Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh
अलीगढ़ علی گڑھ
|Nickname(s): City of Locks ; The Mecca of Education|
|Founded by||koil-Dor Rajputs; Aligarh-Nafaz Khan|
|• Total||3,747 km2 (1,447 sq mi)|
|Elevation||178 m (584 ft)|
|• Total||(District) 3,673,732,(City) 1,273,212|
|• Official||Hindi Urdu|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
The city of Aligarh ( ) अलीगढ महानगर is the administrative headquarters for Aligarh Division Aligarh district and Aligarh Police Range, in the Northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and 126 miles (291 km) north-west of Kanpur. It is notable for being the seat of Aligarh Muslim University, and for its local lock industry. Aligarh is located approximately 90 miles (140 km) south-east of the capital city of New Delhi.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Climate
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Notable Locations
- 7 Media
- 8 Organisations
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Notable personalities
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
Before the 18th century, Aligarh was known as Kol or Koil.1caste, the name of a place or mountain and the name of a sage or demon. Study of the place-name indicates that the district was once fairly well covered by forests and groves. The history of the district through the 12th century AD is obscure.1
According to Edwin T. Atkinson, the name Kol was given to the city by Balarama, who slew the great Asura (demon) Kol there and, with the assistance of the Ahirs, subdued this part of the doab.2 In another account, Atkinson points out a "legend" that Kol was founded by the Dor tribe of Rajputs in 372 A.D. This is further confirmed by an old fort, the ruined Dor fortress, which lies at the city centre.
Some time before the Muslim invasion, Kol was held by the Dor Rajputs. In the time of Mahmud of Ghazni, the chief of the Dors was Hardatta of Baran.2 Statues of Buddha and other Buddhist remains have been found in excavations where the citadel of Koil stood, indicating a Buddhist influence. Hindu remains indicate that the citadel probably had a Hindu temple after the Buddhist temple.2
Koil is also mentioned in Ibn Battuta's Rihla, when Ibn Battuta along with 15 ambassadors representing Ukhaantu Khan, the Mongol Emperor of the Yuan dynasty in China, travelled to Kol city en route to the coast at Cambay (in Gujarat) in 1341.3 According to Ibn Battuta, it would appear that the district was then in a very disturbed state since the escort of the Emperor's embassy had to assist in relieving Jalali from an attacking body of Hindus and lost an officer in the fight. Ibn Batuta calls Kol "a fine town surrounded by mango groves". From these same groves the environs of Kol would appear to have acquired the name of Sabzabad or "the green country".2
In the reign of Akbar, Kol was made a Sirkar and included the dasturs of Marahra, Kol ba Haveli, Thana Farida and Akbarabad.2 Both Akbar and Jahangir visited Kol on hunting expeditions. Jahangir clearly mentions the forest of Kol, where he killed wolves.1
During the time of Ibrahim Lodhi, Muhammad, son of 'Umar, was the governor of Kol. He built a fort at Kol and named the city Muhammadgarh, after himself, in 1524–25. Sabit Khan, who was then the governor of this region, of Farrukh Siyar and Muhammad Shah, rebuilt the old Lodhi fort and named the town after himself: Sabitgarh.
The Jat ruler, Surajmal, with help from Jai Singh of Jaipur and the Muslim army, occupied the fort of Koil. Koil was renamed Ramgarh and finally, when a Shia commander, Najaf Khan, captured it, he gave it its present name of Aligarh. Aligarh Fort (also called Aligarh Qila), as it stands today, was built by French engineers under the command of French officers Benoît de Boigne and Perron.1
The Battle of Aligarh was fought on 1 September 1803 during the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805) at Aligarh Fort. The British 76th Regiment, now known as the Duke of Wellington's Regiment besieged the fort, which was under the control of the French officer Perron, and established British rule. In 1804, the Aligarh district was formed by the union of the second, third and fourth British divisions with the addition of Anupshahr from Muradabad and Sikandra Rao from Etawa. On 1 August 1804, Claude Russell was appointed the first Collector of the new district.4
Aligarh is located at the coordinates 5 It has an elevation of approximately 178 metres (587 feet). The city is in the middle portion of the doab, the land between the Ganges and the Yamuna rivers. The G.T.Road passes through..
Aligarh has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate, typical of north-central India. Summers start in April and are hot with temperatures peaking in May. The average temperature range is 28–33 °C (82–91 °F). The monsoon season starts in late June, continuing till early October, bringing high humidity. Aligarh gets most of its annual rainfall of 800 millimetres (31 in) during these months. Temperatures then decrease, and winter sets in December, and continues till early February. Temperatures range between 5–11 °C (41–52 °F). Winters in Aligarh are generally mild, but 2011-12 experienced the lowest temperature of 1°C . The fog and cold snaps are at extreme level.
|Climate data for Aligarh|
|Average high °C (°F)||17
|Average low °C (°F)||3
|Precipitation mm (inches)||15
The provisional data of 2011 census showed the Aligarh urban area with a population of 12,09,559. Males outnumber females 482,828 to 426,731. The literacy rate was 70.54 per cent.6
Aligarh is an important business centre of Uttar Pradesh and is most famous for its lock industry. Aligarh locks are exported across the world. In 1870, Johnson & Co. was the first English lock firm in Aligarh. In 1890, the company initiated production of locks on a small scale here.9
Aligarh is also famous for brass hardware and sculpture. Today, the city holds thousands of manufacturers, exporters and suppliers involved in the brass, bronze, iron and aluminium industries.
Aligarh is also a big centre of zinc die casting. There are thousands of pneumatic hot chamber die casting machines here .citation needed But many exporters have adopted latest technology and have installed fully automatic, computerised hot chamber machines. Indian Diecasting Industries at Sasni Gate Area is the most renownedpeacock term manufacturer in this line and they are capable of meeting international quality norms.
Harduaganj Thermal Power Station (also referred as Kasimpur Power House) is 15 km from the city. Narora Atomic Power Station is located 50 km from Aligarh. Despite its proximity to two large power stations, frequent power cuts are normal in Aligarh.
Aligarh hosts Heinz-sauce manufacturing unit in Manzurgarhi, Satha sugar factory on the Aligarh-Kasimpur Power House route and a cement factory of UltaTech Cement company.
Aligarh has several popular landmarks. Most notable one is Aligarh fort. Another is Dor fortress (1524), which is now in ruins, lies at the city's centre; its site is in the area now called Upper Kot and is occupied by an 18th-century mosque.
The Annual Cultural Exhibition, popularly known as Numaish, is held at the exhibition ground in January and February.
The city contains tombs of Muslim saints.8 Aligarh has a very renowned tomb, Baba Barchi Bahadur, at Kath Pula. Another old Jain temple with fresco painted ceilings is located behind Khirni Gate Police Chowky at Agra Road in the main City.
A famous Jainism Teerth Dhaam "Mangalayatan Teerth Dhaam" was built at Agra Road. "Sai Mandir" at Sarsol on G.T Road.
Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) is a public university, funded by the central government of India. It was established by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan as Madrasatul Uloom Musalmanan-e-Hind, in 1875-78 which later became Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College (MAO College). It was designed to train Muslims for government service in India and prepare them for advanced training in British universities. The Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College became Aligarh Muslim University in 1920.
Notable markets of Aligarh include the Centre Point Market, Railway Road Market, Phool Chok,Halwai khana, Jamalpur Market, Shamshad Market, Mahavir Ganj, (Houseking Locks) Mohammad Ali Road,Upper Fort (known as Uppar Kot),is the best place for shopping for brand Locks.Tasweer Mahal and Amin-Nisha. Centre Point Market is the best place for shopping for brand enthusiasts.
Railway Road and Amir-Nisha markets are the major shopping hubs. Shamshad Market and Achal Tal Market are noted for educational book stores. Mahavir Ganj has a grocery focus.
For online shopping of suits and female clothing, there is an online store on Facebook named Ada Boutique which is an online store of Aligarh.
Aligarh currently has 2 FM Radio stations:
Hindi Newspapers include Dainik Jagran, Pravada, Hindustan, Crime AND police, Amar Ujala, Avadh Nama, Punjab Kesari, DLA. . HT Media Ltd has recently come out with printing facilities in Aligarh.
Social organisations in Aligarh city, include Rotary Club, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh at Dwarikapuri, Vishwa Hindu Parishad at G.T. Road, Manav Upkar Samiti, Bharatiya Sewa Sansthan, Aligarh, Chetana Jagrati Punj, Kala Jagriti Samiti, Golden Group and Welfare Trust and Sanskar Bharti Ekta at Sasni Gate,
The two main bus terminals are the Masoodabad Bus Terminal and Gandhi Park Bus Terminal. Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC) buses serve cities all over the state and cities in Uttranchal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Haryana. Aligarh railway station is the primary railway station for Aligarh city and is a major stop on the Delhi-Kolkata route. It connects Aligarh to the states of West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, north-east and most of Uttar Pradesh, and important cities such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bhopal, Gwalior, Lucknow, Jhansi, Puri, Kanpur, Agra, Varanasi and Jaipur. The station runs about 70 Mail/ Express/ E.M.U Trains daily. A third railway line between Aligarh and Ghaziabad has development. The 106.15-km line cost Rs 400 crore. City buses, tempos and rickshaw are convenient commuting options.
An international airport has been approved by the Government in Bldev (Mathura) about 70 km from the city centre.10
Sports University at Gurusikran G T Road
||This article's list of residents may not follow Wikipedia's verifiability or notability policies. (September 2011)|
- Mohammad Habib (1895–1971), noted Indian historian and served as Professor Emeritus at Aligarh Muslim University
- Sir Syed Ahmad Khan founder of Aligarh Muslim University.
- Jai Kishan Das, close associate of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
- Naseeruddin Shah, Indian film actor and director
- Irfan Habib, eminent Indian historian and Professor Emeritus at Aligarh Muslim University
- Gopaldas Neeraj, poet, recipient of Padma Bhushan
- Akhlaq Mohammed Khan, pen name Shaharyar, Urdu poet, Bollywood lyricist and served as Professor at Aligarh Muslim University
- Prem Kishore Patakha, Hindi Humorous Poet
- Bharat Bhushan, Bollywood actor, scriptwriter and producer
- Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Unani physician and author
- Qurratulain Hyder, a Padma Bhushan, Urdu novelist, writer and journalist
- Chandrachur Singh, Bollywood actor
- Annu Raj Singh, international shooter
- Shad Khan, anchor, actor and director
- Ravindra Jain, Bollywood music director
- Piyush Chawla, Cricketer
- Pradeep Chauhan, Software Engineer
- Zarina (artist) 11
- "History of Aligarh". Aligarhdirectory.com. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- DESCRIPTIVE AND HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE ALIGARH DISTRICT By EDWIN T. ATKINSON, page 484. Google Books. 8 June 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- The Adventures of Ibn Battuta, by Ross E. Dunn, p. 215
- DESCRIPTIVE AND HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE ALIGARH DISTRICT By EDWIN T. ATKINSON, p. 348. Google Books. 8 June 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Aligarh". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- "India9.com". India9.com. 7 June 2005. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Britannica". Britannica. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Pawan JainPawan Jain (3 June 2003). "Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "Zarina Hashmi". Luhring Augustine. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- Aligarh in My Days (Interviews of former Vice Chancellors of Aligarh Muslim University), Ed. Syed Ziaur Rahman, Non-Resident Students' Centre, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 1997.
- Atkinson, Edward (1875, reproduced 2010). Descriptive And Historical Account Of The Aligarh District. Nabu Press. ISBN 1-147-42719-4.