A General History of the Pyrates
|A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the most notorious Pyrates|
|Author||Captain Charles Johnson (pseudonym)|
J. Lacy, and J. Stone
|14 May 1724|
A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the most notorious Pyrates is a 1724 book published in Britain, containing biographies of contemporary pirates.1 Influential in shaping popular conceptions of pirates, it is the prime source for the biographies of many well known pirates.2 Its author uses the name Captain Charles Johnson, generally considered a pseudonym.
The author has remained unknown in spite of numerous attempts by historians to discover his or her identity. Many scholars have suggested that the author could have been either Daniel Defoe or the publisher Nathaniel Mist (or somebody working for him).3
In his book, The Republic of Pirates, Colin Woodard states:
Recently, Arne Bialuschewski of the University of Kiel in Germany has identified a far more likely candidate: Nathaniel Mist, a former sailor, journalist, and publisher of the Weekly Journal. The book's first publisher of record, Charles Rivington, had printed many books for Mist, who lived just a few yards from his office. More importantly, the General History was registered at Her Majesty's Stationery Office in Mist's name. As a former seaman who had sailed the West Indies, Mist, of all London's writer-publishers, was uniquely qualified to have penned the book...Mist was also a committed Jacobite...which could explain the General History's not entirely unsympathetic account of the maritime outlaws.4
There was at the time a successful playwright named Charles Johnson who included among his numerous works a play based on the life of the pirate "Captain" Avery which had the title of The Successful Pirate. This opened at Drury Lane in 1713. The account of this pirate at the beginning of The General History of the Pyrates suggests that the use of that writer's name with the title "Captain" in the first edition may have been a satirical attack against his play.
A General History introduced many features which later became common in pirate literature, such as pirates with missing legs or eyes, the myth of pirates burying treasure, and the name of the pirates flag the Jolly Roger. The author specifically cites two pirates as having named their flag Jolly Roger, (named after the first Pirate and his crew); Welsh pirate Bartholomew Roberts in June, 1721, and English pirate Francis Spriggs in December 1723.5 In giving an almost mythical status to the more colourful characters, such as the infamous English pirates Blackbeard and Calico Jack, the book provided the standard account of the lives of many people still famous in the 21st century, and influenced pirate literature of Robert Louis Stevenson and J.M.Barrie.6
The book was released in two volumes. The first mostly deals with early 18th-century pirates, while volume II records the exploits of their predecessors a few decades earlier. In the first volume "Johnson" sticks fairly close to the available sources, though he embellishes the stories somewhat. He stretches the truth farther in the second volume, and includes the biographies of three subjects who may be entirely fictional. The book has been hugely influential in shaping popular notions of piracy.
The buccaneers profiled in Volume I are:
- Jolly Roger
- Henry Every
- Stede Bonnet
- Calico Jack Rackham
- Israel Hands
- Edward England
- Charles Vane
- Mary Read
- Anne Bonny
- Howell Davis
- Bartholomew ("Black Bart") Roberts
- Thomas Anstis
- Richard Worley
- George Lowther
- Edward Lowe
- John Evans
- James Martel
- Francis Spriggs
- John Gow
- Roche Braziliano.
Volume II features:
- Thomas Tew
- William Kidd
- John Bowen
- John Halsey
- Thomas Howard
- Samuel Burgess
- Nathaniel North
- Christopher Condent
- Samuel Bellamy
- William Fly
as well as biographies of the probably fictional captains James Misson, Lewis, and Cornelius.
Henry Avery 1725 edition
Stede Bonnet 1725 edition
Calico Jack Rackham 1725 edition
Anne Bonny from a Dutch version of Charles Johnson's book of pirates.
Howell Davis 1728 edition
Bartholomew Roberts 1724 edition
- A general history of the robberies & murders of the most notorious pirates. By Charles Johnson Introduction and commentary by David Cordingly. Conway Maritime Press (2002).
- Cordingly, Under the Black Flag, p. xix.
- Ossian, Rob. "Book Review:A General History of the Pyrates". The Pirate King. Archived from the original on 22 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-29.
- Woodard, Colin (2007). The Republic of Pirates. Harcourt, Inc. pp. 325–326. ISBN 978-0-15-603462-3.
- Charles Johnson (1724), A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates, pp. 250, 411-12
- A general history of the robberies & murders of the most notorious pirates. Intro - Page viii
- Cordingly, David. Under the Black Flag: The Romance and Reality of Life Among the Pirates. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1995.
- Charles Johnson (1724), A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates, a copy on the website of East Carolina University Digital Collections
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