|• Mayor||Saeed Mombeini|
|• city||528 km2 (204 sq mi)|
|Elevation||17 m (52 ft)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|• Density||2,100/km2 (5,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IRST (UTC+3:30)|
|• Summer (DST)||IRDT (UTC+4:30)|
|Area code(s)||(+98) 611|
Ahvāz1 (Persian: اهواز, also romanized as Ahwaz), is a city in and the capital of Khuzestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 1,432,965, in 796,239 families.2 Ahvaz has the world's worst air pollution according to a survey by the World Health Organization in 2011.3
Ahwaz is built on the banks of the Karun River and is situated in the middle of Khūzestān Province. The city has an average elevation of 20 meters above sea level.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Location and roads
- 3 Pollution
- 4 History
- 5 Religion
- 6 Contemporary Ahvaz
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Sport
- 9 Colleges and universities
- 10 Some famous Ahwazis
- 11 Gallery
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The word Ahwaz is a Persianized form, which in turn itself is derived from a Persian word. The Dehkhoda Dictionary specifically defines the Arabic "Suq-al-Ahwaz" as "Market of the Khuzis", where "Suq" is the Arabic word for market, and "Ahwaz" is a broken plural (اسم جمع) of the form "af'āl" (افعال) of the word "Huz", which itself comes from the Persian Huz, from Achaemenid inscriptions where the term first appears. Thus, "Ahwaz" in Arabic means "the Huz-i people", which refers to the non-Arabic original inhabitants of Khūzestān.
The term "Huz", meanwhile, is the Old Persian rendition of Suz (Susa-Susiana), the native Elamite name of the region. Old Persian commonly changed the initial "s" in a foreign word into an "h," most famously, in its rendition of the name the river and the people Sindh/Sindhi into Hind/Hindi, which was then Hellenized into Indus, whence India.citation needed See Origin of the name Khuzestan and Elam#Etymology for more details.
Ahvaz located 100 km north-east of Abadan and is accessible via following routes in addition of a single runway airport:
- Tehran-Khorramshahr national railway
- Ahvaz-Abadan expressway (145 km)
- Ahvaz-Andimeshk (152 km) expressway
- Ahvaz-Bandar Imam Khomeini freeway (175 km).
Ahvaz being the largest city in the province consists of two distinctive districts: the newer part of Ahvaz, the administrative and industrial center, has been built on the right bank of the Karun while residential areas are found in the old section of the city, on the left bank.
Ahvaz has a desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) with long, very hot summers and mild, short winters. Ahvaz is consistently one of the hottest cities on the planet during the summer, with summer temperatures regularly at least 45 degrees celsius, sometimes exceeding 50 degrees Celsius with many sandstorms and duststorms common during the summer period while in winters the minimum temperature could fall around +5 degrees Celsius. Winters in Ahvaz have no snow. The average annual rainfall is around 230 mm.
|Climate data for Ahvaz|
|Average high °C (°F)||17.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||11.9
|Average low °C (°F)||6.5
|Precipitation mm (inches)||52.8
|Avg. precipitation days||6.8||5.4||5.4||4.2||1.6||0.1||0.0||0.1||0.0||1.9||4.3||6.0||35.8|
|Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN)5|
For a more comprehensive historical treatment of the area, see the history section of Khūzestān Province.
Ahvaz is the anagram of "Avaz" and "Avaja" which appear in Darius's epigraph. This word appears in Naqsh-Rostam inscription as "Khaja" or "Khooja" too.citation needed
First named Ōhrmazd-Ardašēr (Persian: هرمزداردشیر) (Roamn Hormizdartazir)7 it was built near the beginning of the Sassanid dynasty on what historians believe to have been the site of the old city of Taryana, a notable city under the Persian Achaemenid dynasty. It was founded either by Ardashir I in 230 (cf. Encyclopædia Iranica, al-Muqaddasi, et al.) or (according to the Middle Persian Šahrestānīhā ī Ērānšahr) by his grandson Hormizd I; the town's name either combined Ardashir's name with the Zoroastrian name for God, Ōhrmazd or Hormizd's name with that of his grandfather. It became the seat of the province, and was also referred to as Hūmšēr. During the Sassanid era, an irrigation system and several dams were constructed, and the city prospered. Examples of Sassanid-era dams are Band-e Bala-rud, Band-e Mizan, Band-e Borj Ayar and Band-e Khak. The city replaced Susa, the ancient capital of Susiana, as the capital of what was then called Khuzestān.
The city had two sections; the nobles of the city lived in one part while the other was inhabited by merchants.8 When the Arabs invaded the area in 640, the part of the city home to the nobility was demolished but the Hūj-ī-stānwāčār "Market of Khūz State", the merchant area, remained intact. The city was therefore renamed Sūq al-Ahwāz, "Market of the Khuz", a semi-literal translation of the Persian name of this quarter - Ahwāz being the Arabic broken plural of Hûz, taken from the ancient Persian term for the native Elamite peoples, Hūja (remaining in medieval khūzīg "of the Khuzh" and modern Khuzestān "Khuz State", as noted by Dehkhoda dictionary.
During the Umayyad and Abbasid eras, Ahvaz flourished as a center for the cultivation of sugarcane and as the home of many well-known scholars. It is discussed by such respected medieval historians and geographers as ibn Hawqal, Tabari, Istakhri, al-Muqaddasi, Ya'qubi, Masudi, and Mostowfi Qazvini. Nearby stood the Academy of Gundishapur, where the modern-day teaching hospital is said to have been first established.
Ahvaz was devastated in the bloody Mongol invasions of the 13th and 14th centuries and subsequently declined into a mere village. The dam and irrigation channels, no longer maintained, eroded and finally collapsed early in the 19th century. During this time Ahvaz was primarily inhabited by the original Khuzhis (Persians) and a small number of Sabians. Although most Arab migrants fled the city, a few stayed. Some minor cultivation continued, while all evidence of sugarcane plantations is still going on in Haft Teppe area in north of Ahvaz, although ruins of sugarcane mills from the medieval era remained in existence.9 Several ruins of water mills also still remain in Shoush and Shoushtar.
The seat of the province has for the most of its history been in the northern reaches of the land, first at Susa (Shush) and then at Shushtar. During a short spell in the Sasanian era, the capital of the province was moved to its geographical center, where the river town of Hormuz-Ardashir (modern Ahvaz). However, later in the Sasanian time and throughout the Islamic era, the provincial seat returned and stayed at Shushtar, until the late Qajar period. With the increase in the international sea commerce arriving on the shores of Khuzestan, Ahvaz became a more suitable location for the provincial capital. The River Karun is navigable all the way to Ahvaz (above which, the Karun flows through rapids). The town was thus refurbished by the order of the Qajar king, Naser al-Din Shah and renamed after him, Nâseri. Shushtar quickly declined, while Ahvaz/Nâseri prospered to the present day.
In the 19th century, "Ahvaz was no more than a small borough inhabited mainly by Sha'ab Arabs and a few Sabeans (1,500 to 2,000 inhabitants according to Ainsworth in 1835; 700 according to Curzon in 1890)."10
In the 1880s, under Qajar rule, the Karun River was dredged and re-opened to commerce. A newly built railway crossed the Karun at Ahvaz. The city again became a commercial crossroads, linking river and rail traffic. The construction of the Suez Canal further stimulated trade. A port city was built near the old village of Ahvaz, and named Bandar-e-Naseri in honor of Nassereddin Shah Qajar.
Oil was found near Ahvaz in the early 20th century, and the city once again grew and prospered as a result of this new found wealth. From 1897-1925, the city of Ahvaz was in the hands of heshmatoddoleh Ghajar, whom acted as governor and Sarhang Reza Gholi Khane Arghoon as commander of Ghajari's army based in Khuzestan. Khaz'al Khan/Sheikh Khaz'al was appointed by Mozaffareddin shah in Khorramshahr, Sardar Asad Bakhtiari as the most powerful leader of Khuzestan's Bakhtiaries. He had power and authority over most regions of Khuzestan, such as Dezful, Shushtar, Izeh, even Ahvaz and Amir mojahede bakhtiari in Ramhormoz and Behbahan. At this time, the newly founded Ahvaz was named Nâseri in honour to its founder Nassereddin Shah Qajar. Afterwards, during the Pahlavi period, it resumed its old name, Ahvaz. The government of the Khūzestān Province was transferred there from Shûshtar in 1926. The trans-Iranian railroad reached Ahvaz in 1929 and by the World War II, Ahvaz had become the principal built-up area of interior of Khūzestān. Professional segregation remained well marked between various groups in that period still feebly integrated: Persians, sub-groupings of Persians and Arabs. Natives of the Isfahan region held an important place in retail trade, owners of cafes and hotels and as craftsmen.11
Iraq attempted to annex Khūzestān and Ahvaz in 1980, resulting in the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988). Ahvaz was close to the front lines and suffered badly during the war.
Iraq had pressed its claims to Khūzestān in part because many of the inhabitants of the area spoke Arabic rather than Persian, the dominant language in Iran. Iraq had hoped to exacerbate ethnic tensions and win over popular support for the invaders. Most accounts say that the Iranian Arab inhabitants resisted the Iraqis rather than welcome them as liberators. However, some Iranian Arabs claim that as a minority they face discrimination from the central government; they agitate for the right to preserve their cultural and linguistic distinction and more provincial autonomy. See Politics of Khūzestān.
During the year 2005 the city witnessed a series of bomb explosions. Many government sources relate these events to developments in Iraq, accusing foreign governments of organising and funding Arab separatist groups.
Ahvaz is mostly inhabited by indigenous Arab groups, making up 75% of the total population. The majority of the inhabitants are Shi'ite forming 70%. The second largest religious group is the Sunni branch of Islam with 24% of the inhabitants following it. Other groups comprise about 1%12
In 1989, the Foolad Ahvaz steel facility was built close to the town. This company is best known for its company-sponsored football club, Foolad F.C., which was the chart-topper for Iran's Premier Football League in 2005. Ahvaz is also home to another IPL football team, Esteghlal Ahvaz F.C..
- Ahvaz is accessible via freeways from Isfahan and Shiraz, and roadways to Tehran.
- A metro urban railway system is being built by the Ahvaz urban railway. It will be a 23 km underground line with 24 stations.
- The airport is served by Iran Asseman Airlines (Dubai, Kuwait, Tehran, flying on Boeing 727-200s or Fokker F100s), Caspian Airlines (Dubai, by MD-80), Iran Air (Isfahan, Kuwait, Tehran, by Boeing 727-200 or Fokker 100), Iran Air Tours (Isfahan, Mashad, Shiraz, Tehran, by MD-80), Kish Air (Tehran, by MD-80), and Saha Air (Tehran, by Boeing 707-300).
Traditionally, Khuzestan province has been a major soccer hub in Iran. The city has two existing sport complexes: Takhti Stadium and a newly constructed stadium Ghadir Stadium. There are several other smaller complexes for martial arts, swimming pools and gymnasiums. Also, a new privately owned stadium is currently under construction by Foolad F.C. in Ahvaz.
Football is a major part of the city's culture. The numerous enthusiasm has made Ahvaz home to three Iranian major Football clubs: Foolad F.C., Esteghlal Khuzestan F.C. are currently playing in Iran Pro League, and Esteghlal Ahvaz F.C. is playing in Azadegan League.
Ahvaz is also known for its universities as well as its role in commerce and industry. Ahvaz institutes of higher learning include:
- Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences
- Petroleum University of Technology
- Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
- Islamic Azad University Ahvaz Science and Research center (Persian)13
- Abu Nuwas, poet
- Abu Saeid Al Zergani, an Arabic singer
- Ahmad Mahmoud, novelist
- Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi, physician
- Ali Shamkhani, Iranian Minister of Defense (1997–2005)
- Alwan Alshowaya, a singer from Ahwaz, and the inventor of the Arabic singing Style “ Alwanie”, which became known as his name.
- Amirreza Amirbakhtiar, Political activist
- Belal Taheri, first Iranian who elected in IVU, independent filmmaker and distributor, human rights activist
- Ezzat Negahban, patriarch of modern Iranian archaeology
- Hamed Haddadi, NBA basketball player
- Hamid Dabashi, intellectual historian, cultural and literary critic
- Hamid Zangeneh, economist, author, and activist
- Hossein Kaebi, national football player
- Jalal Kameli Mofrad, national football player
- Jamal Mayahi, Marine engineer, oil tankers, shipping expert and advisor
- Khaz'al al-Ka'bi, the ruler of the semi-autonomous Sheikhdom of "Khuzestan"
- Ali Hashemi, General and commander in the Iran–Iraq War
- Malileh Farshid, architect
- Maryam Heydari, a figure in Arabic poetry and Persian poetry
- Mehdi Yarahi, an Arabic and Persian singer
- Mehrangiz Kar, Human rights activist
- Mohammad Hossein Adeli, Iranian Economist and Diplomat
- Mohammad Mousavi, Ney soloist
- Mohammad-Reza Eskandari, Iran's former minister of Agriculture
- Muhammad ibn Falah
- Naubakht, astronomer
- Parviz Abnar, Iranian Sound recordist
- Patrick Monahan, British comedian
- Manuchehr Shahrokhi, Professor of Finance, California State University; Editor, Global Finance Journal; Executive Director, Global Finance Association-Conference
- Sousan S. Altaie, PhD Scientific Policy Advisor, OIVD CDRH, FDA
Rumi statue located in the front of the faculty of letters and humanities of the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
- History of Iran
- Khūzestān Province
- Mandaeism, Mandaic language
- Politics of Khūzestān
- Takhti Stadium (Ahvaz)
- Choqa Zanbil
- Ahvāz; Encyclopædia Britannica
- "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" (Excel). Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original on 2011-11-11.
- Guinness World Records 2013, Page 036 (Hardcover edition). ISBN 9781904994879
- Bar Bahlul, Hasan. "Bar Bahlul Dictionary". Retrieved 1 February 2012.
- "World Weather Information Service – Ahvaz". United Nations. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
- Walsh, Bryan (27 September 2011). "The 10 Most Air-Polluted Cities in the World". Time. Retrieved 2012-02-25.
- Dodgeon M. H. and Lieu S. N. C., The Roman Eastern Frontier and The Persian Wars; A Documentary History, London (1991), p.35; ISBN 0-415-10317-7
- cf. Encyclopædia Iranica
- X. de Planhol, Encyclopædia Iranica
- Encyclopædia Iranica, p.690, see entry: Ahvaz
- Ibid, p.690
- "Ahwaz the arab spring's forgotten uprising news and discussion.". Pakistan Defence. Retrieved 2014-04-16.
- Pirnia, Mansoureh. Salar Zanana Iran. 1995. Maryland: Mehran Iran Publishing.
- أعیان الشیعة ۱۰/۳۰۶.
- تاریخ الأدب العربی /العهد العباسی/النقد الأدبی /أبو هلال العسکری
- سایت الحکواتی مرتبط با ادب عربی
- Foolad Ahvaz Football Club (Persian)