Allahabad

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Allahabad
इलाहाबाद
الہ آباد
Metropolitan City
Clockwise from top left: All Saints Cathedral, the University of Allahabad, Khusro Bagh, the New Yamuna Bridge, Anand Bhavan, Sangam, the Allahabad High Court and the Thornhill Mayne Memorial at Alfred Park.
Clockwise from top left: All Saints Cathedral, the University of Allahabad, Khusro Bagh, the New Yamuna Bridge, Anand Bhavan, Sangam, the Allahabad High Court and the Thornhill Mayne Memorial at Alfred Park.
Nickname(s): City of Prime Ministers,12
Sangam City3
Allahabad is located in Uttar Pradesh
Allahabad
Allahabad
Location of Allahabad in India
Coordinates: 25°27′N 81°51′E / 25.45°N 81.85°E / 25.45; 81.85Coordinates: 25°27′N 81°51′E / 25.45°N 81.85°E / 25.45; 81.85
Country  India
State Uttar Pradesh
District Allahabad
Founded 1583 AD
Named for Allah
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body The Allahabad Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Abhilasha Gupta4
 • Commissioner of Police Ram Chandra Yadav
Area
 • Metropolitan City 3,424 km2 (1,322 sq mi)
Elevation 98 m (322 ft)
Population (2011)5
 • Density 1,087/km2 (2,820/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,216,719
40th
 • City 1,117,094
36th
Demonym Allahabadi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 211001-18
Telephone code 91-532
Vehicle registration UP-70
Sex ratio 901 /
Official language Hindi
Website allahabad.nic.in

Allahabad Listeni/əˈlɑːhəbɑːd/, also known as Prayag /prəˈjɑːɡ/, is a metropolitan city in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the administrative headquarters of the Allahabad District. As of 2011, Allahabad is the seventh most populous city in the state and the thirty-sixth most populous city in India, with an estimated population of 1.11 million living in the city and 1.21 million in its metropolitan region.67 In 2011, it was ranked the world's 130th fastest growing city.8 9

The city's original name – Prayaga, or "place of offerings" – comes from its position at the sacred union of the rivers Ganges, Yamuna and Saraswati. It is the second-oldest city in India and plays a central role in the Hindu scriptures. Allahabad was originally founded as Kaushambi (now a separate district) by the Kuru rulers of Hastinapur, who developed it as their capital. Since then, Allahabad has often been the political/cultural/administrative head of the entire Doab area and beyond. Later, the Mughal emperor Akbar renamed Prayag as Allahabad and made it a prominent administrative centre. In 1833 it became the seat of Ceded and Conquered Provinces before the capital was shifted to Agra in 1835.10 It again became the capital of North-Western Provinces in 1858 when it was also made the capital of India for a day.11 Eventually, it served as the capital of United Provinces from 190211 to 1920.12

Located in the southern part of Uttar Pradesh, the city's metropolitan area is 63.07 km2 (24.35 sq mi). While the city and surroundings are governed by several municipalities, a large portion of Allahabad District is governed by the Allahabad City Council. As a large and growing city, it is home to colleges, research institutions and central and state government establishments. Allahabad has hosted cultural and sporting events, including Kumbh Mela and Indira Marathon. Although Allahabad's economy was built on tourism, its main revenue now comes from real estate and financial services.

Etymology

The name is derived from the one given to the city by the Mughal Emperor Akbar in 1583.13 The name in Indian languages generally is Ilāhābād (Hindi: इलाहाबाद); ilah (Hindi: इलाह) being Arabic for "Lord" or "God (Allah)" and -ābād (Hindi: आबाद) is Persian for "to construct or to create a garden", which explains the meaning of the name Allahabad as "Garden of Allah" 13

History

The city was known earlier as Prayāga – a name that is still commonly used. Prayāga existed during the Vedic period, and is mentioned in the Veda as the location where Brahma, the Creator of the Universe according to Hindu Religion, attended a sacrificial ritual.14 Excavations have revealed Northern Black Polished Ware that dates to 600–700 BCE.14 The Puranas record that Yayati left Prayag and conquered the region of Saptha Sindhu.15 His five sons Yadu, Druhyu, Puru, Anu and Turvashu became the main tribes of the Rigveda.16 Lord Rama, the main protagonist in the Ramayana, spent time at the Ashram of Sage Bharadwaj before proceeding to nearby Chitrakoot.17

Allahabad Fort made by Akbar in 1575.
Mahatma Gandhi attending a Congress Working Committee meeting at Anand Bhavan, Allahabad in January 1940. Right: Vallabhbhai Patel. Left: Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit.

When the Aryans first settled in what they termed the Āryāvarta (or Madhyadesha), Prayag (or Kaushambi) was an important part of their territory.18 The Kuru Kingdom, rulers of Hastinapur (near present day Delhi), established the town of Kaushambi near Prayag.19 They shifted their capital to Kaushambi when Hastinapur was destroyed by floods.18

The Doaba region, including Allahabad, was controlled by several empires and dynasties in the ages to come.20 The area became a part of the Mauryan and Gupta empires of the east and the Kushan empire of the west before becoming part of the local Kannauj empire in 15th century.18 The city was the scene of Maratha incursions before colonial rule was imposed over India.20 In 1765, the British established a garrison at Allahabad fort. It is also known as the "Prime minister Capital of the India," the importance of the government to the city has led seven out of fourteen Prime Ministers of India.1 Prayag became a part of the Delhi sultanate when the town was annexed by Mohammad Ghori in A.D. 1193.21 Later, the Mughals took over from the slave rulers of Delhi and under them Prayag rose to prominence.22 Allahabad was a provincial capital in Moghul Empire under the reign of Jahangir.23 Akbar built a magnificent fort (viz. Allahabad fort), on the banks of the holy sangam and rechristened the town as Illahabad in 1575.22

In 1765, the combined forces of the Nawab of Awadh and the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II lost the Battle of Buxar to the British24 after which the Treaty of Allahabad was signed. Although the British did not yet establish direct rule, they realised the strategic position of Allahabad as the gateway to the northwest and established a garrison at the fort.25 In 1801, the Nawab of Awadh ceded the city to the British East India Company.26 Gradually the other parts of Doaba and adjoining region in its west (including Delhi and Ajmer-Mewara regions) were won by the British.24 The north western areas were made into a new Presidency called the "North Western Provinces of Agra", with their capital at Agra.24 Allahabad remained an important part of this state.27 In 1834, Allahabad became the seat of the Government of the Agra Province, and a High Court was established—but a year later both were relocated to Agra.24 In 1857, Allahabad was active in the Indian Mutiny.28 After the mutiny, the British truncated the Delhi region of the state, merging it with Punjab, and transferred the capital of North west Provinces to Allahabad, where it remained for 20 years.12 Later, in 1877 the two provinces of Agra (NWPA) and Awadh were merged to form a new state which was called the United Provinces.27 Allahabad served as the capital of United Provinces until 1920.12

During the Rebellion of 1857, Allahabad, which had a significant European troops29 was the scene of a great massacre.30 Maulvi Liaquat Ali freedom fighter of 1857, unfurled the banner of revolt.31 In January 1858 Earl Canning quitted Calcutta and shifted his headquarters in Allahabad.32 The same year Earl Canning read out the declaration of Queen Victoria's Proclamation, at Minto Park, which marked the complete transfer of control over India from The East India Company to the British Crown resulting in British Raj.3334 After the Mutiny was quelled, the British established the High Court, the Police Headquarters and the Public Service Commission in the city.35 This transformed Allahabad into an administrative center.36

The fourth session of the Indian National Congress was held in the city in 1888.37 By the turn of the century, Allahabad was a nodal point for the revolutionaries.38 The Karmyogi office of Sundar Lal in Chowk sparked patriotism among youth. Nityanand Chatterji became a household name when he hurled the first bomb at the European club.39 It was at Alfred Park in Allahabad where, in 1931, the revolutionary Chandrashekhar Azad killed himself when surrounded by the British Police.40 The Nehru family homes Anand Bhavan and Swaraj Bhavan were at the center of the political activities of the Indian National Congress.41 In the years of the freedom struggle, Allahabad was home to thousands of satyagrahis, led, inter alii, by Purushottam Das Tandon, Bishambhar Nath Pande and Narayan Dutt Tiwari.42 The first seeds of the idea of Pakistan were sown in Allahabad.43 On 29 December 1930, Allama Muhammad Iqbal's presidential address to the All-India Muslim League proposed a separate Muslim state for the Muslim majority regions of India.44

The city is also known as the "city of prime ministers" because post independence seven out of 13 prime ministers of India have belonged to Allahabad (Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, Gulzarilal Nanda, Vishwanath Pratap Singh and Chandra Shekhar). All these seven leaders were either born in Allahabad, were alumni of Allahabad University, or were elected from a constituency in Allahabad.1

Geography

Topography timeline
Yamuna river in Allahabad during the rainy season.

Allahabad is located in the southern part of the state, at 25°27′N 81°50′E / 25.45°N 81.84°E / 25.45; 81.84, and stands at the confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna rivers.4546 The region was known in antiquity as the Vats (initially Kuru) country.47 To its south west is the Bundelkhand region, to its east and south east is the Baghelkhand region, to its north and north east is the Awadh region and to its west is the (lower) doab of which it itself is a part.45 The city is divided by the railway line running through it.48 South of the railway line is the Old Chowk area, while the British-built Civil lines is situated in north. Allahabad stands at a strategic point both geographically and culturally.49 A part of the Ganga-Yamuna Doab, it is the last point of the Yamuna river, and culturally, the last point of the Indian west.50 As with the rest of Doab, the soil and water are predominantly alluvial in origin.51 The Indian GMT longitude (25.15°N 82.58°E) also passes near Allahabad. According to a United Nations Development Programme report, its wind and cyclone zone is "Low damage risk".52 Allahabad municipality is bounded by Pratapgarh in the north, Bhadohi in the east, Rewa in the south and Kaushambi in the west.

Climate

Climate timeline
Allahabad climate graph

Allahabad is subject to a humid subtropical climate common to cities in the plains of North India, that is designated Cwa under the Köppen climate classification.53 The annual mean temperature is 26.1 °C (79.0 °F); monthly mean temperatures are 18–29 °C (64–84 °F).54 Allahabad experiences three seasons: hot dry summer, cool dry winter and warm humid monsoon. Summer lasts from April to June with temperatures in the low 30s Celsius; during dry spells, maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) in May and June.54 Monsoon begins in early July and lasts till September. Winter lasts from December to February.55 Temperatures rarely drop to freezing point. Maximum temperatures are around 22 °C (72 °F) and minimum around 9 °C (48 °F).56 Allahabad also suffers thick fog in January resulting in massive traffic and travel delays.55 It does not snow in Allahabad.57 The highest recorded temperature is 48 °C (118.4 °F), and the lowest is −2 °C (28 °F).5458

Rains brought either by the Bay of Bengal branch of the south-west summer monsoon or by the Arabian Sea from the Arabian Sea branch59 lash Allahabad between June and September, supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of 1,027 mm (40 in).57 The highest monthly rainfall total, 296 mm (12 in), occurs in August.60 The month with the wettest weather is August when on balance 333 mm (13 in) of rain, sleet, hail or snow falls across 21 days; while driest weather is April when on balance 5 mm (0 in) of rain, sleet, hail or snow falls across one day.61 The city receives 2961 hours of sunshine per year, with maximum sunlight exposure occurring in May.58

Climate data for Allahabad
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 28.8
(83.8)
35.5
(95.9)
42.3
(108.1)
44.9
(112.8)
47.1
(116.8)
48.6
(119.5)
44.3
(111.7)
42.5
(108.5)
38.3
(100.9)
38.2
(100.8)
35.0
(95)
31.1
(88)
48.6
(119.5)
Average high °C (°F) 23.6
(74.5)
27.2
(81)
33.6
(92.5)
39.4
(102.9)
42.3
(108.1)
40.1
(104.2)
34.1
(93.4)
32.7
(90.9)
33.2
(91.8)
33.1
(91.6)
29.7
(85.5)
24.8
(76.6)
32.8
(91)
Average low °C (°F) 8.7
(47.7)
11.2
(52.2)
16.5
(61.7)
22.5
(72.5)
26.7
(80.1)
28.5
(83.3)
26.4
(79.5)
25.7
(78.3)
24.7
(76.5)
20.5
(68.9)
13.8
(56.8)
9.3
(48.7)
19.5
(67.1)
Record low °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
1.0
(33.8)
7.1
(44.8)
14.4
(57.9)
18.8
(65.8)
20.8
(69.4)
18.6
(65.5)
22.1
(71.8)
19.4
(66.9)
12.7
(54.9)
5.9
(42.6)
2.2
(36)
1
(33.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 19.2
(0.756)
15.6
(0.614)
9.2
(0.362)
5.7
(0.224)
9.9
(0.39)
85.4
(3.362)
300.1
(11.815)
307.6
(12.11)
189.8
(7.472)
40.1
(1.579)
11.7
(0.461)
3.4
(0.134)
1,017.7
(40.067)
Avg. rainy days 2.0 2.6 1.0 1.2 2.0 5.7 16.3 13.2 10.7 2.1 0.6 1.1 58.5
 % humidity 69 57 39 29 33 50 77 81 78 67 61 68 59.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 224.9 244.2 263.2 274.1 292.3 206.4 143.3 180.6 184.3 259.7 256.7 244.0 2,773.7
Source #1: Indian Meteorological Department,56 NOAA (1971–1990)62
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory63

Biodiversity

national bird
Peacock plumage in Allahabad

The Ganga-Jamuna Doab, of which Allahabad is a part, lies on the western part of the Great Indo-Gangetic Plain region. The Doab, including the Terai, is responsible for the city's unique flora and fauna.6465 Since human arrival, almost half of the country's vertebrates have become extinct. Others are endangered or have had their range severely reduced. The arrival of humans, with associated changes to habitat and the introduction of reptiles, snakes and other mammals, led to the extinction of bird species, including large birds like eagles.64 Allahabad Museum, one four national museums in India, has undertaken an exercise to document the existing flora and fauna in the Ganga and Yamuna river belt.66

The most common birds found in the state are doves, peacocks, junglefowl, black partridge, house sparrows, songbirds, blue jays, parakeets, quails, bulbuls, and comb ducks.67 Other animals in the state include reptiles such as lizards, cobras, kraits, and gharials.64 During winter, large numbers of Siberian birds are reported in sangam and nearby wetlands.68

Demographics

Religions in Allahabad
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
78%
Muslims
  
20%
Others†
  
1.3%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.2%), Buddhists (<0.2%).

The 2011 census reported 1,216,719 Allahabad Statistical Division.69 Provisional data suggest a density of 1,087 people per km2 in 2011, compared to 901 in 2001.69 Native people from Uttar Pradesh form the majority of Allahabad's population. According to the 2001 census, 78% of the population is Hindu,20% of the population is Muslim 1.8% Jain, and 0.20% Sikh. The remainder of the population includes Buddhists, and other religions; 0.48% did not state a religion in the census.5

Allahabad's literacy rate of 86.50% is close to the all-India average of 74%.670 This rate is the highest in the region.71 The male literacy rate is 90.21%, while the female literacy rate is 82.17%.672 Among 35 major cities in India, Allahabad reported the greatest number of violations of Special & Local Laws to the National Crime Records Bureau.73

Hindi, the official state language, is the dominant language in Allahabad. English is also used, particularly by the white-collar workforce. Urdu is spoken by a sizeable minority.5 The dialect of Hindi spoken in Allahabad is Awadhi, although Khariboli is more common in the city. In the eastern, non-Doabi, part of Allahabad district, Awadhi dialect is more common. Bengali and Punjabi are also spoken in some quarters.5

Civic administration

refer to caption
Allahabad High Court is the fourth oldest high court of India and one of the biggest

Allahabad is administered by several government agencies.Allahabad city is governed by Municipal Corporation which comes under Allahabad Metropolitan Region. The Allahabad Nagar Nigam (ANN), also called Allahabad Municipal Corporation (AMC), oversees and manages the civic infrastructure of the city. The corporation came into existence in 1864, when Lucknow Municipal Act was passed by the Government of India.74 City municipal area is divided into 80 wards, and a member (the Corporator) from each ward is elected to form the Municipal Committee. The Corporators elect the Mayor of city.74 The chief executive is the Commissioner of Allahabad, who is appointed by the state government. Allahabad's rapid growth has created problems relating to traffic congestion and infrastructural obsolescence that the Allahabad Nagar Nigam has found challenging to address.75 The unplanned nature of growth in the city has resulted in massive traffic gridlocks, which the municipality attempted to ease by constructing a flyover system and by imposing one-way traffic systems. The land is very costly in Allahabad esp. in the Allahabad Central- Civil Lines locality. Also, numerous real estate projects are being carried out in Civil Lines thus resulting in the construction of tall skyscrapers ranging from 10-15 floors & even more.74

As of 2012, the [BSP] controls the AMC. The city has an apolitical titular ruler, who presides over city-related functions and conferences.76 As the seat of the Government of Uttar Pradesh, Allahabad is home to the offices of the local governing agencies, and the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly: the state secretariat, which is situated in the premises of Allahabad High Court.76 The Allahabad Police, headed by a police commissioner, is overseen by the Uttar Pradesh Ministry of Home Affairs.77 The Allahabad district elects two representatives to India's lower house, the Lok Sabha, and 12 representatives to the state legislative assembly.78

Administrative divisions

refer to caption
Allahabad city from Civil Lines

Allahabad has been divided into several blocks within tehsils. As of 2011, there are 20 blocks under eight tehsils:798081 The entire division of Allahabad covers the districts of Fatehpur, Kaushambi and Allahabad. Some areas of the western parts of the district of Allahabad were assembled together in the newly formed Kaushambi.82

  1. Phulpur
  2. Koraon
  3. Meja
  4. Sadar
  5. Soraon
  6. Handia
  7. Bara
  8. Karchana

Culture

Anand Bhavan owned by Indian political leader Motilal Nehru in the 19th century

Allahabad is known for its literary and artistic heritage; as the former capital of United Provinces it was the birthplace of holy scriptures – the Vedas and the grand epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata– and in the Puranas as Prayag.83 Allahabad has been called the "literary capital of Uttar Pradesh". Allahabad's antiquity attracted curious itinerants from East Asia.84 Huen Tsang and Fa Hien, the Chinese travelers, who visited it in the fifth and the seventh centuries respectively, found it a flourishing city.8584 Over the centuries that followed, Allahabad remained on the forefront of national importance – more so during the days of the Indian independence struggle.42 The city has a tradition of political graffiti depicting everything from outrageous slander to witty banter and limericks, caricatures, and propaganda.38

Allahabad has many buildings adorned with Indo-Islamic and Indo-Saracenic architectural motifs. Several major buildings from the colonial period have been declared "heritage structures"; however, others are decaying.86 Established in the 1930s to serve as the residence of the Nehru family, the Swaraj Bhavan was transformed into the local headquarters of the Indian National Congress, which showcases memorabilia of the Gandhi-Nehru family.87

During the 19th and 20th centuries, Hindi literature was modernised through the works of authors such as Mahadevi Varma, Sumitranandan Pant, Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala', and Harivansh Rai Bachchan.88 Another noteworthy poet was Raghupati Sahay, better known as Firaq Gorakhpuri.89 Firaq Gorakhpuri and Mahadevi Varma were awarded the Jnanpith Award.909192

Allahabad has been the biggest centres of publication of Hindi literature — for instance Lok Bharti, Rajkamal and Neelabh. Persian — and Urdu literature has a significant respect in city.93 Akbar Allahabadi is a well-known poet of modern Urdu literature. Poets like Nooh Narwi, Tegh Allahabadi, Raaz Allahabadi, Asghar Gondvi, Ibn e Safi,Adil Rasheed, Azam Kuraivi, Dr.Aijaz Husain, Dr.Aqeel Rizwi, Hakeem Asrar Kuraivi also hail from the city.94 English author and Nobel Laureate Rudyard Kipling (1907) was an assistant editor and overseas correspondent for The Pioneer.95

Though Hindu women traditionally wear the sari, the shalwar kameez and Western attire is gaining acceptance among younger women.96 Western-style dress has greater acceptance among men, although the traditional dhoti and kurta are seen during festivals. Sherwani is a more formal male dress and is frequently worn along with chooridar on festive occasions.96

Diwali or Deepavali (celebrated between mid-October and mid-December) referred as the festival of lights bringing joy and happiness and Rama Navami are the two most popular and main festival festivals in city. In Allahabad, the festival attains special celebrations as Puja, Arti, fairs, decorations diyas light up the banks of the sacred rivers Ganga and Yamuna.97

Tourism

A procession of Akharas march over the Ganges River during the Kumbh Mela

Though the city is known for its religious tourism, but echelon into three categories viz. Historic, Cultural and Religious. History flank includes Alfred Park, Victoria Memorial, Thornhill Mayne Memorial, Minto Park, Allahabad Fort, Ashoka Pillar and Khusro Bagh; whereas religious attraction comprehend Kumbh Mela, Triveni Sangam and All Saints Cathedral. Besides these cultural segment has Allahabad Museum, Jawahar Planetarium and the University of Allahabad. Allahabad host the largest religious gathering in the world known as Maha Kumbh Mela which is celebrated every twelve years and Ardh (half) Kumbh Mela is celebrated every six years.9899

Prayaga is one of the holiest shrine in Hinduism, Shaktism a prominent cult of Hinduism has considered Prayaga as a Maha Shakti Peetha100101102 Shakti Peethas are shrines that are considered as a highly revered place of worship by Shaktas(Shaktism). The corpse of Sati Devi was carried by Shiva and parts of it fell in the path Shiva wandered. There are 51 Shakti Peeth linking to the 51 alphabets in Sanskrit. The finger of Sati is believed to have fallen near the sangam in Prayag. Shakti of Prayag is addressed as Madhaveshwari and the Kalabhairava shrine which most of the Shakti peethas consists is addressed as Bhava.103

Sports

Cricket and field hockey are the most popular sports in Allahabad.104 The most played sports in the rural areas near the city are Kabaddi, Kho-Kho, Gilli Danda and Akhada wrestling.105 The game of gully cricket also known as street cricket is popular among the youth in the city. Children as well as teenagers play the game of cricket in alleys and lanes.104 There are several sports complexes that can be used by both amateurs and professionals. These include the Madan Mohan Malviya Stadium, Amitabh Bachchan Sports Complex and the Boys' High School & College Gymnasium.106 There is an International level swimming complex at Georgetown.107 National Sports Academy in Jhalwa (Allahabad west) which produces world class gymnasts, the academy had been chosen as the flagbearer of Indian Gymnastic in Commonwealth games. In Allahabad every year Indira Marathon is organised; it began in 1985–86 in memory of late prime minister Indira Gandhi.108109110111112

Transportation

Allahabad Airport Terminal.
Terminal of Allahabad Airport

Allahabad is served by Allahabad Airport (IATA: IXDICAO: VIAL) which began operations in February 1966. The airport is 12 km from the city centre. Air India and Spice Jet connect Allahabad to Delhi & Mumbai.113 Air India will also start operating on the Allahabad-Mumbai sector from September 9, 2013.114 The most hassle-free way to commute is by taxi. Other airports nearby are in Varanasi, Lucknow and Kanpur.115

Allahabad Railway Station in early morning

Allahabad Junction is one of the main railway junctions of northern India. It is the headquarters of the North Central Railway Zone.116 The four prominent railway stations of Allahabad are Prayag Station, City Station at Rambagh, Daraganj Station and Allahabad Junction.117 It is connected to most cities in Uttar Pradesh as well as all major cities of India such as Jhansi, Kolkata, New Delhi, Mumbai, Visakhapatnam Chennai, Hyderabad, Indore, Bhopal, Kanpur, Lucknow and Jaipur.118 Three-wheeled yellow and black auto-rickshaws, referred to as vikram, are a popular form of transport.119 They are not metered and can accommodate at least six passengers. Taxis, commonly called City Taxis, are usually available only on call. Taxis are metered and are generally more expensive than auto-rickshaws. Tempos are the cheapest mode of travelling in Allahabad.119

Buses operated by Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC) are an important means of public transport available in the city.120 Besides these, National Highway 2 runs through the middle of the city.121 India's primus cable-stayed bridge The New Yamuna Bridge, erected between 2001 and 2004, is located in Allahabad and connects the city of Allahabad to its suburb Naini next to the banks of the Yamuna River.122 The Old Naini Bridge now accommodates railway and car traffic.123124 Road bridges on the Ganges and Yamuna rivers have been built to connect Allahabad with its suburbs, including Naini and Jhusi.125 The development plan for Allahabad Monorail is also underway.

Education

Refer to caption
The National Institutes of Technology MNNIT, a well known autonomous public engineering and management institute.

The Allahabad education system has remained distinct from that of the rest of state's other cities, with a characteristic emphasis on a broad education.126 Allahabad's schools are run by the state government and by private organisations, many of which are religious. English is the medium of instructions in most private schools, while government schools and colleges offer both Hindi and English medium education.127 Urdu is also used. Schools in Allahabad follow the 10+2+3 plan.128 After completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in schools that have a higher secondary facility and are affiliated with the Uttar Pradesh Board of High School and Intermediate Education, the ICSE, or the CBSE.127 They usually choose a focus on liberal arts, business, or science. Vocational programs are also available.129

Allahabad attracts students and learners from all over country. As of 2010, Allahabad has one central university, three deemed universities, and an open university.130 The colleges are each affiliated with a university or institution based either in Allahabad or elsewhere in India. Allahabad University, founded in 1876, is the oldest modern university in the state.130 Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology is one of the twenty National Institutes of Technology and an Institute of National Importance of India.131 Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences is the oldest modern university in South Asia.132 Nationally renowned professional institutes in Allahabad include the IIIT-A, Motilal Nehru Medical College (MNMI), Uttar Pradesh Rajarshi Tandon Open University (UPRTOU), Harish-Chandra Research Institute (HRI), Govind Ballabh Pant Social Science Institute (GSSI), Institute of Engineering and Rural Technology (IERT), Ewing Christian College (ECC), United College of Engineering & Research and Birla Institute of Technology.133

Notable scholars who were born, worked or studied in Allahabad include mathematician Manindra Agrawal and Sorab K. Ghandhi, poet Subhadra Kumari Chauhan, novelist Julia Strachey, philanthropist Jagmal Raja Chauhan, notable actor Amitabh Bachchan, Nobel laureates Rudyard Kipling and Lieutenant General in the Indian Army Syed Ata Hasnain.

Economy

The main industries of Allahabad are tourism, fishing and agriculture.134 There are secondary activities and manufacturing which may be registered or unregistered.135 Another aspect is large number of constructions taking place in Allahabad which again improvises the city's economy. .136 The Third All India Census for Small Scale Industries shows that there are more than 10,000 unregistered small-scale industry units in the city.137138 An Integrated Industrial Township is also proposed in 1200 acres of area in Allahabad under Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India139

Allahabad has some glass- and wire-based industries.140 The main industrial area of Allahabad is Naini and Phulpur, where several public and private sector companies have their units, offices and factories.141 Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, India's largest oil company (which is also state-owned), is setting up a seven million tonnes per annum (MTPA) capacity refinery at Lohgara, with an estimated investment of 62 billion Rs.142 Allahabad Bank which began operations in 1865, headquartered in the city.137 The growth of IT has presented the city with challenges. Ideological clashes sometimes occur between the city's IT moguls, who demand an improvement in the city's infrastructure, and the state government, whose electoral base is primarily the people in city.142 Allahabad is a hub for India's agricultural industry.143

Some major industries of Allahabad are Bharat Pumps & Compressors (headquarters),RIL, Allahabad Manufacturing Division, Alstom, ITI Limited, Areva, BPCL, Dey's Medical, Food Corporation of India, Raymond Synthetics, Triveni Sheet Glass Ltd, Steel Authority of India Limited, HCL, IFFCO, Vibgyor Laboratories, Raymond Synthetics and GEEP Industries.144145 Institutions like Harish Chandra Atomic Research Center, Geep Industries, IFFCO in Phulpur area of Allahabad, Hindustan cable Ltd Naini and Civil Aviation Training Center are established in the city.145

Media

Among Allahabad's widely circulated Hindi-language newspapers are Dainik Jagran, Amar Ujala, Dainik Bhaskar, Nai Dunia, Hindustan Dainik, Aj, and Rajasthan Patrika.146 The Leader and The Pioneer are two major English-language newspapers that are produced and published from Allahabad.147148 Other popular English-language newspapers published and sold in Allahabad include The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Hindu, The Indian Express, and the Asian Age.146 Prominent financial dailies like The Economic Times, Financial Express, Business Line, Rashtriya Sahara and Business Standard are widely circulated.149 Vernacular newspapers, such as those in the Urdu, Gujarati and Punjabi lanuages, are read by minorities.

All India Radio, the national state-owned radio broadcaster, airs AM radio stations in the city. Allahabad has five local radio stations broadcasting on FM, including two from AIR.150 Other regional channels are accessible via cable subscription, direct-broadcast satellite services, or internet-based television.151 Allahabad has one Doordarshan centre as well.Cable TV Digitalization is necessary for Allahabadis from March 2013.

There are currently four FM radio stations viz. BIG FM 92.7, Red FM 93.5, Gyan Vani, Vividh Bharti and one All India Radio Akashwani Station being broadcast in Allahabad.152

Sister cities

Allahabad has sister city agreements with the following cities:

City Nation
Holguín  Cuba
Tsuyama  Japan
Parral  Mexico
Zacatecas  Mexico
Bukhara  Uzbekistan
Santa Fe  USA

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