Abel Prize
Abel Prize  

Awarded for  Outstanding scientific work in the field of mathematics 
Country  Norway 
Presented by  King of Norway 
First awarded  2003 
Official website  abelprize.no 
The Abel Prize is an international prize presented by the King of Norway to one or more outstanding mathematicians. Named after Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel (1802–1829), the award was established in 2001 by the Government of Norway and complements the Holberg Prize in the humanities.
The Abel Prize has often been described as the mathematician's "Nobel prize".^{1}^{2}^{3}^{4}^{5} It comes with a monetary award of 6 million Norwegian kroner (NOK) (approximately US$1 million).^{6}
The prize board has also established an Abel symposium, administered by the Norwegian Mathematical Society.^{7} The award ceremony takes place in the Atrium of the University of Oslo Faculty of Law, where the Nobel Peace Prize was formerly awarded between 1947 and 1989.^{8}
A prize in honour of Abel was first proposed by Sophus Lie (1842–1899). Lie's death marked an interruption in the establishment of the award, and King Oscar II's attempt to establish the award in 1902 was unsuccessful, complicated by the dissolution of the union between Sweden and Norway three years later.
Selection criteria
The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters declares the winner of the Abel Prize each March after selection by a committee of five international mathematicians. The committee is headed by Ragni Piene. The International Mathematical Union and the European Mathematical Society nominate members of the Abel Committee. The Norwegian Government gave the prize an initial funding of NOK 200 million (about US$23 million) in 2001. The funding is controlled by the Board, which consists of members elected by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.^{9}
Everyone can nominate a person, except himself. The nominee must be alive; however, if the awardee dies after being declared as the winner, he receives the prize posthumously. The Abel Laureate is decided by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters based on the recommendation of the Abel Committee. Both Norwegians and nonNorwegians may serve on the Committee; they are elected by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters and nominated by the International Mathematical Union and the European Mathematical Society.^{9}^{10}
History
The prize was first proposed to be part of the 1902 celebration of 100th anniversary of Abel's birth.^{10} Shortly before his death in 1899, mathematician Sophus Lie proposed establishing an Abel Prize when he learned that Alfred Nobel's plans for annual prizes would not include a prize in mathematics. King Oscar II was willing to finance a mathematics prize in 1902, and the mathematicians Ludwig Sylow and Carl Størmer drew up statutes and rules for the proposed prize. However, Lie's influence waned after his death, and the dissolution of the union between Sweden and Norway in 1905 ended the first attempt to create the Abel Prize.^{10}
After interest in the concept of the prize had risen in 2001, a working group was formed to develop a proposal, which was presented to the Prime Minister of Norway in May. In August 2001, the Norwegian government announced that the prize would be awarded beginning in 2002, the twohundredth anniversary of Abel's birth. The first prize was actually awarded in 2003.^{10} A book series presenting Abel Prize laureates and their research was commenced in 2010. The first two volumes cover the years 2003–2007 and 2008–2012 respectively.^{11}^{12}
Laureates
Year  Laureate(s)  Citizenship  Institution  Citation  Ref 

2003  Serre, JeanPierreJeanPierre Serre  French  Collège de France  "for playing a key role in shaping the modern form of many parts of mathematics, including topology, algebraic geometry and number theory"  ^{13} 
2004  Atiyah, MichaelMichael Atiyah; Singer, IsadoreIsadore Singer 
British; American 
University of Edinburgh; Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
"for their discovery and proof of the index theorem, bringing together topology, geometry and analysis, and their outstanding role in building new bridges between mathematics and theoretical physics"  ^{14} 
2005  Lax, PeterPeter Lax  American  Courant Institute  "for his groundbreaking contributions to the theory and application of partial differential equations and to the computation of their solutions"  ^{15} 
2006  Carleson, LennartLennart Carleson  Swedish^{16}  Royal Institute of Technology  "for his profound and seminal contributions to harmonic analysis and the theory of smooth dynamical systems"  ^{17} 
2007  Varadhan, S. R. SrinivasaS. R. Srinivasa Varadhan  Indian/American ^{18}  Courant Institute  "for his fundamental contributions to probability theory and in particular for creating a unified theory of large deviation"  ^{19} 
2008  Thompson, John G.John G. Thompson; Tits, JacquesJacques Tits 
American; Belgian/French^{20} 
University of Florida; Collège de France 
"for their profound achievements in algebra and in particular for shaping modern group theory"  ^{21} 
2009  Gromov, MikhailMikhail Gromov  Russian/French^{22}  Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques Courant Institute 
"for his revolutionary contributions to geometry"  ^{23} 
2010  Tate, John T.John T. Tate  American  University of Texas at Austin  "for his vast and lasting impact on the theory of numbers"  ^{24} 
2011  Milnor, JohnJohn Milnor  American^{25}  Stony Brook University  "for pioneering discoveries in topology, geometry, and algebra"  ^{26} 
2012  Szemerédi, EndreEndre Szemerédi  Hungarian/ American^{27}  Alfréd Rényi Institute and Rutgers University 
"for his fundamental contributions to discrete mathematics and theoretical computer science, and in recognition of the profound and lasting impact of these contributions on additive number theory and ergodic theory"  ^{28} 
2013  Deligne, PierrePierre Deligne  Belgian  Institute for Advanced Study  "for seminal contributions to algebraic geometry and for their transformative impact on number theory, representation theory, and related fields"  ^{29} 
2014  Sinai, Yakov G.Yakov G. Sinai  Russian/American  Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics and Princeton University 
"for his fundamental contributions to dynamical systems, ergodic theory, and mathematical physics"  ^{30} 
See also
References
 ^ Dreifus, Claudia (29 March 2005). "From Budapest to Los Alamos, a Life in Mathematics". The New York Times.
 ^ Cipra, Barry (26 March 2009). "Russian Mathematician Wins Abel Prize". ScienceNOW. Archived from the original on 29 March 2009. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
 ^ "Geometer wins maths 'Nobel'". Nature Publishing Group. 26 March 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
 ^ Foderaro, Lisa W. (31 May 2009). "In N.Y.U.'s Tally of Abel Prizes for Mathematics, Gromov Makes Three". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
 ^ "Abel Prize Awarded: The Mathematicians' Nobel". The Mathematical Association of America. April 2004. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
 ^ "Main Page". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
 ^ "University of Oslo". Oslo Opera House. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} "Nomination Guidelines". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} ^{d} "The History of the Abel Prize". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
 ^ H. Holden; R. Piene, eds. (2010). The Abel Prize 2003–2007. Heidelberg: Springer. doi:10.1007/9783642013737. ISBN 9783642013720.
 ^ H. Holden; R. Piene, eds. (2014). The Abel Prize 2008–2012. Heidelberg: Springer. doi:10.1007/9783642394492. ISBN 9783642394492.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2003". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2004". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2005". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "Swedish mathematician receives the Abel Prize". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2006". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "Fields Institute – Thematic Program on Dynamic and Transport in Disordered Systems". Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Sciences. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2007". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "Abel Prize Ceremony 2008". The Royal Norwegian Embassy in Seoul. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2008". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "RussianFrench mathematician receives the Abel Prize". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2009". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2010". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "DimensionCruncher: Exotic Spheres Earn Mathematician John Milnor an Abel Prize". Scientific American. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2011". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "HungarianAmerican Endre Szemerédi named Abel Prize winner". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2012". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2013". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
 ^ "The Abel Prize Laureate 2014". The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
External links
Wikinews has related news: Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters awards Belgian mathematician Pierre Deligne with Abel prize of 2013 
 Official website
 Official website of the Abel Symposium
 Weisstein, Eric W., "Abel Prize", MathWorld.

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