1966 FIFA World Cup
|World Cup 1966|
1966 FIFA World Cup official logo
|Dates||11 – 30 July|
|Teams||16 (from 5 confederations)|
|Venue(s)||8 (in 7 host cities)|
|Champions||England (1st title)|
|Fourth place||Soviet Union|
|Goals scored||89 (2.78 per match)|
|Attendance||1,608,723 (50,273 per match)|
|Top scorer(s)||Eusébio (9 goals)|
The 1966 FIFA World Cup, the eighth staging of the World Cup, was held in England from 11 to 30 July. England beat West Germany 4–2 in the final, winning the World Cup. With this victory England became the third host to win the tournament after Uruguay in 1930 and Italy in 1934, and to date it is the only major championship England has won.
The 1966 Finals, held at the "home of football",1 was the last to be broadcast in black and white.2 The tournament held a 28-year FIFA record for the largest average attendance until it was surpassed by the United States in 1994.
- 1 Host selection
- 2 Qualification
- 3 Format
- 4 Summary
- 5 Mascot
- 6 Venues
- 7 Match officials
- 8 Seeding
- 9 Squads
- 10 Results
- 11 Scorers
- 12 FIFA Retrospective Ranking
- 13 References
- 14 External links
England was chosen as host of the 1966 World Cup in Rome, Italy on 22 August 1960, over opposition from West Germany and Spain.
Sixteen African nations boycotted the tournament in protest of a 1964 FIFA ruling that required the three second-round winners from the African zone to enter a play-off round against the winners of the Asian zone in order to win a place at the finals. The Africans felt that winning their zone was enough in itself to merit qualification for the finals.
Despite the Africans' absence, there was another new record number of entries for the qualifying tournament, with 70 nations taking part. After all the arguments, FIFA finally ruled that ten teams from Europe would qualify, along with four from South America, one from Asia and one from North and Central America.
Portugal and North Korea qualified for the first time. Portugal would not qualify again until 1986, while North Korea's next appearance was at the 2010 tournament. This was also Switzerland's last World Cup finals until 1994. Notable absentees from this tournament included 1962 semi-finalists Yugoslavia and 1962 finalists Czechoslovakia.
The format of the 1966 competition remained the same as 1962: 16 qualified teams were divided into four groups of four. Each group played a round-robin format. Two points were awarded for a win and one point for a draw, with goal average used to separate teams equal on points. The top two teams in each group advanced to the knockout stage.
In the knockout games, if the teams were tied after 90 minutes, 30 minutes of extra time were played. For any match other than the final, if the teams were still tied after extra time, lots would be drawn to determine the winner. The final would have been replayed if tied after extra time. In the event, no replays or drawing of lots was necessary.
The 1966 World Cup had a rather unusual hero off the field, a dog called Pickles. In the build-up to the tournament, the Jules Rimet trophy was stolen from an exhibition display. A nationwide hunt for the icon ensued. It was later discovered wrapped in some newspaper as the dog sniffed under some bushes in London. The FA commissioned a replica cup in case the original cup was not found in time. This replica is held at the English National Football Museum in Manchester, where it is on display.3
The draw for the final tournament, taking place on 6 January 1966 at the Royal Garden Hotel in London was the first ever to be televised, with England, West Germany, Brazil and Italy as seeds.4
1966 was a World Cup with few goals as the teams began to play much more tactically and defensively. This was exemplified by Alf Ramsey's England as they finished top of Group 1 with only four goals to their credit, but having none scored against them. They also became the first World Cup winning team not to win its first game in the tournament. Uruguay were the other team to qualify from that group at the expense of both Mexico and France. All the group's matches were played at Wembley Stadium apart from the match between Uruguay and France which took place at White City Stadium. In Group 2, West Germany and Argentina qualified with ease as they both finished the group with 5 points, Spain managed 2, while Switzerland left the competition after losing all three group matches. FIFA cautioned Argentina for its violent style in the group games, particularly in the scoreless draw with West Germany, which saw Argentinean Rafael Albrecht get sent off and suspended for the next match.5 6
In the northwest of England, Old Trafford and Goodison Park played host to Group 3 which saw the two-time defending champions Brazil finish in third place behind Portugal and Hungary, and be eliminated along with Bulgaria. Brazil were defeated 3–1 by Hungary in a classic encounter before falling by the same scoreline to Portugal in a controversial game; this was Brazil's worst performance in any World Cup. Portugal appeared in the finals for the first time, and made quite an impact. They won all three of their games in the group stage, with a lot of help from their outstanding striker Eusébio, whose nine goals made him the tournament's top scorer.
Group 4, however, provided the biggest upset when North Korea beat Italy 1–0 at Ayresome Park, Middlesbrough and finished above them, thus earning qualification to the next round along with the Soviet Union. This was the first time that a nation from outside Europe or the Americas had progressed from the first stage of a World Cup: the next would be Morocco in 1986.
The quarter-finals provided a controversial victory for West Germany as they cruised past Uruguay 4–0; the South Americans claimed that this occurred only after the referee (who was Jim Finney, from England) had not recognised a handball by Schnellinger on the goal line and then had sent off two players from Uruguay: Horacio Troche and Héctor Silva.7 It appeared as though the surprise package North Korea would claim another major upset in their match against Portugal when after 22 minutes they lead 3–0. It fell to one of the greatest stars of the tournament, Eusébio, to change that. He scored four goals in the game and José Augusto added a fifth in the 78th minute to earn Portugal a 5–3 win.
Meanwhile in the other two games, Ferenc Bene's late goal for Hungary against the Soviet Union, who were led by Lev Yashin's stellar goalkeeping, proved little more than a consolation as they crashed out 2–1, and the only goal between Argentina and England came courtesy of England's Geoff Hurst. During that controversial game (for more details see Argentina and England football rivalry), Argentina's Antonio Rattín became the first player to be sent off in a senior international football match at Wembley.8 Rattín at first refused to leave the field and eventually had to be escorted by several policemen. After 30 minutes England scored the only goal of the match. This game is called el robo del siglo (the robbery of the century) in Argentina.9
All semi-finalists were from Europe. The venue of the first semi-final between England and Portugal was changed from Goodison Park in Liverpool to Wembley, due to Wembley's larger capacity. This larger capacity was particularly significant during a time when ticket revenue was of crucial importance.10 Bobby Charlton scored both goals in England's win, with Portugal's goal coming from a penalty in the 82nd minute after a handball by Jack Charlton on the goal line.11 12 The other semi-final also finished 2–1: Franz Beckenbauer scoring the winning goal with a left foot shot from the edge of the area for West Germany as they beat the Soviet Union.13 Portugal went on to beat the Soviet Union 2–1 to take third place. Portugal's third place remains the best finish by a team making its World Cup debut since 1934. It was subsequently equalled by Croatia in the 1998 tournament.
London's Wembley Stadium was the venue for the final, and 98,000 people attended. After 12 minutes 32 seconds Helmut Haller put West Germany ahead, but the score was levelled by Geoff Hurst four minutes later. Martin Peters put England in the lead in the 78th minute; England looked set to claim the title when the referee awarded a free kick to West Germany with one minute left. The ball was launched goalward and Wolfgang Weber scored, with England appealing in vain for handball as the ball came through the crowded penalty area.14
With the score level at 2–2 at the end of 90 minutes, the game went to extra time. In the 98th minute, Hurst found himself on the scoresheet again; his shot hit the crossbar, bounced down onto the goal line, and was awarded as a goal. Debate has long raged over whether the ball crossed the line, with the goal becoming part of World Cup history; Ian Reid and Andrew Zisserman claim to prove that the ball did not cross the line.15 England's final goal was scored by Hurst again, as a celebratory pitch invasion began. This made Geoff Hurst the only player ever to have scored three times in a World Cup final.14 BBC commentator Kenneth Wolstenholme's description of the match's closing moments has gone down in history: "Some people are on the pitch. They think it's all over ... [Hurst scores] It is now!".16
England's total of eleven goals scored in six games set a new record low for average goals per game scored by a World Cup winning team. The record stood until 1982, when it was surpassed by Italy's twelve goals in seven games; in 2010 this record was lowered again by Spain, winning the Cup with eight goals in seven games. England's total of three goals conceded also constituted a record low for average goals per game conceded by a World Cup winning team. That record stood until 1994, when it was surpassed by Brazil's three goals in seven games.
World Cup Willie, the mascot for the 1966 competition, was the first World Cup mascot, and one of the first mascots to be associated with a major sporting competition. World Cup Willie is a lion, a typical symbol of the United Kingdom, wearing a Union Flag jersey emblazoned with the words "WORLD CUP".
White City Stadium in London was used for a single game from Group 1, between Uruguay and France. The game was scheduled for a Friday, the same day as regularly scheduled greyhound racing at Wembley. Because Wembley's owner refused to cancel this, the game had to be moved to the alternative venue.
|Roker Park||Ayresome Park||Goodison Park|
|Wembley Stadium||White City Stadium||Villa Park|
|Pot 1: South American||Pot 2: European||Pot 3: Latin European||Pot 4: Rest of the World|
For a list of all squads that appeared in the final tournament, see 1966 FIFA World Cup squads.
11 July 1966
|Hausser 62'||Report||Borja 48'|
|Report||De Bourgoing 15' (pen.)|
|B. Charlton 37'
19 July 1966
|Hunt 38', 75'||Report|
- West Germany was placed first due to superior goal average.
Haller 21', 77' (pen.)
Beckenbauer 40', 52'
|Artime 65', 77'||Report||Pirri 67'|
|José Augusto 1', 67'
Mészöly 73' (pen.)
|Vutsov 17' (o.g.)
Eusébio 27', 85'
|Davidov 43' (o.g.)
|Soviet Union||3–0||North Korea|
|Malofeyev 31', 88'
|Marcos 26' (pen.)||Report||Pak Seung-Zin 88'|
|Pak Doo-Ik 42'||Report|
|Porkujan 28', 85'||Report||Marcos 32'|
|23 July – London|
|26 July – London|
|23 July – Liverpool|
|30 July – London|
|23 July – Sheffield|
|25 July – Liverpool|
|West Germany||2||Third place|
|23 July – Sunderland|
|Soviet Union||1||28 July – London|
|Eusébio 27', 43' (pen.), 56', 59' (pen.)
José Augusto 80'
|Report||Pak Seung-Zin 1'
Li Dong-Woon 22'
Yang Seung-Kook 25'
|Haller 11', 83'
25 July 1966
|West Germany||2–1||Soviet Union|
26 July 1966
|B. Charlton 30', 80'||Report||Eusébio 82' (pen.)|
28 July 1966
|Eusébio 12' (pen.)
30 July 1966
|England||4–2 (a.e.t.)||West Germany|
|Hurst 18', 101', 120'
- 9 goals
- 6 goals
- 4 goals
- 3 goals
- 2 goals
- 1 goal
- Own goals
In 1986, FIFA published a report that ranked all teams in each World Cup up to and including 1986, based on progress in the competition, overall results and quality of the opposition.17 The rankings for the 1966 tournament were as follows:
3rd and 4th place
Eliminated in the quarter-finals
Eliminated at the group stage
- "Hurst the hero for England in the home of football". FIFA.com.
- "1966 FIFA World Cup England ™ - Final". FIFA.com.
- Atherton, Martin The Theft of the Jules Rimet Trophy: The Hidden History of the 1966 World Cup. Meyer & Meyer Verlag. p.93, Retrieved 15 September 2010 from 'The Theft of the Jules Rimet Trophy', via Google Books
- "History of the World Cup Final Draw" (PDF). Archived from the original on 14 June 2010. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
- "History of the World Cup". Homepages.enterprise.net. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
- Alsos, Jan. "1966 – Story of England '66". Planet World Cup. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
- "Mundial de Inglaterra 1966 – SIGUEN LOS CHOREOS A SUDAMÉRICA". Todoslosmundiales.com.ar. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
- Hackett, Robin (7 April 2011). "Blue is the colour". ESPNFC. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- "Mundial de Inglaterra 1966 – EL ROBO DEL SIGLO". Todoslosmundiales.com.ar. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
- Vickery, Tim. "Argentina's class of '78 deserve respect". BBC Sport. Retrieved 13 February 2012. "[Tim Vickery's comment (no.29):] The semi final switch – I believe this is more down to the FIFA Exec Com than to Rous – in this pre-mass TV age the box office was still important, so it was obviously tempting from a financial point of view to have the ho[m]e side play in the stadium with the biggest capacity"
- "England’s 2-1 win brings first final". Montreal Gazette. 27 July 1966. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- "ENGLAND PORTUGAL 1/2 FINAL WORLD CUP 1966". YouTube. 27 December 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
- "West Germany Nips 10 Russians 2-1". Montreal Gazette. 26 July 1966. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- McIlvanney, Hugh (30 July 2008). "From the Vault: Hurst's hat-trick wins the World Cup". guardian.co.uk (Guardian Media Group). Archived from the original on 6 June 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
- Reid, Ian; Zisserman, Andrew. "Goal-directed Video Metrology". University of Oxford. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
- "Kenneth Wolstenholme". The Daily Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). 27 March 2002. Retrieved 22 June 2010. "Kenneth Wolstenholme, who has died aged 81, was the voice of football on the BBC for almost a quarter of a century and the author of arguably the most celebrated words in British sports broadcasting, his commentary on England's last goal in the World Cup Final of 1966: "Some people are on the pitch. They think it's all over – it is now!""
- http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/afdeveloping/technicaldevp/50/09/00/fwc_mexico_1986_en_part4_279.pdf page 45