all four schools of Sunni thought, and they claim to take the first generation of Muslims as exemplary models.230
Sufism or Tasawwuf (Arabic: تصوف), according to its adherents, is the inner mystical dimension of Islam. Classical Sufi scholars have defined Sufism as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God".231 Alternatively, in the words of the Darqawi Sufi teacher Ahmad ibn Ajiba, "a science through which one can know how to travel into the presence of the Divine, purify one's inner self from filth, and beautify it with a variety of praiseworthy traits".232 Traditional Sufis, such as Bayazid Bastami, Jalaluddin Rumi, Haji Bektash Veli, Junaid Baghdadi, and Al-Ghazali, define Sufism as purely based upon the tenets of Islam and the teachings of Muhammad.233234235236 Sufism (Tasawwuf) is a mystical-ascetic approach to Islam that seeks to find divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience of God.237 By focusing on the more spiritual aspects of religion, Sufis strive to obtain direct experience of God by making use of "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use.238239 Hasan al-Basri was inspired by the ideas of piety and condemnation of worldliness preached by Muhammad and these ideas were later further developed by Al-Ghazali in his books on Sufism. Sufism is popular in countries such as Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Senegal,Chad and Niger.240241
Sufism enjoyed a strong revival in central Asia. Central Asia is considered to be a center of Sufism. Sufism has played a significant role in fighting against Tsars of Russia and Soviet colonization. Here, Sufis and their different orders are the main religious sources.242 243
The Shia constitute 10–20% of Islam and are its second-largest branch.11
Maria Massi Dakake argues that Shi'ism as a unique phenomenon within the larger body of Islamic community can not be adequately described as a "sect" or "school", and it is also wrong to view it as an offshoot or detached community therein. Shiites have always considered themselves an integral part of the Islamic community and, in fact, to represent the elite believers thereof. Additionally, being more than just one of the many schools of Islamic thought, different branches of Shiite scholarship are aspects of a larger and more comprehensive phenomenon, embodying a completely independent system of religious and political authority and historical interpretation that deeply informs its own highly structured intellectual and religious hierarchy. Shiism, as such, despite being a minority, has made remarkable contributions to Islamic civilization that far outweigh its size.244
While the Sunnis believe that a Caliph should be elected by the community, Shia's believe that Muhammad appointed his son-in-law, Ali ibn Abi Talib, as his successor and only certain descendants of Ali could be Imams. As a result, they believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib was the first Imam (leader), rejecting the legitimacy of the previous Muslim caliphs Abu Bakr, Uthman ibn al-Affan and Umar ibn al-Khattab.
Shia Islam has several branches, the most prominent being the Twelvers (the largest branch), Zaidis and Ismailis. Different branches accept different descendants of Ali as Imams. After the death of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq who is considered the sixth Imam by the Twelvers and the Ismaili's, the Ismailis recognized his son Isma'il ibn Jafar as his successor whereas the Twelver Shia's (Ithna Asheri) followed his other son Musa al-Kadhim as the seventh Imam. The Zaydis consider Zayd ibn Ali, the uncle of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq, as their fifth Imam, and follow a different line of succession after him.
- Ahmadiyya is an Islamic reform movement (with Sunni roots) founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad246 that began in India in 1889 and is practiced by 10 to 20 million247 Muslims around the world. Ahmad claimed to have fulfilled the prophecies concerning the arrival of the 'Imam Mahdi' and the 'Promised Messiah'.
- Non-denominational Muslims are Muslims who do not restrict their religious affiliation to any particular branch of Islam.
- The Ibadi is a sect that dates back to the early days of Islam and is a branch of Kharijite and is practiced by 1.45 million Muslims around the world.248 Unlike most Kharijite groups, Ibadism does not regard sinful Muslims as unbelievers.
- Mahdavia is an Islamic sect that believes in a 15th-century Mahdi, Muhammad Jaunpuri
- The Quranists are Muslims who generally reject the Hadith.
- Yazdânism is seen as a blend of local Kurdish beliefs and Islamic Sufi doctrine introduced to Kurdistan by Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir in the 12th century.
- There are also black Muslim movements such as the Nation of Islam (NOI), Five-Percent Nation and Moorish scientists.
In Arabic, they may be referred to as ghayr muqallids or ghair muqalideen (غير مقلّدين) while they have also been called nonconformists and its doctrine has been termed ghayr muqallidism.249250 Such Muslims may defend this stance by pointing to the Quran such as Al Imran verse 103, which asks the Muslims to stay united and not to become divided.251 The term ghair muqallid literally refers to those who do not use taqlid and by extension do not have a madhab.252
At least one in five Muslims in at least 22 countries identify as non-denominational Muslims. According to the Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project the country with the highest proportion of nondenominational Muslims is Kazakhstan at 74%. It also reports that non-denominational Muslims make up a majority of the Muslims in seven countries (and a plurality in three others): Albania (65%), Kyrgyzstan (64%), Kosovo (58%), Indonesia (56%), Mali (55%), Bosnia and Herzegovina (54%), Uzbekistan (54%), Azerbaijan (45%), Russia (45%), and Nigeria (42%). Other countries with significant percentages are: Cameroon (40%), Tunisia (40%), Guinea Bissau (36%), Uganda (33%), Morocco (30%), Senegal (27%), Chad (23%), Ethiopia (23%), Liberia (22%), Niger (20%), and Tanzania (20%).253
A comprehensive 2009 demographic study of 232 countries and territories reported that 23% of the global population, or 1.57 billion people, are Muslims. Of those, it is estimated that over 75–90% are Sunni and 10–20% are Shia14222254 with a small minority belonging to other sects. Approximately 57 countries are Muslim-majority,255 and Arabs account for around 20% of all Muslims worldwide.256 The number of Muslims worldwide increased from 200 million in 1900 to 551 million in 1970,257 and tripled to 1.57 billion by 2009.citation needed
The majority of Muslims live in Asia and Africa.258 Approximately 62% of the world's Muslims live in Asia, with over 683 million adherents in Indonesia, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh.259260 In the Middle East, non-Arab countries such as Turkey and Iran are the largest Muslim-majority countries; in Africa, Egypt and Nigeria have the most populous Muslim communities.261
Most estimates indicate that the People's Republic of China has approximately 20 to 30 million Muslims (1.5% to 2% of the population).262263264265 However, data provided by the San Diego State University's International Population Center to U.S. News & World Report suggests that China has 65.3 million Muslims.266 Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity in many European countries,267 and is slowly catching up to that status in the Americas, with between 2,454,000, according to Pew Forum, and approximately 7 million Muslims, according to the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), in the United States.14268
The term "Islamic culture" could be used to mean aspects of culture that pertain to the religion, such as festivals and dress code. It is also commonly used to denote the cultural aspects of traditionally Muslim people.269 Finally, "Islamic civilization" may also refer to the aspects of the synthesized culture of the early Caliphates, including that of non-Muslims,270 sometimes referred to as 'Islamicate'.
Perhaps the most important expression of Islamic art is architecture, particularly that of the mosque (four-iwan and hypostyle).271 Through the edifices, the effect of varying cultures within Islamic civilization can be illustrated. The North African and Spanish Islamic architecture, for example, has Roman-Byzantine elements, as seen in the Great Mosque of Kairouan which contains marble and porphyry columns from Roman and Byzantine buildings,272 in the Alhambra palace at Granada, or in the Great Mosque of Cordoba.
Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by Muslim populations.273 It includes fields as varied as architecture, calligraphy, painting, and ceramics, among others.
Making images of human beings and animals is frowned on in many Islamic cultures and connected with laws against idolatry common to all Abrahamic religions, as 'Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood reported that Muhammad said, "Those who will be most severely punished by Allah on the Day of Resurrection will be the image-makers" (reported by al-Bukhaari, see al-Fath, 10/382). However this rule has been interpreted in different ways by different scholars and in different historical periods, and there are examples of paintings of both animals and humans in Mughal, Persian and Turkish art. The existence of this aversion to creating images of animate beings has been used to explain the prevalence of calligraphy, tessellation and pattern as key aspects of Islamic artistic culture.citation needed
The formal beginning of the Muslim era was chosen to be the Hijra in 622 CE, which was an important turning point in Muhammad's fortunes. The assignment of this year as the year 1 AH (Anno Hegirae) in the Islamic calendar was reportedly made by Caliph Umar. It is a lunar calendar with days lasting from sunset to sunset.274 Islamic holy days fall on fixed dates of the lunar calendar, which means that they occur in different seasons in different years in the Gregorian calendar. The most important Islamic festivals are Eid al-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) on the 1st of Shawwal, marking the end of the fasting month Ramadan, and Eid al-Adha (عيد الأضحى) on the 10th of Dhu al-Hijjah, coinciding with the pilgrimage to Mecca.275
Criticism of Islam has existed since Islam's formative stages. Early written criticism came from Christians, prior to the ninth century, many of whom viewed Islam as a radical Christian heresy.276 Later there appeared criticism from the Muslim world itself, and also from Jewish writers and from ecclesiastical Christians.277278279
Objects of criticism include the morality of the life of Muhammad, the last law bearing prophet of Islam, both in his public and personal life.279280 Issues relating to the authenticity and morality of the Qur'an, the Islamic holy book, are also discussed by critics.281282 Other criticisms focus on the question of human rights in modern Islamic nations, and the treatment of women in Islamic law and practice.283284 In wake of the recent multiculturalism trend, Islam's influence on the ability of Muslim immigrants in the West to assimilate has been criticized.285
- Glossary of Islam
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- Islam and other religions
- Criteria of True Prophet
- Islam by country
- Islamic economics
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- Islamic literature
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- Islamic studies
- List of Muslim empires and dynasties
- List of notable converts to Islam
- Lists of Muslims
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- Muslim world
- Religious conversion#Islam
- Scientific foreknowledge in sacred texts
- Timeline of Muslim history
- There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is /z/ or /s/, and whether the a is pronounced /ɑː/, /æ/ or (when the stress is on the first syllable) /ə/ (Merriam Webster). The most common are / / (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and / / (American Heritage Dictionary).
- /ʔiˈslaːm/: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from i~ɪ~e. The second vowel ranges from æ~a~ɑ~ɛ. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.
- thefreedictionary.com: "muslim"
- quran.com: 
- "People of the Book". Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Retrieved 2010-12-18.
- Accad (2003): According to Ibn Taymiya, although only some Muslims accept the textual veracity of the entire Bible, most Muslims will grant the veracity of most of it.
- Esposito (1998, pp. 6,12)
- Esposito (2002, pp. 4–5)
- Peters (2003, p. 9)
- F. Buhl; A. T. Welch. "Muhammad". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. * Hava Lazarus-Yafeh. "Tahrif". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
- Cf. Qur'an, III. 3; V. 4; V. 43 etc.
- Bennett (2010, p. 101)
- Esposito (2002b, p. 17)
- Esposito (2002b, pp. 111,112,118)
- "Shari'ah". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
- "Sunnite". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
They numbered about 900 million in the late 20th century and constituted nine-tenths of all the adherents of Islām.
- Islamic Beliefs, Practices, and Cultures. Marshall Cavendish. 2010. p. 352. ISBN 0-7614-7926-0. Retrieved December 19, 2011.
A common compromise figure ranks Sunnis at 90 percent.
- "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. October 7, 2009. Retrieved 2013-09-24.
Of the total Muslim population, 10-13% are Shia Muslims and 87-90% are Sunni Muslims.
- "Quick guide: Sunnis and Shias". BBC News. 2011-12-06. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
The great majority of Muslims are Sunnis - estimates suggest the figure is somewhere between 85% and 90%.
- Sunni Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide "Sunni Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90 percent) of that community."
- "Sunni and Shia Islam". Library of Congress Country Studies. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
Sunni constitute 85 percent of the world's Muslims.
- "Sunni". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, comprising about 85% of the world's over 1.5 billion Muslims.
- "Tension between Sunnis, Shiites emerging in USA". USA Today. 2007-09-24. Retrieved 2013-09-24.
Among the world's estimated 1.4 billion Muslims, about 85% are Sunni and about 15% are Shiite.
- Inside Muslim minds "around 80% are Sunni"
- Who Gets To Narrate the World "The Sunnis (approximately 80%)"
- A world theology N. Ross Reat "80% being the Sunni"
- Islam and the Ahmadiyya jama'at "The Sunni segment, accounting for at least 80% of the worlds Muslim population"
- Eastern Europe Russia and Central Asia "some 80% of the worlds Muslims are Sunni"
- A dictionary of modern politics "probably 80% of the worlds Muslims are Sunni"
- "Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
Sunni Islam accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim population...
- "Sunnite". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
- "Shīʿite". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
Shīʿites have come to account for roughly one-tenth of the Muslim population worldwide.
- "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. 2009-10-07. Retrieved 2013-09-24.
The Pew Forum's estimate of the Shia population (10-13%) is in keeping with previous estimates, which generally have been in the range of 10-15%. Some previous estimates, however, have placed the number of Shias at nearly 20% of the world's Muslim population.
- "Shia". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
Shi'a Islam is the second largest branch of the tradition, with up to 200 million followers who comprise around 15% of all Muslims worldwide...
- "Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
Shia Islam represents 10-20% of Muslims worldwide...
- Iran, Israel and the United States "The majority of the world's Islamic population, which is Sunni, accounts for over 75% of the Islamic population; the other 10-20 percent is Shia." (reference: CIA)
- Sue Hellett; U.S. should focus on sanctions against Iran "Let me review, while Shia Islam makes up only 10-20 percent of the world's Muslim population, Iraq has a Shia majority (between 60-65 percent), but had a Sunni controlled government under Saddam Hussein and cronies from 1958-2003... (If you like government figures, see the CIA World Factbook.)"
- "Shīʿite". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- Miller (2009, pp. 8,17)
- Miller (2009)
- "Executive Summary". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- "Table: Muslim Population by Country | Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project". Features.pewforum.org. 2011-01-27. Retrieved 2014-07-23.
- PBS - Islam: Empire of Faith - Faith - Islam Today.
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- Burke, Daniel (April 4, 2015). "The world's fastest-growing religion is ...". CNN. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
- Dictionary listing for Siin roots derived from Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon via www.studyquran.co.uk
- Lewis, Barnard; Churchill, Buntzie Ellis (2009). Islam: The Religion and The People. Wharton School Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 9780132230858.
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- Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2008). Islamic spirituality : foundations. London: Routledge. p. 658. ISBN 978-0-415-44262-6.
- Quran 5:3, Quran 3:19, Quran 3:83
- Esposito, John L. (2000-04-06). The Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press. pp. 76–77. ISBN 9780195107999.
- Mahmutćehajić, Rusmir (2006). The mosque: the heart of submission. Fordham University Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-8232-2584-2.
- God Created the Universe with the Purpose to Serve Humankind: God Created ... By Fateh Ullah Khan Page 298 
- Turfe, Tallal Alie (1985). Islamic Unity and Happiness. TTQ, Inc. p. 37. ISBN 9780940368477.
- What is Islam? By Jamaal Zarabozo Page 37. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- Agwan, A.R.; Khan, N.K. A - E. Global Vision Publishing. p. 357. ISBN 9788187746003.
- Bentley, David (September 1999). The 99 Beautiful Names for God for All the People of the Book. William Carey Library. ISBN 0-87808-299-9.
- Quran 50:16
- "I am as My Servant Thinks (expects) I am". Hadithaday.org. Archived from the original on 2011-11-07. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
- Chejne, A. (1969) The Arabic Language: Its Role in History, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
- Speicher, K. (1997) in: Edzard, L., and Szyska, C. (eds.) Encounters of Words and Texts: Intercultural Studies in Honor of Stefan Wild. Georg Olms, Hildesheim, pp. 43–66.
- Esposito (2004, pp. 17,18,21)
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Books and journals
- Accad, Martin (2003). "The Gospels in the Muslim Discourse of the Ninth to the Fourteenth Centuries: An Exegetical Inventorial Table (Part I)". Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 14 (1).
- Ahmed, Akbar (1999). Islam Today: A Short Introduction to the Muslim World (2.00 ed.). I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-257-9.
- Bennett, Clinton (2010). Interpreting the Qur'an: a guide for the uninitiated. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-8264-9944-8.
- Brockopp, Jonathan E. (2003). Islamic Ethics of Life: abortion, war and euthanasia. University of South Carolina press. ISBN 1-57003-471-0.
- Cohen-Mor, Dalya (2001). A Matter of Fate: The Concept of Fate in the Arab World as Reflected in Modern Arabic Literature. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513398-6.
- Curtis, Patricia A. (2005). A Guide to Food Laws and Regulations. Blackwell Publishing Professional. ISBN 978-0-8138-1946-4.
- Esposito, John (2010). Islam: The Straight Path (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-539600-3.
- Esposito, John (1998). Islam: The Straight Path (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-511234-4.
- Esposito, John; Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad (2000a). Muslims on the Americanization Path?. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513526-1.
- Esposito, John (2000b). Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-510799-9.
- Esposito, John (2002a). Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516886-0.
- Esposito, John (2002b). What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515713-3.
- Esposito, John (2003). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512558-4.
- Esposito, John (2004). Islam: The Straight Path (3rd Rev Upd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-518266-8.
- Farah, Caesar (1994). Islam: Beliefs and Observances (5th ed.). Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 978-0-8120-1853-0.
- Farah, Caesar (2003). Islam: Beliefs and Observances (7th ed.). Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 978-0-7641-2226-2.
- Firestone, Reuven (1999). Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512580-0.
- Ghamidi, Javed (2001). Mizan. Dar al-Ishraq. OCLC 52901690.
- Goldschmidt, Jr., Arthur; Lawrence Davidson (2005). A Concise History of the Middle East (8th ed.). Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-4275-7.
- Griffith, Ruth Marie; Barbara Dianne Savage (2006). Women and Religion in the African Diaspora: Knowledge, Power, and Performance. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8370-9.
- Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck (2002). Muslims in the West: from sojourners to citizens. Oxford University Press.
- Hawting, G. R. (2000). The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661–750. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24073-5.
- Hedayetullah, Muhammad (2006). Dynamics of Islam: An Exposition. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55369-842-5.
- Hofmann, Murad (2007). Islam and Qur'an. ISBN 978-1-59008-047-4.
- Holt, P. M.; Bernard Lewis (1977a). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29136-4.
- Holt, P. M.; Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis (1977b). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29137-2.
- Hourani, Albert; Ruthven, Malise (2003). A History of the Arab Peoples. Belknap Press; Revised edition. ISBN 978-0-674-01017-8.
- Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar (2004). Counseling American Muslims: Understanding the Faith and Helping the People. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 978-0-313-32472-7.
- Kramer, Martin (1987). Shi'Ism, Resistance, and Revolution. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-0453-3.
- Lapidus, Ira (2002). A History of Islamic Societies (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3.
- Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7102-0462-0.
- Lewis, Bernard (1993). The Arabs in History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-285258-2.
- Lewis, Bernard (1997). The Middle East. Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-83280-7.
- Lewis, Bernard (2001). Islam in History: Ideas, People, and Events in the Middle East (2nd ed.). Open Court. ISBN 978-0-8126-9518-2.
- Lewis, Bernard (2003). What Went Wrong?: The Clash Between Islam and Modernity in the Middle East (Reprint ed.). Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-06-051605-5.
- Lewis, Bernard (2004). The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. Random House, Inc., New York. ISBN 978-0-8129-6785-2.
- Madelung, Wilferd (1996). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64696-0.
- Malik, Jamal; John R Hinnells, Inc NetLibrary (2006). Sufism in the West. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-27408-7.
- Menski, Werner F. (2006). Comparative Law in a Global Context: The Legal Systems of Asia and Africa. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85859-3.
- Miller, Tracy, ed. (October 2009). Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population (PDF). Pew Research Center. Retrieved 2013-09-24.
- Momen, Moojan (1987). An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5.
- Nasr, Seyed Muhammad (1994). Our Religions: The Seven World Religions Introduced by Preeminent Scholars from Each Tradition (Chapter 7). HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-067700-7.
- Nigosian, Solomon Alexander (2004). Islam: its history, teaching, and practices. Indiana University Press.
- Patton, Walter M. (April 1900). "The Doctrine of Freedom in the Korân". The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures (Brill Academic Publishers) 16 (3): 129. doi:10.1086/369367. ISBN 90-04-10314-7.
- Peters, F. E. (2003). Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11553-2.
- Rahman, H. U. (1999). Chronology of Islamic History, 570-1000 CE (3rd ed.). Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd.
- Rippin, Andrew (2001). Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices (2nd ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-21781-1.
- Sachedina, Abdulaziz (1998). The Just Ruler in Shi'ite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-511915-0.
- Siljander, Mark D. and John David Mann. A Deadly Misunderstanding: a Congressman's Quest to Bridge the Muslim-Christian Divide. First ed. New York: Harper One, 2008. ISBN 978-0-06-143828-8
- Smith, Jane I. (2006). The Islamic Understanding of Death and Resurrection. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-515649-2.
- Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn; Seyyed Hossein Nasr (translator) (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Suny press. ISBN 0-87395-272-3.
- Teece, Geoff (2003). Religion in Focus: Islam. Franklin Watts Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7496-4796-4.
- Trimingham, John Spencer (1998). The Sufi Orders in Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512058-2.
- Turner, Colin (2006). Islam: the Basics. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-34106-X.
- Turner, Bryan S. (1998). Weber and Islam. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-17458-9.
- Waines, David (2003). An Introduction to Islam. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53906-4.
- Watt, W. Montgomery (1973). The Formative Period of Islamic Thought. University Press Edinburgh. ISBN 0-85224-245-X.
- Watt, W. Montgomery (1974). Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman (New ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-881078-4.
- Weiss, Bernard G. (2002). Studies in Islamic Legal Theory. Boston: Brill Academic publishers. ISBN 90-04-12066-1.
- William H. McNeill, Jerry H. Bentley, David Christian, ed. (2005). Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History. Berkshire Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-9743091-0-1.
- Gabriel Oussani, ed. (1910). Catholic Encyclopedia.
- Paul Lagasse, Lora Goldman, Archie Hobson, Susan R. Norton, ed. (2000). The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). Gale Group. ISBN 978-1-59339-236-9.
- Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
- Erwin Fahlbusch, William Geoffrey Bromiley, ed. (2001). Encyclopedia of Christianity (1st ed.). Eerdmans Publishing Company, and Brill. ISBN 0-8028-2414-5.
- John Bowden, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Christianity (1st ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-522393-4.
- Bearman, P.J.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W. P. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.
- Richard C. Martin, Said Amir Arjomand, Marcia Hermansen, Abdulkader Tayob, Rochelle Davis, John Obert Voll, ed. (2003). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0-02-865603-8.
- Jane Dammen McAuliffe (ed.). Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online. Brill Academic Publishers.
- Salamone Frank, ed. (2004). Encyclopedia of Religious Rites, Rituals, and Festivals (1st ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-94180-8.
- Glasse Cyril, ed. (2003). New Encyclopedia of Islam: A Revised Edition of the Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0759101906.
- Abdul-Haqq, Abdiyah Akbar (1980). Sharing Your Faith with a Muslim. Minneapolis: Bethany House Publishers. N.B. Presents the genuine doctrines and concepts of Islam and of the Holy Qur'an, and this religion's affinities with Christianity and its Sacred Scriptures, in order to "dialogue" on the basis of what both faiths really teach. ISBN 0-87123-553-6
- Akyol, Mustafa (2011). Islam Without Extremes (1st ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-07086-6.
- Arberry, A. J. (1996). The Koran Interpreted: A Translation (1st ed.). Touchstone. ISBN 978-0-684-82507-6.
- Cragg, Kenneth (1975). The House of Islam, in The Religious Life of Man Series. Second ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1975. xiii, 145 p. ISBN 0-8221-0139-4
- Hourani, Albert (1991). Islam in European Thought. First pbk. ed. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 1992, cop. 1991. xi, 199 p. ISBN 0-521-42120-9; alternative ISBN on back cover, 0-521-42120-0
- Khan, Muhammad Muhsin; Al-Hilali Khan; Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din (1999). Noble Quran (1st ed.). Dar-us-Salam Publications. ISBN 978-9960-740-79-9.
- A. Khanbaghi (2006). The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early Modern Iran. I. B. Tauris.
- Khavari, Farid A. (1990). Oil and Islam: the Ticking Bomb. First ed. Malibu, Calif.: Roundtable Publications. viii, 277 p., ill. with maps and charts. ISBN 0-915677-55-5
- Kramer (ed.), Martin (1999). The Jewish Discovery of Islam: Studies in Honor of Bernard Lewis. Syracuse University. ISBN 978-965-224-040-8.
- Kuban, Dogan (1974). Muslim Religious Architecture. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-03813-2.
- Lewis, Bernard (1994). Islam and the West. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509061-1.
- Lewis, Bernard (1996). Cultures in Conflict: Christians, Muslims, and Jews in the Age of Discovery. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-510283-3.
- Mubarkpuri, Saifur-Rahman (2002). The Sealed Nectar: Biography of the Prophet. Dar-us-Salam Publications. ISBN 978-1-59144-071-0.
- Najeebabadi, Akbar Shah (2001). History of Islam. Dar-us-Salam Publications. ISBN 978-1-59144-034-5.
- Nigosian, S. A. (2004). Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices (New ed.). Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-21627-4.
- Rahman, Fazlur (1979). Islam (2nd ed.). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-70281-2.
- Tausch, Arno (2009). Muslim Calvinism (1st ed.). Rozenberg Publishers, Amsterdam. ISBN 978-90-5170-995-7.
- Tausch, Arno (2009). What 1.3 Billion Muslims Really Think: An Answer to a Recent Gallup Study, Based on the "World Values Survey". Foreword Mansoor Moaddel, Eastern Michigan University (1st ed.). Nova Science Publishers, New York. ISBN 978-1-60692-731-1.
- Walker, Benjamin (1998). Foundations of Islam: The Making of a World Faith. Peter Owen Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7206-1038-3.
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- Academic resources
- Patheos Library – Islam
- University of Southern California Compendium of Muslim Texts
- Encyclopedia of Islam (Overview of World Religions)
- Ethical Democracy Journal views on Islam, other ethical systems and democracy
- Online resources
- Islam, article at Encyclopædia Britannica
- Islam, article at Friesian.com
- Asabiyya: Re-Interpreting Value Change in Globalized Societies, article at Repec/Ideas, University of Connecticut and IZA, Bonn, on Islam and global value change
- Islam, article at Citizendium
- Islam (Bookshelf) at Project Gutenberg
- Islam from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Islam and Islamic Studies Resources from Dr. Alan Godlas, Professor, University of Georgia