An acolyte lighting Advent candles
|Significance||Preparation for the commemoration of the birth of Jesus|
|Observances||Church services, gift giving, family and other social gatherings, symbolic decorating|
|Related to||Christmastide, Christmas Eve, Annunciation, Epiphany, Baptism of the Lord, Nativity Fast, Nativity of Christ, Yule|
Advent is a season observed in many Western Christian churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus at Christmas. The term is an anglicized version of the Latin word adventus, meaning "coming".
Advent is the beginning of the Western liturgical year and commences on Advent Sunday. The Eastern churches' equivalent of Advent is called the Nativity Fast, but it differs in both length and observances and does not begin the church year, which starts instead on September 1.1 At least in the Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, Moravian, Presbyterian and Methodist calendars, Advent starts on the fourth Sunday before December 25, which is the Sunday between November 27 and December 3 inclusive.2
Latin adventus is the translation of the Greek word parousia, commonly used to refer to the Second Coming of Christ. For Christians, the season of Advent anticipates the coming of Christ from two different perspectives. The season offers the opportunity to share in the ancient longing for the coming of the Messiah, and to be alert for his Second Coming.
The theme of readings and teachings during Advent is often the preparation for the Second Coming while commemorating the First Coming of Christ at Christmas. The first clear references in the Western Church to Advent occur in the Gelasian Sacramentary, which provides Advent Collects, Epistles, and Gospels for the five Sundays preceding Christmas and for the corresponding Wednesdays and Fridays.3 While the readings relate to the first coming of Jesus Christ as savior as well as to his second coming as judge, traditions vary in the relative importance of penitence and expectation during the four Sundays in Advent.
The usual liturgical color in Western Christianity for Advent is either purple or blue.4 The purple color is often used for hangings around the church, the vestments of the clergy, and often also the tabernacle. In some Christian denominations, blue, a color representing hope, is an alternative liturgical color for Advent, a custom traced to the usage of the Church of Sweden (Lutheran) and the medieval Sarum Rite in England. In addition, the color blue is also used in the Mozarabic Rite (Catholic and Anglican), which dates from the 8th century. This color is often referred to as "Sarum blue".
The Lutheran Book of Worship lists blue as the preferred color for Advent while the Methodist Book of Worship identifies purple or blue as appropriate for Advent. There has been an increasing trend to supplant purple with blue during Advent as it is a hopeful season of preparation that anticipates both Bethlehem and the consummation of history in the second coming of Jesus Christ.5
Proponents of this new liturgical trend argue that purple is traditionally associated with solemnity and somberness, which is fitting to the repentant character of Lent. The Roman Catholic Church retains the traditional purple.citation needed Blue is not generally used in Latin Catholicism, and where it does regionally, it has nothing to do with Advent specifically, but with veneration of the Blessed Virgin.citation needed However, on some occasions that are heavily associated with Advent, such as the Rorate Mass (but not on Sundays), white is used.citation needed
Many churches also hold special musical events, such as Nine Lessons and Carols and singing of Handel's Messiah oratorio, Also, the Advent Prose, an antiphonal plainsong, may be sung. The "Late Advent Weekdays", December 17–24, mark the singing of the Great Advent 'O antiphons'.7 These are the antiphons for the Magnificat at Vespers, or Evening Prayer (in the Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches) and Evensong in Anglican churches each day and mark the forthcoming birth of the Messiah. They form the basis for each verse of the popular Advent hymn, "O come, O come, Emmanuel". German songs for Advent include "Es kommt ein Schiff, geladen" from the 15th century. Johann Sebastian Bach composed four cantatas for Advent in Weimar, beginning with Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 61, but only a few more in Leipzig because was a silent time which allowed a cantata only on the first Sunday in Advent.
From the 4th century the season was kept as a period of fasting as strict as in Lent (commencing in some localities on 11 November; this being the feast day of St. Martin of Tours, the fast became known as "St. Martin's Lent", "St. Martin's Fast" or the "forty days of St. Martin"). The feast day was in many countries a time of frolic and heavy eating, since the 40-day fast began the next day.8
In the Anglican and Lutheran churches this fasting rule was later relaxed. The Roman Catholic Church later abolished the precept of fasting (at an unknown date at the latest in 1917), later, but kept Advent as a season of penitence. In addition to fasting, dancing and similar festivities were forbidden in these traditions. On Rose Sunday, relaxation of the fast was permitted. Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches still hold the tradition of fasting for 40 days before Christmas.
In England, especially in the northern counties, there was a custom (now extinct) for poor women to carry around the "Advent images", two dolls dressed to represent Jesus and the Blessed Virgin Mary. A halfpenny coin was expected from every one to whom these were exhibited and bad luck was thought to menace the household not visited by the doll-bearers before Christmas Eve at the latest.9
In Normandy, farmers employed children under twelve to run through the fields and orchards armed with torches, setting fire to bundles of straw, and thus it was believed driving out such vermin as were likely to damage the crops.10
In Italy, among other Advent celebrations is the entry into Rome in the last days of Advent of the Calabrian pifferari, or bagpipe players, who play before the shrines of Mary, the mother of Jesus: in Italian tradition, the shepherds played these pipes when they came to the manger at Bethlehem to pay homage to the infant Jesus.11
In recent times the most common observance of Advent outside church circles has been the keeping of an advent calendar or advent candle, with one door being opened in the calendar, or one section of the candle being burned, on each day in December leading up to Christmas Eve.
The keeping of an advent wreath is also a common practice in homes or churches. The readings for the first Sunday in Advent relate to the old testament patriarchs who were Christ's ancestors, so some call the first advent candle that of hope. The readings for the second Sunday concern Christ's birth in a manger and other prophesies, so the candle may be called of Bethlehem, the way or of the prophets. The third Sunday, Gaudete Sunday after the first word of the introit (Philippians 4:4), is celebrated with rose-colored vestments similar to Laetare Sunday at the middle point of Lent.
The readings relate to St. John the Baptist, and the rose candle may be called of joy or of the shepherds. In the Episcopal Church USA, the collect stir up may be read during this week, although before the 1979 revision of the Book of Common Prayer it was sometimes read in the first Sunday of Advent. Even earlier, 'Stir-up Sunday' was once jocularly associated with the stirring of the Christmas mincement, begun before Advent. The phrase 'Stir up' occurs at the start of the collect for the last Sunday before Advent in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer.12
The readings for the fourth Sunday relate to the annunciation of Christ's birth, so the candle may be known as the Angel's candle. The Magnificat or Song of Mary may be featured. Where an advent wreath includes a fifth candle, it is known as the Christ candle and lit during the Christmas Eve service.1314
- Dormition Fast
- Fasting and abstinence in the Roman Catholic Church
- Great Lent
- Mortification of the flesh in Christianity
- Rogation Days
- Kallistos (Ware), Bishop (1969). "The Five Cycles". The Festal Menaion. London: Faber and Faber. p. 40.
- "Celebrate a Catholic Advent & Christmas", Our Sunday Visitor
- The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church [Ed. F.L.Cross, 2nd ed., O.U.P., 1974]" p. 19.
- "Advent Wreath Meditations -2013", United Methodist Church
- "The Season of Advent - Anticipation and Hope". CRI/Voice, Institute. Retrieved 2009-12-14.
- "Liturgical Vestment Colors of the Orthodox Church". Aggreen. Archived from the original on 8 December 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-14.
- Saunders, William, "What are the ‘O Antiphons’?", Catholic Education, retrieved 30 November 2009.
- "Saint Martin’s Lent". Encyclopedia Britannica. Britannica. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- Chambers, Robert, ed. (1864), The book of days: a miscellany of popular antiquities in connection with the calendar 2, Philadelphia, pp. 724–5
- Hone, William, "December 5: Advent in Normandy", The Year Book of Daily Recreation and Information, London: Thomas Tegg, retrieved 16:16 GMT 05/02/2010 .
- Miles, Clement A, Christmas customs and traditions, their history and significance, p. 112, ISBN 978-0-486-23354-3.
- Oxford English Dictionary. Second edition, 1989 (first published in New English Dictionary, 1917). In the Roman Catholic Church since 1969, and in most Anglican churches since at least 2000, the final Sunday of the liturgical year before Advent has been celebrated as the Feast of Christ the King. This feast is now also widely observed in many Protestant churches, sometimes as the Reign of Christ.
- Advent, St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Kingsville, MD
- "Advent wreath", Growing in faith (FAQ), Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.
- Book of Common Prayer, 1979 according to the usage of The Episcopal Church
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Advent.|
|Look up Advent in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Advent Sermon Series from the Society of Saint John the Evangelist, a monastic community in the Episcopal Church
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Advent
- American Catholic: Advent to Epiphany Prayers, calendar and activities
- Liturgical Resources for Advent
- Advent FAQ at the Missouri Synod Lutheran web site
- Advent Online Devotional site
- Online Resources for the Season of Advent at The Text This Week