Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir
|Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir|
A page of the Hikayat Abdullah written in Malay in the Jawi script, from the collection of the National Library of Singapore. A rare first edition, it was written between 1840 and 1843, printed by lithography, and published in 1849.
|Born||Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir
|Died||1854 (aged 57–58)
Jeddah, Ottoman Empire
|Occupation||Author, translator and teacher|
|Subjects||Early Malay history|
Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir (1796–1854) (Arabic: عبد الله بن عبد القادر) also known as Munshi Abdullah, was a Malayan writer of Indian origin. He was a famous Malacca-born Indian munshi of Singapore1 and died in Jeddah, then part of the Ottoman Empire (it is now in Saudi Arabia).
The term Munshi means "teacher" or "educator". Munshi Abdullah was a great-grandson of a Hadhrami Arab trader,4 and also had Tamil and to a smaller extent, Malay ancestry.5 Owing to his ethnic and religious background, the Malays would refer to him as a Jawi Peranakan or Jawi Pekan.
Munshi Abdullah was born in Kampung Pali in Malacca. He was the youngest of five sons. All of his brothers died in infancy.6 He was sick most of the time and his mother took great care of him. As per the customary practices of the Malay community of that period, he was taken care of by various individuals as it was held that a child with poor immunity to diseases should be cared for by caretakers other than his or her biological parents. Munshi Abdullah was critical of the practice, describing it as stupid in the Hikayat Abdullah.7
His most important works are the Hikayat Abdullah (an autobiography), Kisah Pelayaran Abdullah ke Kelantan (an account of his trip for the government to Kelantan), and Kisah Pelayaran Abdullah ke Mekah (a narrative of his pilgrimage to Mecca 1854). His work was an inspiration to future generations of writers and marks an early stage in the transition from the classical Malay literature to modern Malay literature.2
Hikayat Abdullah was the major literary work of Munshi Abdullah. It was completed in 1845 and first published in 1849,8 making it one of the first Malay literary texts to be published commercially. Abdullah’s authorship was prominently displayed in this text and the contents were conveyed in simple, contemporary Malay. Unlike typical classical Malay literary works that contain fantasies and legendary stories, Abdullah’s work was realistic.9 The book remains a reliable and accurate reference on early Malay history to this day.
Abdullah was known as an ardent critic of the Malay political system of Kerajaan ("kingdom"). His work, Kisah Pelayaran Abdullah ke Kelantan contained his advice to Malay rulers and comparisons he made between the British system of governing and that of Malay rulers.10
Abdullah argued that the system of Kerajaan was detrimental to the Malay individual, as it was an impediment to the social improvement of the Malays. The Malay Sultan was deemed to be someone who was selfish, with no concern toward his subjects, to the extent they were treated like animals rather than humans.
The idea of modernity and striving for excellence within the Malay community stemmed from his ideas and stinging criticisms of the ancient Malay polity of the Kerajaan. Under the Kerajaan, the Malays were deprived of education and hence they were easily oppressed. Without education, they did not have the ability to question the injustice meted out to them and could not take the initiative to institute changes in order to improve their lives.
Although the condemnation may be exaggerated, Munshi Abdullah's allegations were not without basis. He is regarded by many to be the first Malayan journalist, taking Malay literature out of its preoccupation with folk-stories and legends into accurate historical descriptions.
- Ford, R. Clyde (July 1899), "Malay Literature", Popular Science Monthly 55: 379–381
- James N. Sneddon (2003). The Indonesian language: its history and role in modern society. Australia: University of New South Wales Press. p. 71. ISBN 0-86840-598-1.
- World and Its Peoples: Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Brunei. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation. 2008. p. 1218.
- Emily Hahn (2007). Raffles of Singapore – A Biography. READ BOOKS. p. 124. ISBN 1-4067-4810-2.
- Ainslie Thomas Embree. Encyclopedia of Asian History. Macmillan Publishers. p. 6. ISBN 0-684-18619-5.
- The Autobiography of Munshi Abdullah
- Hikayat Abdullah
- L. F. Brakel (Author), M. Balfas (Author), M. Taib Bin Osman (Author), J. Gonda (Author), B. Rangkuti (Author), B. Lumbera (Author), H. Kahler (Author) (1997). Literaturen (Asian Studies). Brill Academic Publishers. p. 143 & 144. ISBN 978-90-04-04331-2.
- Keat Gin Ooi (2004). Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 116. ISBN 1-57607-770-5.
- Siti Hawa Hj. Salleh (2010). Malay Literature of the 19th Century. Institut Terjemahan Negara Malaysia. p. 116. ISBN 978-983-068-517-5.
- A. Wahab Ali (2004). Tradisi Pembentukan Sastera Melayu Moden. Penerbit Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris. p. 82. ISBN 983-2620-32-5.
- Khair Abdul Salam & Zulkifli Khair (2007). Cerita-cerita motivasi untuk ibadah haji dan umrah. Pts publications. p. 86. ISBN 978-983-3372-46-1.