|Wives of Muhammad|
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‘Ā’ishah bint Abī Bakr (b. 613/614 CE12 – d. 678 CE3) (Arabic: عائشة transliteration: ‘Ā’ishah, [ʕaːʔiʃa], also transcribed as A'ishah, Aisyah, Ayesha, A'isha, Aishat, Aishah, or Aisha) was one of Muhammad's wives.4 In Islamic writings, her name is thus often prefixed by the title "Mother of the Believers" (Arabic: أمّ المؤمنين umm al-mu'minīn), per the description of Muhammad's wives in the Quran.567
Traditional sources state that Aisha was married to Muhammad at the age of six, but she stayed in her parents' home until the age of nine, when the marriage was consummated with Muhammad, then 53, in Medina;8910 with the exception of al-Tabari who records that she was ten years old.11
According to Sunni views, Aisha had an important role in early Islamic history, both during Muhammad's life and after his death. She was an active figure in numerous events and an important witness to many more. Aisha contributed to the growth, development, and understanding of Islam. Being a role model to a significant amount of others added to her attributions as a consultant regarding Muhammad's prayer and practices, soon introducing herself into a world of politics.12
After Muhammad, Aisha was readily involved in continuing his message. She was present through the reigns of at least the first four caliphs. Her father, Abu Bakr, became the first caliph to succeed Muhammad. The second caliph ‘Umar succeeded Abū Bakr. During the time of the third caliph's reign Aisha rebelled. She did not fully approve of Uthman ibn Affan's practices on many occasions. During the reign of Ali, the fourth caliph she wanted to avenge Uthman's death, which she attempted to do in the Battle of the Camel. She participated in the battle by giving speeches and leading troops on the back of her camel. She ended up losing the battle, but her involvement and determination left a lasting impression.7
- 1 Early life
- 2 Personal life
- 3 Political career
- 4 Death
- 5 Views
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Aisha was born in late 613 or early 614 12 She was the daughter of Umm Ruman and Abu Bakr of Mecca, two of the Muhammad's most trusted companions.13 Aisha was the third and youngest wife of Muhammad.13 One of Muhammad's first encounters with Aisha was by her house. Muhammad found her "crying bitterly" because her parents had disciplined her. Muhammad was affected by her tears and, in an effort to stop her from crying, asked her mother to "be gentle with the child for his sake."14
The idea to match Aisha with Muhammad was suggested by Khawlah bint Hakim.1516 After this, the previous agreement regarding the marriage of Aisha with Jubayr ibn Mut'im was put aside by common consent. Abu Bakr was uncertain at first "as to the propriety or even legality of marrying his daughter to his "brother." "16 British historian William Montgomery Watt suggests that Muhammad hoped to strengthen his ties with Abu Bakr;17 the strengthening of ties commonly served as a basis for marriage in Arabian culture.18
According to traditional sources, Aisha was six or seven years old when she was married to Muhammad and nine when the marriage was consummated.8910111719 However, al-Ṭabarī records that she was ten.11 Muhammad Ali, an Ahmadiyya leader, challenged the notion that Aisha was as young as the traditional sources claim; arguing that according to the compiler of the hadith collection Mishkat al-Masabih, Wali-ud-Din Muhammad ibn Abdullah Al-Khatib, Aisha would be nineteen years old around the time of her marriage.20
The issue of Aisha's age at the time she was married to Muhammad has been of interest since the earliest days of Islam, and references to her age by early historians are frequent.11 American historian Denise Spellberg states that "these specific references to the bride's age reinforce Aisha's pre-menarcheal status and, implicitly, her virginity."11 Early Muslims regarded Aisha's youth as demonstrating her virginity and therefore her suitability as a bride of Muhammad. This issue of her virginity was of great importance to those who supported Aisha's position in the debate of the succession to Muhammad. These supporters considered that as Muhammad's only virgin wife, Aisha was divinely intended for him, and therefore the most credible regarding the debate.23
In many Muslim traditions, Aisha is described as Muhammad's most beloved or favored wife after his first wife, Khadija bint Khuwaylid, who died before the migration to Medina took place.1224252627 There are several hadiths, or stories or sayings of Muhammad, that support this belief. One relates that when a companion asked Muhammad, "who is the person you love most in the world?" he responded, "Aisha."28 Others relate that Muhammad built Aisha’s apartment so that her door opened directly into the mosque,2930 and that she was the only woman with whom Muhammad received revelations.3132 They bathed in the same water and he prayed while she lay stretched out in front of him.33
There are also various traditions that reveal the mutual affection between Muhammad and Aisha. He would often just sit and watch her and her friends play with dolls, and on occasion he would even join them.343536 Additionally, they were close enough that each was able to discern the mood of the other, as many stories relate.3738 It is also important to note that there exists evidence that Muhammad did not view himself as entirely superior to Aisha, at least not enough to prevent Aisha from speaking her mind, even at the risk of angering Muhammad. On one such instance, Muhammad's "announcement of a revelation permitting him to enter into marriages disallowed to other men drew from her [Aisha] the retort, 'It seems to me your Lord hastens to satisfy your desire!'"39 Furthermore, Muhammad and Aisha had a strong intellectual relationship.40 Muhammad valued her keen memory and intelligence and so instructed his companions to draw some of their religious practices from her.41
The story of accusation of adultery levied against Aisha can be traced to sura (chapter) An-Nur of the Quran. As the story goes, Aisha left her howdah in order to search for a missing necklace. Her slaves mounted the howdah and prepared it for travel without noticing any difference in weight without Aisha's presence. Hence the caravan accidentally departed without her. She remained at the camp until the next morning, when Safwan bin al-Mu‘attal, a nomad and member of Muhammad's army, found her and brought her back to Muhammad at the army's next camp. Rumours that Aisha and Safwan had committed adultery were spread, particularly by Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy, Hassan ibn Thabit, Mistah ibn Uthatha and Hammanah bint Jahsh (sister of Zaynab bint Jahsh, another of Muhammad's wives). Usama ibn Zayd, son of Zayd ibn Harithah, defended Aisha's reputation, but Ali recommended that he divorce her. Muhammad came to speak directly with Aisha about the rumours. He was still sitting in her house when he announced that he had received a revelation from God confirming Aisha's innocence. Surah 24 details the Islamic laws and punishment regarding adultery and slander. Aisha's accusers were subjected to punishments of 80 lashes.42
After the daily Asr prayer, Muhammad would visit each of his wives' apartments to inquire about their well-being. Muhammad was just in the amount of time he spent with them and attention he gave to them.43 Once, Muhammad's fifth wife, Zaynab bint Jahsh, received some honey from a relative which Muhammad took a particular liking to. As a result, every time Zaynab offered some of this honey to him he would spend a longer time in her apartment. This did not sit well with Aisha and Hafsa bint Umar.
Hafsa and I decided that when the Prophet entered upon either of us, she would say, "I smell in you the bad smell of Maghafir (a bad smelling raisin). Have you eaten Maghafir?" When he entered upon one of us, she said that to him. He replied (to her), "No, but I have drunk honey in the house of Zainab bint Jahsh, and I will never drink it again."..."But I have drunk honey." Hisham said: It also meant his saying, "I will not drink anymore, and I have taken an oath, so do not inform anybody of that'
Soon after this event, Muhammad reported that he had received a revelation in which he was told that he could eat anything permitted by God. Some Sunni commentators on the Quran sometimes give this story as the "occasion of revelation" for At-Tahrim , which opens with the following verses:
O Prophet! Why holdest thou to be forbidden that which Allah has made lawful to thee? Thou seekest to please thy consorts. But Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Allah has already ordained for you, (O men), the dissolution of your oaths (in some cases): and Allah is your Protector, and He is Full of Knowledge and Wisdom.
Word spread to the small Muslim community that Muhammad's wives were speaking sharply to him and conspiring against him. Muhammad, saddened and upset, separated from his wives for a month. ‘Umar, Hafsa's father, scolded his daughter and also spoke to Muhammad of the matter. By the end of this time, his wives were humbled; they agreed to "speak correct and courteous words"46 and to focus on the afterlife.47
Aisha remained Muhammad's favorite wife throughout his life. When he became ill and suspected that he was probably going to die, he began to ask his wives whose apartment he was to stay in next. They eventually figured out that he was trying to determine when he was due with Aisha, and they then allowed him to retire there. He remained in Aisha's apartment until his death, and his last breath was taken as he lay in the arms of Aisha, his most beloved wife.4849505152
After Muhammad's death, which ended Aisha and Muhammad's 9 year-long marriage, Aisha lived fifty more years in and around Medina. Much of her time was spent learning and acquiring knowledge of the Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad. Aisha was one of three wives (the other two being Hafsa bint Umar and Umm Salama) who memorized the Quran. Like Hafsa, Aisha had her own script of the Quran written after Muhammad's death.53 During Aisha's life many prominent customs of Islam, such as veiling and seclusion of women, began.
Aisha's importance to revitalizing the Arab tradition and leadership among the Arab women highlights her magnitude within Islam.54 Aisha became involved in the politics of early Islam and the first three caliphate reigns: Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman. During a time in Islam when women were not expected, or wanted, to contribute outside of the household, Aisha delivered public speeches, became directly involved in war and even battles, and helped both men and women to understand the practices of Muhammad.12
After Muhammad's death in 632, Abu Bakr was appointed as the first caliph. This matter of succession to Muhammad is extremely controversial to the Shia who believe that Ali had been appointed by Muhammad to lead while Sunni maintain that the public elected Abu Bakr.55 Abu Bakr had two advantages in achieving his new role: his long personal friendship with Muhammad and his role as father-in-law. As caliph, Abu Bakr was the first to set guidelines for the new position of authority.56
Aisha garnered more special privilege in the Islamic community for being known as both a wife of Muhammad and the daughter of the first caliph. Being the daughter of Abu Bakr tied Aisha to honorable titles earned from her father's strong dedication to Islam. For example, she was given the title of al-siddiqa bint al-siddiq, meaning 'the truthful woman, daughter of the truthful man',11 a reference to Abu Bakr's support of the Isra and Mi'raj.citation needed
In 634 Abu Bakr fell sick and was unable to recover. Prior to his death, he appointed ‘Umar, one of his chief advisers, as the second caliph11 Throughout ‘Umar's time in power Aisha continued to play the role of a consultant in political matters.11
After ‘Umar died, ‘Uthmān was chosen to be the third caliph. He wanted to promote the interests of the Umayyads. Aisha had little involvement with ‘Uthmān for the first couple years, but eventually she found a way into the politics of his reign. She eventually grew to despise ‘Uthmān, and many are unsure of what specifically triggered her eventual opposition towards him. A prominent opposition that arose towards him was when ‘Uthmān mistreated ‘Ammar ibn Yasir (companion of Muhammad) by beating him. Aisha became enraged and spoke out publicly, saying, "How soon indeed you have forgotten the practice (sunnah) of your prophet and these, his hairs, a shirt, and sandal have not yet perished!".57
As time continued issues of antipathy towards ‘Uthmān continued to arise. Another instance of opposition arose when the people came to Aisha, after Uthmān ignored the rightful punishment for Walid idn Uqbah (Uthmān's brother). Aisha and Uthmān argued with each other, Uthmān eventually made a comment on why Aisha had come and how she was "ordered to stay at home".58 Arising from this comment, was the question of whether Aisha, and for that matter women, still had the ability to be involved in public affairs. The Muslim community became split: "some sided with Uthmān, but others demanded to know who indeed had better right than Aisha in such matters".58
The caliphate took a turn for the worse when Egypt was governed by Abdullah ibn Saad. Abbott reports that Muhammad ibn Abi Hudhayfa of Egypt, an opponent of ‘Uthmān, forged letters in the Mothers of the Believers' names to the conspirators against ‘Uthmān. The people cut off ‘Uthmān's water and food supply. When Aisha realized the behavior of the crowd, Abbott notes, Aisha could not believe the crowd "would offer such indignities to a widow of Mohammad".59 This refers to when Safiyya bint Huyayy (one of Muhammad's wives) tried to help ‘Uthmān and was taken by the crowd. Malik al-Ashtar then approached her about killing Uthmān and the letter, and she claimed she would never want to "command the shedding of the blood of the Muslims and the killing of their Imām";59 she also claimed she did not write the letters.60 The city continued to oppose ‘Uthmān, but as for Aisha, her journey to Mecca was approaching. With the journey to Mecca approaching at this time, she wanted to rid herself of the situation. ‘Uthmān heard of her not wanting to hurt him, and he asked her to stay because of her influence on the people, but this did not persuade Aisha, and she continued on her journey.7
Abu Bakr's reign was short, and in 634 he was succeeded by Umar, as caliph. Umar reigned for ten years, and was then followed by Uthman ibn Affan in 644. Both of these men had been among Muhammad's earliest followers, were linked to him by clanship and marriage, and had taken prominent parts in various military campaigns. Aisha, in the meantime, lived in Medina and made several pilgrimages to Mecca.
in 655, Uthman was murdered provoking the First Fitna.61 The rebels then asked Ali to be the new caliph. Many reports absolve Ali of complicity in the murder.6263 Ali is reported to have refused the caliphate. He agreed to rule only after his followers persisted.
When Ali could not execute those merely accused of Uthman's murder, Aisha delivered a fiery speech and the first to respond to Aisha was Abdullah ibn Aamar al-Hadhrami the governor of Mecca]] during the reign of Uthman and prominent members of the Banu Umayya. With the funds from the "Yemeni Treasury" Aisha set out on a campaign against the Rashidun Caliphate of Ali.citation needed
Aisha alongside an army with Zubayr ibn al-Awam and Talha ibn Ubayd-Allah confronted Ali's army demanding the prosecution of Uthman's killers which they were mingled in his army outside the city of Basra. When her forces captured Basra she ordered the execution of 600 Muslims and 40 others were executed in the Grand Mosque of Basra among them was Hakim ibn Jabala.646566 Aisha's forces are also known to have tortured and imprisoned Othman ibn Hanif the governor of Basra appointed by Ali.67
Professor Leila Ahmed claims that it was during this engagement that Muslims fought Muslims for the first time.68 Battle ensued and Aisha's forces were defeated. Aisha was directing her forces from a howdah on the back of a camel; this 656 battle is therefore called the Battle of the Camel during which 10,000 Muslims were killed.69
After 110 days of conflict the Rashidun Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib met Aisha with reconciliation. He sent her back to Medina under military escort headed by her brother Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, one of Ali's commanders. She subsequently retired to Medina with no more interference with the affairs of state she was also awarded a pension by Ali.70
Although she retired to Medina her forsaken efforts against the Rashidun Caliphate of Ali did not end the First Fitna.71
After 25 years of a monogamous relationship with his first wife, Khadija bint Khuwaylid, Muhammad participated in nine years of polygyny, marrying at least nine further wives. Muhammad's subsequent marriages were depicted purely as political matches rather than unions of sexual indulgence. In particular, Muhammad's unions with Aisha and Hafsa bint Umar associated him with two of the most significant leaders of the early Muslim community, Aisha's and Hafsa's fathers, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb, respectively.72
Aisha's marriage has given her significance among many within Islamic culture, becoming known as the most learned woman of her time. Being Muhammad's favorite wife, Aisha occupied an important position in his life.54 When Muhammad married Aisha in her youth, she was accessible "...to the values needed to lead and influence the sisterhood of Muslim women."73 After the death of Muhammad, Aisha was discovered to be a renowned source of hadiths, due to her qualities of intelligence and memory.54 Aisha conveyed ideas expressing Muhammad's practice (sunnah). She expressed herself as a role model to women, which can also be seen within some traditions attributed to her. The traditions regarding Aisha habitually opposed ideas unfavorable to women in efforts to elicit social change.74
Muhammad became a significantly powerful figure of the rapidly expanding Islamic community in 627 Due to this expansion, segregation of his wives was permitted to enforce their sacrosanct status. Veiling, which was seen as its most distinctive emblem, was not specifically enjoined upon Muslim women anywhere within the Quran. During the time of Muhammad's leadership, women of the ummah were not documented or observed as wearing hijab. Other than Muhammad's wives, women were not required to veil.72
After the death of Muhammad, Muslim women believed it was Muslim men, not Islam, that suppressed the rights of women. It was for that reason that Muslim feminists are advocating to return Islam to the society Muhammad had originally envisioned for his followers. Muhammad designated Muslim women as spiritual guides of Medinan society; they prayed and fought alongside Muslim men, and acted not only as religious leaders but political leaders, such as Aisha herself in the Battle of the Camel. United prayer gatherings of both men and women occurred near Muhammad's house, as they were blessed as a "single undivided community".75
Aisha played a key role in the emergence of Islam, and played an active position in social reform of the Islamic culture. Not only was she supportive of Muhammad, but she contributed scholarly intellect to the development of Islam.73 She was given the title al-Siddiqah, meaning 'the one who affirms the truth'. Aisha was known for her "...expertise in the Quran, shares of inheritance, lawful and unlawful matters, poetry, Arabic literature, Arab history, genealogy, and general medicine."73 Her intellectual contributions regarding the verbal texts of Islam were in time transcribed into written form, becoming the official history of Islam.76 After the death of Muhammad, Aisha was regarded as the most reliable source in the teachings of hadith.73 As she was Muhammad's favorite wife and a close companion, soon after his death the Islamic community began consulting Aisha on Muhammad's practices, and she was often used to settle disputes on demeanor and various points of law. Aisha's authentication of Muhammad's ways of prayer and his recitation of the Quran allowed for development of knowledge of his sunnah of praying and reading verses of the Quran.12
During Aisha's entire life she was a strong advocate for the education of Islamic women, especially in law and the teachings of Islam. She was known for establishing the first madrasa for women in her home.73 Attending Aisha's classes were various family relatives and orphaned children. Men also attended Aisha's classes, with a simple curtain separating the male and female students.73
As mentioned before, Aisha became an influential figure in early Islam after Muhammad's death. However, Aisha also had a strong political influence. Though Muhammad had ordered his wives to stay in the home, Aisha, after Muhammad's death, took a public and predominant role in politics. Some say that Aisha's political influence helped promote her father, Abu Bakr, to the caliphate after Muhammad's death.4
After the defeat at the Battle of the Camel, Aisha retreated to Medina and became a teacher.4 Upon her arrival in Medina, Aisha retired from her public role in politics. Her discontinuation of public politics, however, did not stop her political influence completely. Privately, Aisha continued influencing those intertwined in the Islamic political sphere. Amongst the Islamic community, she was known as an intelligent woman who debated law with male companions.77 Aisha was also considered to be the embodiment of proper rituals while partaking in the pilgrimage to Mecca, a journey she made with several groups of women. For the last two years of her life, Aisha spent much of her time telling the stories of Muhammad, hoping to correct false passages that had become influential in formulating Islamic law. Due to this, Aisha's political influence continues to impact those in Islam.4
Aisha died of disease at her home in Medina on 17 Ramadan 58 AH (16 July 678). She was 64 years old.3 Muhammad's companion Abu Hurairah led her funeral prayer after the tahajjud (night) prayer, and she was buried at Jannat al-Baqi‘.78
Sunnis believe she was Muhammad's favorite wife. They consider her (among other wives) to be Umm al-Mu’minin and among the members of the Ahl al-Bayt, or Muhammad's family.
The Shiah view of Aisha is a negative one. They accuse her of defying Ali ibn Abi-Taleb at the time of his caliphate for her actions during the Battle of the Camel when she was fighting the men who were responsible for the killing of the previous caliph Uthman who were among the army of Ali in Basra.79
- Abbott (1942, p. 1)
- Ibn Sa'd (1995, p. 55)
Aisha was born at the beginning of the fourth year of prophethood
- Al-Nasa'i (1997, p. 108)
‘A’isha was eighteen years of age at the time when the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) died and she remained a widow for forty-eight years till she died at the age of sixty-seven. She saw the rules of four caliphs in her lifetime. She died in Ramadan 58 AH during the caliphate of Mu‘awiya...
- Spellberg (1994, p. 3)
- Quran 33:6
- Brockelmann (1947)
- Abbott (1942)
- Armstrong (1992, p. 157)
- Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:58:234, 5:58:236, 7:62:64, 7:62:65, 7:62:88, Sahih Muslim, 8:3309, 8:3310, 8:3311, 41:4915, Sunan Abu Dawood, 41:4917
- al-Tabari (1987, p. 7), al-Tabari (1990, p. 131)
- Spellberg (1994, p. 40)
- Ahmed (1992, p. 51)
- Esposito ()
- Abbott (1942, p. 2)
- Ahmed (1992)
- Abbott (1942, p. 3)
- Watt (1960)
- Sonbol (2003, p. 3–9)
- Barlas (2002, p. 125-126)
- Ali (1997, p. 150)
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- Spellberg (1994, p. 34-40)
- Roded (1994, p. 36)
- Roded (2008, p. 23)
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- McAuliffe (2001, p. 55)
- Mernissi (1988, p. 65)
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- Abbott (1942, p. 25)
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- Abbott (1942, p. 8)
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- Lings (1983, p. 371)
- Ahmed (1992, p. 51-52)
- Mernissi (1988, p. 104)
- Mernissi (1988, p. 78)
- The story is told multiple times in the early traditions, nearly all of the versions being ultimately derived from Aisha's own account. Typical examples can be found in Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:462, Sahih Muslim, 37:6673 and Guillaume (1955, p. 494-499).
- Great Women of Islam - Zaynab bint Jahsh
- Sahih al-Bukhari, 8:78:682
- Quran 66:1–2
- Ibn Sa'd (1995, p. 132-133)
- Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:43:648
- Ahmed (1992, p. 58)
- Abbott (1942, p. 69)
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- Guillaume (1955, p. 679 and 682)
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- Abbott (1942, p. 108)
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- Abbott (1942, p. 122)
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