Hellenistic statue claimed to depict Aesop, Art Collection of Villa Albani, Rome
|Born||c. 620–564 BC|
|Died||c. 620–564 BC|
|Ethnicity||Ancient Greek or maybe black African from Ethiopia1|
|Notable work(s)||Number of fables now collectively known as Aesop's Fables|
Aesop (pronounced /ˈiːsɒp/ EE-sop, Ancient Greek: Αἴσωπος, Aisōpos, c. 620–564 BC) was an Ancient Greek fabulist or story teller credited with a number of fables now collectively known as Aesop's Fables. Although his existence remains uncertain and (if they ever existed) no writings by him survive, numerous tales credited to him were gathered across the centuries and in many languages in a storytelling tradition that continues to this day. Many of the tales are characterized by animals and inanimate objects that speak, solve problems, and generally have human characteristics.
Scattered details of Aesop's life can be found in ancient sources, including Aristotle, Herodotus, and Plutarch. An ancient literary work called The Aesop Romance tells an episodic, probably highly fictional version of his life, including the traditional description of him as a strikingly ugly slave (δοῦλος) who by his cleverness acquires freedom and becomes an adviser to kings and city-states. Older spellings of his name have included Esop(e) and Isope. A later tradition (dating from the Middle Ages) depicts Aesop as a black Ethiopian. Depictions of Aesop in popular culture over the last 2500 years have included several works of art and his appearance as a character in numerous books, films, plays, and television programs.
Along with the scattered references in the ancient sources regarding the life and death of Aesop, there is a highly fictional biography now commonly called The Aesop Romance (also known as the Vita or The Life of Aesop or The Book of Xanthus the Philosopher and Aesop His Slave), "an anonymous work of Greek popular literature composed around the second century of our era ... Like The Alexander Romance, The Aesop Romance became a folkbook, a work that belonged to no one, and the occasional writer felt free to modify as it might suit him."2 Multiple, sometimes contradictory, versions of this work exist. The earliest known version "was probably composed in the 1st century AD", but the story "probably circulated in different versions for centuries before it was committed to writing";3 "certain elements can be shown to originate in the 4th century BC."4 Scholars long dismissed any historical or biographical validity in The Aesop Romance; widespread study of the work began only toward the end of the 20th century.
In The Aesop Romance, Aesop is a slave of Phrygian origin on the island of Samos, and extremely ugly. At first he lacks the power of speech, but after showing kindness to a priestess of Isis, is granted by the goddess not only speech but a gift for clever storytelling, which he uses alternately to assist and confound his master, Xanthus, embarrassing the philosopher in front of his students and even sleeping with his wife. After interpreting a portent for the people of Samos, Aesop is given his freedom and acts as an emissary between the Samians and King Croesus. Later he travels to the courts of Lycurgus of Babylon and Nectanabo of Egypt – both imaginary rulers – in a section that appears to borrow heavily from the romance of Ahiqar.5 The story ends with Aesop's journey to Delphi, where he angers the citizens by telling insulting fables, is sentenced to death and, after cursing the people of Delphi, is forced to jump to his death.
Aesop may or may not have written his fables. The Aesop Romance claims that he wrote them down and deposited them in the library of Croesus; Herodotus calls Aesop a "writer of fables" and Aristophanes speaks of "reading" Aesop,6 but no writings by Aesop have survived. Scholars speculate that "there probably existed in the fifth century [BC] a written book containing various fables of Aesop, set in a biographical framework."7 Sophocles in a poem addressed to Euripides made reference to Aesop's fable of the North Wind and the Sun.8 Socrates while in prison turned some of the fables into verse,9 of which Diogenes Laertius records a small fragment.10 The early Roman playwright and poet Ennius also rendered at least one of Aesop's fables in Latin verse, of which the last two lines still exist.11
The body of work identified as Aesop's Fables was transmitted by a series of authors writing in both Greek and Latin. Demetrius of Phalerum made a collection in ten books, probably in prose (Αισοπείων α) for the use of orators, which has been lost.12 Next appeared an edition in elegiac verse, cited by the Suda, but the author's name is unknown. Phaedrus, a freedman of Augustus, rendered the fables into Latin in the 1st century AD. At about the same time Babrius turned the fables into Greek choliambics. A 3rd-century author, Titianus is said to have rendered the fables into prose in a work now lost.13 Avianus (of uncertain date, perhaps the 4th century) translated 42 of the fables into Latin elegiacs. The 4th-century grammarian Dositheus Magister also made a collection of Aesop's Fables, now lost.
Aesop's Fables continued to be revised and translated through the ensuing centuries, with the addition of material from other cultures, so that the body of fables known today bears little relation to those Aesop originally told. With a surge in scholarly interest beginning toward the end of the 20th century, some attempt has been made to determine the nature and content of the very earliest fables which may be most closely linked to the historic Aesop.14
The anonymously authored Aesop Romance (usually dated to the 1st or 2nd century AD) begins with a vivid description of Aesop's appearance, saying he was "of loathsome aspect... potbellied, misshapen of head, snub-nosed, swarthy, dwarfish, bandy-legged, short-armed, squint-eyed, liver-lipped—a portentous monstrosity,"15 or as another translation has it, "a faulty creation of Prometheus when half-asleep."16 The earliest text by a known author that refers to Aesop's appearance is Himerius in the 4th century, who says that Aesop "was laughed at and made fun of, not because of some of his tales but on account of his looks and the sound of his voice."17 The evidence from both of these sources is dubious, since Himerius lived some 800 years after Aesop and his image of Aesop may have come from The Aesop Romance, which is essentially fiction; but whether based on fact or not, at some point the idea of an ugly, even deformed Aesop took hold in popular imagination. Scholars have begun to examine why and how this "physiognomic tradition" developed.18
A much later tradition depicts Aesop as a black African from Ethiopia.19 The presence of such slaves in Greek-speaking areas is suggested by the fable "Washing the Ethiopian white" that is ascribed to Aesop himself. This concerns a man who buys a black slave and, assuming that he was neglected by his former master, tries very hard to wash the blackness away. But nowhere in the fable is it suggested that this constitutes a personal reference. The first known promulgator of the idea was Planudes, a Byzantine scholar of the 13th century who wrote a biography of Aesop based on The Aesop Romance and conjectured that Aesop might have been Ethiopian, given his name.20 An English translation of Planudes' biography from 1687 says that "his Complexion [was] black, from which dark Tincture he contracted his Name (Aesopus being the same with Aethiops)". When asked his origin by a prospective new master, Aesop replies, "I am a Negro"; numerous illustrations by Francis Barlow accompany this text and depict Aesop accordingly.21 But according to Gert-Jan van Dijk, "Planudes' derivation of 'Aesop' from 'Aethiopian' is... etymologically incorrect,"22 and Frank Snowden says that Planudes' account is "worthless as to the reliability of Aesop as 'Ethiopian.'"23
The tradition of Aesop's African origin was carried forward into the 19th century. The frontispiece of William Godwin's Fables Ancient and Modern (1805) has a copperplate illustration of Aesop relating his stories to little children that gives his features a distinctly African appearance.24 The collection includes the fable of "Washing the Blackamoor white", although updating it and making the Ethiopian 'a black footman'. In 1856 William Martin Leake repeated the false etymological linkage of "Aesop" with "Aethiop" when he suggested that the "head of a negro" found on several coins from ancient Delphi (with specimens dated as early as 520 BC)25 might depict Aesop, presumably to commemorate (and atone for) his execution at Delphi,26 but Theodor Panofka supposed the head to be a portrait of Delphos, founder of Delphi,27 a view more widely repeated by later historians.28
The idea that Aesop was Ethiopian has been further encouraged by the presence of camels, elephants, and apes in the fables, even though these African elements are more likely to have come from Egypt and Libya than from Ethiopia, and the fables featuring African animals may have entered the body of Aesopic fables long after Aesop actually lived.29 Nevertheless, in 1932 the anthropologist J.H. Driberg, repeating the Aesop/Aethiop linkage, asserted that, while "some say he [Aesop] was a Phrygian... the more general view... is that he was an African", and "if Aesop was not an African, he ought to have been;"30 and in 2002 Richard A. Lobban cited the number of African animals and "artifacts" in the Aesopic fables as "circumstantial evidence" that Aesop may have been a Nubian folkteller.31
Popular perception of Aesop as black may have been further encouraged by a perceived similarity between fables of the trickster Br'er Rabbit, told by African-American slaves, and the traditional role of the slave Aesop as "a kind of culture hero of the oppressed, and the Life of Aesop as a how-to handbook for the successful manipulation of superiors."32 This is reinforced by the 1971 TV production Aesop's Fables33 in which Bill Cosby played Aesop. In this mixture of live action and animation, two black children wander into an enchanted grove, where Aesop tells them fables that differentiate between realistic and unrealistic ambition. His version there of "The Tortoise and the Hare" illustrates how to take advantage of an opponent's over-confidence.34
On other continents Aesop has occasionally undergone a degree of acculturation. This is evident in Isango Portobello's 2010 production of the play Aesop's Fables at the Fugard Theatre in Cape Town, South Africa. Based on a script by British playwright Peter Terson (1983),35 it was radically adapted by the director Mark Dornford-May as a musical using native African instrumentation, dance and stage conventions.36 Although Aesop is portrayed as Greek, and dressed in the short Greek tunic, the all-black production contextualises the story in the recent history of South Africa. The former slave, we are told "learns that liberty comes with responsibility as he journeys to his own freedom, joined by the animal characters of his parable-like fables."37 One might compare with this Brian Seward's Aesop's Fabulous Fables38 (2009), which first played in Singapore with a cast of mixed ethnicities. In it Chinese theatrical routines are merged with those of a standard musical.39
There had already been an example of Asian acculturation in 17th-century Japan. There Portuguese missionaries had introduced a translation of the fables (Esopo no Fabulas, 1593) that included the biography of Aesop. This was then taken up by Japanese printers and taken through several editions under the title Isopo Monogatari. Even when Europeans were expelled from Japan and Christianity proscribed, this text survived, in part because the figure of Aesop had been assimilated into the culture and depicted in woodcuts as dressed in Japanese costume.4041
Ancient sources mention two statues of Aesop, one by Aristodemus and another by Lysippus,42 and Philostratus describes a painting of Aesop surrounded by the animals of his fables.43 None of these images have survived. According to Philostratus
The Fables are gathering about Aesop, being fond of him because he devotes himself to them. For... he checks greed and rebukes insolence and deceit, and in all this some animal is his mouthpiece — a lion or a fox or a horse... and not even the tortoise is dumb — that through them children may learn the business of life. So the Fables, honoured because of Aesop, gather at the doors of the wise man to bind fillets about his head and to crown him with a victor’s crown of wild olive. And Aesop, methinks, is weaving some fable; at any rate his smile and his eyes fixed on the ground indicate this. The painter knows that for the composition of fables relaxation of the spirit is needed. And the painting is clever in representing the persons of the Fables. For it combines animals with men to make a chorus about Aesop, composed of the actors in his fables; and the fox is painted as leader of the chorus.44
With the advent of printing in Europe, various illustrators tried to recreate this scene. One of the earliest was in Spain's La vida del Ysopet con sus fabulas historiadas (1489, see above). In France there was I. Baudoin's Fables d’Ésope Phrygien (1631) and Matthieu Guillemot's Les images ou tableaux de platte peinture des deux Philostrates (1637).45 In England there was Francis Cleyn's frontispiece to John Ogilby's The Fables of Aesop46 and the much later frontispiece to Godwin's Fables Ancient and Modern mentioned above in which the swarthy fabulist points out three of his characters to the children seated about him.
Early on, the representation of Aesop as an ugly slave emerged. The later tradition which makes Aesop a black African resulted in depictions ranging from 17th-century engravings to a television portrayal by a black comedian. In general, beginning in the 20th century, plays have shown Aesop as a slave, but not ugly, while movies and television shows (such as The Bullwinkle Show47) have depicted him as neither ugly nor a slave.
In 1843, the archaeologist Otto Jahn suggested that Aesop was the person depicted on a Greek red-figure cup,48 c.450 BC, in the Vatican Museums.49 Paul Zanker describes the figure as a man with "emaciated body and oversized head... furrowed brow and open mouth", who "listens carefully to the teachings of the fox sitting before him. He has pulled his mantle tightly around his meager body, as if he were shivering... he is ugly, with long hair, bald head, and unkempt, scraggly beard, and is clearly uncaring of his appearance."50 Some archaeologists have suggested that the Hellenistic statue of a bearded hunchback with an intellectual appearance, discovered in the 18th century and pictured at the head of this article, also depicts Aesop, although alternative identifications have since been put forward.51
Aesop began to appear equally early in literary works. The 4th-century-BC Athenian playwright Alexis put Aesop on the stage in his comedy "Aesop", of which a few lines survive (Athenaeus 10.432);52 conversing with Solon, Aesop praises the Athenian practice of adding water to wine.53 Leslie Kurke suggests that Aesop may have been "a staple of the comic stage" of this era.54
The 3rd-century-BC poet Poseidippus of Pella wrote a narrative poem entitled "Aesopia" (now lost), in which Aesop's fellow slave Rhodopis (under her original name Doricha) was frequently mentioned, according to Athenaeus 13.596.55 Pliny would later identify Rhodopis as Aesop's lover,56 a romantic motif that would be repeated in subsequent popular depictions of Aesop.
Aesop plays a fairly prominent part in Plutarch's conversation piece "The Banquet of the Seven Sages" in the 1st century AD and is there identified as the teller of amusing but moralistic fables.57 The fabulist then makes a cameo appearance in the novel A True Story by the 2nd-century satirist Lucian; when the narrator arrives at the Island of the Blessed, he finds that "Aesop the Phrygian was there, too; he acts as their jester."58
Beginning with the Heinrich Steinhowel edition of 1476, many translations of the fables into European languages, which also incorporated Planudes' Life of Aesop, featured illustrations depicting him as a hunchback. The 1687 edition of Aesop's Fables with His Life: in English, French and Latin59 included 28 engravings by Francis Barlow which show him as a dwarfish hunchback (see in the section above), and his facial features appear to accord with his statement in the text (p. 7), "I am a Negro".
The Spaniard Diego Velázquez painted a portrait of Aesop, dated 1639-40 and now in the collection of the Museo del Prado. The presentation is anachronistic and Aesop, while arguably not handsome, displays no physical deformities. It was partnered by another portrait of Menippus, a satirical philosopher equally of slave-origin. A similar philosophers series was painted by fellow Spaniard Jusepe de Ribera,60 who is credited with two portraits of Aesop. "Aesop, poet of the fables" is in the El Escorial gallery and pictures him as an author leaning on a staff by a table which holds copies of his work, one of them a book with the name Hissopo on the cover.61 The other is in the Museo de Prado, dated 1640-50 and titled "Aesop in beggar’s rags". There he is also shown at a table, holding a sheet of paper in his left hand and writing with the other.62 While the former hints at his lameness and deformed back, the latter only emphasises his poverty.
In 1690, French playwright Edmé Boursault's Les fables d'Esope (later known as Esope à la ville) premiered in Paris. A sequel, Esope à la cour63 (Aesop at Court), was first performed in 1701; drawing on a mention in Herodotus 2.134-564 that Aesop had once been owned by the same master as Rhodopis, and the statement in Pliny 36.1765 that she was Aesop's concubine as well, the play introduced Rodope as Aesop's mistress, a romantic motif that would be repeated in later popular depictions of Aesop.
Sir John Vanbrugh's comedy "Aesop"66 was premièred at the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, London, in 1697 and was frequently performed there for the next twenty years. A translation and adaptation of Boursault's Les fables d'Esope, Vanbrugh's play depicted a physically ugly Aesop acting as adviser to Learchus, governor of Cyzicus under King Croesus, and using his fables to solve romantic problems and quiet political unrest.67
In 1780, the anonymously authored novelette The History and Amours of Rhodope was published in London. The story casts the two slaves Rhodope and Aesop as unlikely lovers, one ugly and the other beautiful; ultimately Rhodope is parted from Aesop and marries the Pharaoh of Egypt. Some editions of the volume were illustrated with an engraving by Francesco Bartolozzi of a work by the painter Angelica Kauffmann. Titled "The beautiful Rhodope in love with Aesop", it pictures Rhodope leaning on an urn; she holds out her hand to Aesop, who is seated under a tree and turns his head to look at her. His right arm rests on a cage of doves, towards which he gestures. There is some ambiguity here, for while the cage suggests the captive state of both of them, a raven perched outside the cage may allude to his supposed colour.68 In fact, the whole picture is planned to suggest how different the couple are. Rhodope and Aesop lean on opposite elbows, gesture with opposite hands, and while Rhodope's hand is held palm upwards, Aesop's is held palm downwards. She stands while he sits; he is dressed in dark clothes, she in white.
Abandoning the perennial image of Aesop as an ugly slave, the movie Night in Paradise70 (1946) cast Turhan Bey in the role, depicting Aesop as an advisor to King Croesus who falls in love with the king's intended bride, a Persian princess played by Merle Oberon. There was also the 1953 teleplay Aesop and Rhodope71 by Helene Hanff, broadcast on Hallmark Hall of Fame with Lamont Johnson playing Aesop.
A raposa e as uvas ("The Fox and the Grapes"), a play in three acts about the life of Aesop by Brazilian dramatist Guilherme Figueiredo, was published in 1953 and has been performed in many countries, including a videotaped production in China in 2000 under the title Hu li yu pu tao or 狐狸与葡萄.72
Beginning in 1959, animated shorts under the title Aesop and Son appeared as a recurring segment in the TV series Rocky and His Friends and its successor, The Bullwinkle Show.4773 The image of Aesop as ugly slave was abandoned; Aesop (voiced by Charles Ruggles), a Greek citizen, would recount a fable for the edification of his son, Aesop Jr., who would then deliver the moral in the form of an atrocious pun. Aesop's 1998 appearance in the episode "Hercules and the Kids"74 in the animated TV series Hercules75 (voiced by Robert Keeshan) amounted to little more than a cameo.
Occasions on which Aesop is portrayed as black include Richard Durham's76 "Destination Freedom" radio show broadcast (1949), where the drama "The Death of Aesop,"77 portrays him as an Ethiopian. In 1971, Bill Cosby played Aesop in the TV production Aesop's Fables.33
The musical Aesop's Fables by British playwright Peter Terson was first produced in 1983.35 In 2010, the play was staged at the Fugard Theatre in Cape Town, South Africa with Mhlekahi Mosiea as Aesop.
- Lobban, 2004, pp. 8-9.
- William Hansen, review of Vita Aesopi: Ueberlieferung, Sprach und Edition einer fruehbyzantinischen Fassung des Aesopromans by Grammatiki A. Karla in Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2004.09.39.
- Leslie Kurke, "Aesop and the Contestation of Delphic Authority", in The Cultures Within Ancient Greek Culture: Contact, Conflict, Collaboration, ed. Carol Dougherty and Leslie Kurke, p. 77.
- François Lissarrague, "Aesop, Between Man and Beast: Ancient Portraits and Illustrations", in Not the Classical Ideal: Athens and the Construction of the Other in Greek Art, ed. Beth Cohen (hereafter, Lissarrague), p. 133.
- Lissarrague, p. 113.
- BNP 1:257; West, p. 121; Hägg, p. 47.
- Hägg, p. 47; also West, p. 122.
- Athenaeus 13.82.
- Plato, Phaedo 61b.
- Diogenes Laertius, Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers 2.5.42: "He also composed a fable, in the style of Aesop, not very artistically, and it begins—Aesop one day did this sage counsel give / To the Corinthian magistrates: not to trust / The cause of virtue to the people's judgment."
- Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights 2.29.
- Perry, Ben E. Demetrius of Phalerum and the Aesopic Fables, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Vol. 93, 1962, pp.287–346
- Ausonius, Epistles 12.
- BNP 1:258–9; West; Niklas Holzberg, The Ancient Fable: An Introduction, pp. 12–13; see also Ainoi, Logoi, Mythoi: Fables in Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic Greek by Gert-Jan van Dijk and History of the Graeco-Latin Fable by Francisco Rodriguez Adrado.
- The Aesop Romance, translated by Lloyd W. Daly, in Anthology of Ancient Greek Popular Literature, ed. William Hansen, p. 111.
- Papademetriou, pp. 14-15.
- Himerius, Orations 46.4, translated by Robert J. Penella in Man and the Word: The Orations of Himerius, p. 250.
- See Lissarrage; Papademetriou; Compton, Victim of the Muses; Lefkowitz, "Ugliness and Value in the Life of Aesop" in Kakos: Badness and Anti-value in Classical Antiquity ed. Sluiter and Rosen.
- Lobban, 2004, pp. 8-9.
- "... niger, unde & nomen adeptus est (idem enim Aesopus quod Aethiops)" is one Latin translation of Planudes' Greek; see Aesopi Phrygis Fabulae, p. 9.
- Tho. Philipott (translating Planudes), Aesop's Fables with His Life: in English, French and Latin, pp. 1 and 7.
- Gert-Jan van Dijk, "Aesop" entry in The Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece, ed. Nigel Wilson, p. 18.
- Frank M. Snowden, Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (hereafter Snowden), p. 264.
- Godwin then used the nom de plume of Edward Baldwin. The cover can be viewed online
- Ancient Coins of Phocis web page, accessed 11-12-2010.
- William Martin Leake, Numismata Hellenica: A Catalogue of Greek Coins, p. 45.
- Theodor Panofka, Antikenkranz zum fünften Berliner Winckelmannsfest: Delphi und Melaine, p. 7; an illustration of the coin in question follows p. 16.
- Snowden, pp. 150-51 and 307-8.
- Robert Temple, Introduction to Aesop: The Complete Fables, pp. xx-xxi.
- Driberg, 1932.
- Lobban, 2002.
- Kurke 2010, pp. 11-12.
- Aesop's Fables at the Internet Movie Database
- Available in two sections, beginning at "The Tortoise and the Hare" at YouTube
- "Playwrights and Their Stage Works: Peter Terson". 4-wall.com. 1932-02-24. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- ""Backstage with 'Aesop's Fables' Director Mark Dornford-May", ''Sunday Times'' (Cape Town), June 7, 2010". Timeslive.co.za. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "Aesop's Fables at the Fugard" (online listing); there are also short publicity excerpts on YouTube here  and here 
- "Doollee.com". Doollee.com. 2002-11-15. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- There are short excerpts on YouTube here.
- Elisonas, J.S.A. "Fables and Imitations: Kirishitan literature in the forest of simple letters", Bulletin of Portuguese Japanese Studies, Lisbon, 2002, pp.13-17
- Marceau, Lawrence. From Aesop to Esopo to Isopo: Adapting the Fables in Late Medieval Japan, 2009. See abstract at p. 277.
- van Dijk, Geert. "Aesop" in Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece, New York 2006, p.18
- BNP 1:257.
- "'Imagines' 1.3". Theoi.com. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- Antonio Bernat Vistarini, Tamás Sajó: Imago Veritatis. La circulación de la imagen simbólica entre fábula y emblema, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Studia Aurea 5 (2007), figures 2 and 1
- "British Museum site". Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- The Bullwinkle Show at the Internet Movie Database
- "Kids.britannica.com". Kids.britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- Lissarrague, p.137.
- Paul Zanker, The Mask of Socrates, pp. 33-34.
- The question is discussed by Lisa Trentin in "What's in a hump? Re-examining the hunchback in the Villa-Albani-Torlonia" in The Cambridge Classical Journal (New Series) December 2009 55 : pp 130-156; available as an academic reprint online
- "Digicoll.library.wisc.edu". Digicoll.library.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- Attribution of these lines to Aesop is conjectural; see the reference and footnote in Kurke 2010, p 356.
- Kurke 2010, p. 356.
- "Digicoll.library.wisc.edu". Digicoll.library.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "Pliny 36.17". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- Moralia vol. II Loeb translation
- Lucian, Verae Historiae (A True Story) 2.18 (Reardon translation).
- "Magic.lib.msu.edu". Magic.lib.msu.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- There is a note on another from this series on the Christies site
- "Lessing-photo.com". Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "Fineart-china.com". Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- Books.google.co.uk. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "Old.perseus.tufts.edu". Old.perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "Perseus.tufts.edu". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "Archive.org". Archive.org. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- Mark Loveridge, A History of Augustan Fable (hereafter Loveridge), pp. 166-68.
- View online; there is a copy in the Metropolitan Museum, NY
- The second of these is included in Selections from the Imaginary conversations of Walter Savage Landor, New York 1899, archived online, pp.1-14
- Night in Paradise at the Internet Movie Database
- Aesop and Rhodope at the Internet Movie Database
- Figueiredo, Guilherme. "Hu li yu pu tao". youku.com. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- Rocky and His Friends at the Internet Movie Database
- "Hercules and the Kids" at the Internet Movie Database
- Hercules at the Internet Movie Database
- "Destination Freedom". RichardDurham.com. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- "The Death of Aesop". RichardDurham.com. 1949-02-13. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
- Adrado, Francisco Rodriguez, 1999-2003. History of the Graeco-Latin Fable (three volumes). Leiden/Boston: Brill Academic Publishers.
- Cancik, Hubert, et al., 2002. Brill's New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World. Leiden/Boston: Brill Academic Publishers.
- Cohen, Beth (editor), 2000. Not the Classical Ideal: Athens and the Construction of the Other in Greek Art. Leiden/Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. Includes "Aesop, Between Man and Beast: Ancient Portraits and Illustrations" by François Lissarrague.
- Dougherty, Carol and Leslie Kurke (editors), 2003. The Cultures Within Ancient Greek Culture: Contact, Conflict, Collaboration. Cambridge University Press. Includes "Aesop and the Contestation of Delphic Authority" by Leslie Kurke.
- Driberg, J.H., 1932. "Aesop", The Spectator, vol. 148 #5425, June 18, 1932, pp. 857–8.
- Hansen, William (editor), 1998. Anthology of Ancient Greek Popular Literature. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Includes The Aesop Romance (The Book of Xanthus the Philosopher and Aesop His Slave or The Career of Aesop), translated by Lloyd W. Daly.
- Hägg, Tomas, 2004. Parthenope: Selected Studies in Ancient Greek Fiction (1969-2004). Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press. Includes Hägg's "A Professor and his Slave: Conventions and Values in The Life of Aesop", first published in 1997.
- Hansen, William, 2004. Review of Vita Aesopi: Ueberlieferung, Sprach und Edition einer fruehbyzantinischen Fassung des Aesopromans by Grammatiki A. Karla. Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2004.09.39.
- Holzberg, Niklas, 2002. The Ancient Fable: An Introduction, translated by Christine Jackson-Holzberg. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University press.
- Keller, John E., and Keating, L. Clark, 1993. Aesop's Fables, with a Life of Aesop. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press. English translation of the first Spanish edition of Aesop from 1489, La vida del Ysopet con sus fabulas historiadas including original woodcut illustrations; the Life of Aesop is a version from Planudes.
- Kurke, Leslie, 2010. Aesopic Conversations: Popular Tradition, Cultural Dialogue, and the Invention of Greek Prose. Princeton University Press.
- Leake, William Martin, 1856. Numismata Hellenica: A Catalogue of Greek Coins. London: John Murray.
- Loveridge, Mark, 1998. A History of Augustan Fable. Cambridge University Press.
- Lobban, Richard A., Jr., 2002. "Was Aesop a Nubian Kummaji (Folkteller)?", Northeast African Studies, 9:1 (2002), pp. 11–31.
- Lobban, Richard A., Jr., 2004. Historical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval Nubia. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press.
- Panofka, Theodor, 1849. Antikenkranz zum fünften Berliner Winckelmannsfest: Delphi und Melaine. Berlin: J. Guttentag.
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- Perry, Ben Edwin (translator), 1965. Babrius and Phaedrus. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
- Philipott, Tho. (translator), 1687. Aesop's Fables with His Life: in English, French and Latin. London: printed for H. Hills jun. for Francis Barlow. Includes Philipott's English translation of Planudes' Life of Aesop with illustrations by Francis Barlow.
- Reardon, B.P. (editor), 1989. Collected Ancient Greek Novels. Berkeley: University of California Press. Includes An Ethiopian Story by Heliodorus, translated by J.R. Morgan, and A True Story by Lucian, translated by B.P. Reardon.
- Snowden, Jr., Frank M., 1970. Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
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- Wilson, Nigel, 2006. Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. New York: Routledge.
- Zanker, Paul, 1995. The Mask of Socrates: The Image of the Intellectual in Antiquity. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Anonymous, 1780. The History and Amours of Rhodope. London: Printed for E.M Diemer.
- Caxton, William, 1484. The history and fables of Aesop, Westminster. Modern reprint edited by Robert T. Lenaghan (Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 1967). Includes Caxton's Epilogue to the Fables, dated March 26, 1484.
- Compton, Todd, 1990. "The Trial of the Satirist: Poetic Vitae (Aesop, Archilochus, Homer) as Background for Plato's Apology", The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 111, No. 3 (Autumn, 1990), pp. 330–347. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Daly, Lloyd W., 1961. Aesop without Morals: The Famous Fables, and a Life of Aesop, Newly Translated and Edited. New York and London: Thomas Yoseloff. Includes Daly's translation of The Aesop Romance.
- Gibbs, Laura. "Life of Aesop: The Wise Fool and the Philosopher", Journey to the Sea (online journal), issue 9, March 1, 2009.
- Sluiter, Ineke and Rosen, Ralph M. (editors), 2008. Kakos: Badness and Anti-value in Classical Antiquity. Mnemosyne: Supplements. History and Archaeology of Classical Antiquity; 307. Leiden/Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. Includes "Ugliness and Value in the Life of Aesop" by Jeremy B. Lefkowitz.
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- Vita Aesopi Online resources for the Life of Aesop
- Aesopica.net Over 600 fables in English, with Latin and Greek texts also; searchable
- Works by Aesop on Open Library at the Internet Archive