Ambassadors of the United States

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Flag of ambassadors of the United States

This is a list of ambassadors of the United States to individual nations of the world, to international organizations, to past nations, and ambassadors-at-large.

Ambassadors are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate.1 An ambassador can be appointed during a recess of the Senate, but can serve only to the end of the next session of Congress unless subsequently confirmed by the Senate.2 Ambassadors serve "at the pleasure of the President," which means that they can be dismissed at any time.

An ambassador may be a career foreign service officer or a political appointee. In most cases, U.S. ambassadors who are career foreign service officers serve a tour of approximately three years in a foreign post. Ambassadors who are political appointees will customarily tender their resignations upon inauguration of a new President. As embassies fall under the jurisdiction of the Department of State, ambassadors answer to the Secretary of State.

Current U.S. ambassadors

Host country Ref U.S. Ambassador Embassy
Date Confirmed
Afghanistan Ref James B. Cunningham Kabul August 2012
Albania Ref Alexander A. Arvizu Tirana December 2010
Algeria Ref Henry S. Ensher Algiers July 2011
Andorra3 Ref James Costos Madrid August 2013
Angola Ref Heather Merritt, Chargé d’Affaires a.i. Luanda
Antigua and Barbuda4 Ref Larry Leon Palmer Bridgetown March 2012
Argentina Ref Kevin K. Sullivan, Chargé d'Affaires a.i. Buenos Aires
Armenia Ref John A. Heffern Yerevan August 2011
Australia Ref John Berry Canberra August 2013
Austria Ref Alexa Lange Wesner Vienna August 2013
Azerbaijan Ref Richard L. Morningstar Baku June 2012
The Bahamas Ref John Dinkelman, Chargé d'Affaires Nassau
Bahrain Ref Thomas Krajeski Manama October 2011
Bangladesh Ref Dan Mozena Dhaka June 2011
Barbados4 Ref Larry Leon Palmer Bridgetown March 2012
Belarus Ref Vacant since March 12, 2008.
Ethan A. Goldrich, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Belgium Ref Denise Campbell Bauer Brussels August 2013
Belize Ref Margaret Hawthorne, Chargé d'Affaires, a.i. Belmopan
Benin Ref Michael Raynor Cotonou May 2012
Bolivia Ref Vacant since September 10, 2008
Larry L. Memmott, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
La Paz  
Bosnia and Herzegovina Ref Vacant since August 24, 2013
Nicholas M. Hill, Charge d'Affaires, a.i.5
Botswana Ref Michelle D. Gavin Gaborone June 2011
Brazil Ref Liliana Ayalde Brasilia August 2013
Brunei Ref Daniel L. Shields Bandar Seri Begawan March 2011
Bulgaria Ref Marcie Berman Ries Sofia August 2012
Burkina Faso Ref Tulinabo S. Mushingi Ouagadougou July 2013
Burma6 Ref Derek Mitchell Rangoon June 2012
Burundi Ref Dawn M. Liberi Bujumbura October 2012
Cambodia Ref William E. Todd Phnom Penh March 2012
Cameroon Ref Gregory Thome, Chargé d'Affaires Yaoundé
Canada Ref Bruce Heyman Ottawa March 2014
Cape Verde Ref Adrienne S. O’Neal Praia October 2011
Central African Republic Ref Laurence Wohlers
Embassy suspended operations on December 28, 2012
The French embassy is the protecting power
Chad Ref James Knight N'Djamena July 2013
Chile Ref Michael A. Hammer Santiago March 2014
China Ref Max Baucus Beijing February 2014
Colombia Ref Kevin Whitaker Bogotá April 2014
Comoros7 Ref Vacant
Eric M. Wong, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Democratic Republic of the Congo Ref James C. Swan Kinshasa August 2013
Republic of the Congo Ref Stephanie Sanders Sullivan Brazzaville August 2013
Costa Rica Ref Gonzalo Gallegos, Chargé d'Affaires a.i. San José
Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Ref Terence Patrick McCulley Abidjan August 2013
Croatia Ref Kenneth Merten Zagreb October 2012
Cuba8 Ref No diplomatic relations since 1961.
Cyprus Ref John Koenig Nicosia August 2012  
Northern Cyprus9        
Czech Republic Ref Norman L. Eisen Prague January 2011
Denmark Ref John Rufus Gifford Copenhagen August 2013
Djibouti Ref Geeta Pasi Djibouti June 2011
Dominica4 Ref Larry Leon Palmer Bridgetown March 2012
Dominican Republic Ref James "Wally" Brewster, Jr. Santo Domingo November 2013
East Timor (Timor-Leste) Ref Scott Ticknor, Chargé d'Affaires a.i. Dili
Ecuador Ref Adam E. Namm Quito April 2012
Egypt Ref David M. Satterfield, Chargé d'Affaires Cairo
El Salvador Ref Mari Carmen Aponte San Salvador June 2012
Equatorial Guinea Ref Mark L. Asquino Malabo June 2012
Eritrea Ref Vacant since July 2010
Sue Bremner, Chargé d'Affaires
Estonia Ref Jeffrey D. Levine Tallinn March 2012
Ethiopia Ref Patricia Marie Haslach Addis Ababa August 2013
Fiji10 Ref Frankie A. Reed Suva August 2011
Finland Ref Bruce J. Oreck Helsinki August 2009
France11 Ref Vacant since November 19, 2013
Mark A. Taplin, Chargé d'Affaires
Gabon12 Ref Dante Paradiso, Chargé d'Affaires a.i. Libreville
The Gambia Ref Edward M. Alford Banjul June 2012
Georgia Ref Richard Norland Tbilisi March 2012
Germany Ref John B. Emerson Berlin August 2013
Ghana Ref Gene Cretz Ghana August 2012
Greece Ref David D. Pearce Athens August 2013
Grenada4 Ref Larry Leon Palmer Bridgetown March 2012
Guatemala Ref Arnold A. Chacon Guatemala August 2011
Guinea Ref Alexander Laskaris Conakry August 2012
Guinea-Bissau13 Ref Lewis A. Lukens Dakar August 2011
Guyana Ref D. Brent Hardt Georgetown June 2011
Haiti Ref Pamela A. White Port-au-Prince July 2012
Holy See Ref Kenneth Francis Hackett Vatican August 2013
Honduras Ref Lisa Kubiske Tegucigalpa July 2011
Hungary Ref M. André Goodfriend, Chargé d'Affaires a.i. Budapest
Iceland Ref Luis E. Arreaga Reykjavik August 2010
India Ref Nancy Powell New Delhi March 2012
Indonesia Ref Robert O. Blake, Jr. Jakarta November 2013
Iran14 Ref No diplomatic relations since the 1979 Iranian Revolution.
Iraq Ref Robert S. Beecroft Baghdad September 2012
Ireland Ref Vacant since December 14, 2012
Stuart Dwyer, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Israel Ref Daniel B. Shapiro Tel Aviv July 2011
Italy15 Ref John R. Phillips Rome August 2013
Jamaica Ref Elizabeth Lee Martinez Kingston
Japan Ref Caroline Kennedy Tokyo October 2013
Jordan Ref Stuart E. Jones Amman May 2011
Kazakhstan Ref Kenneth J. Fairfax Astana June 2011
Kenya Ref Robert F. Godec Nairobi January 2013
Kiribati10 Ref Frankie A. Reed Suva August 2011
North Korea16        
South Korea Ref Sung Kim Seoul October 2011
Kosovo Ref Tracey Ann Jacobson Pristina July 2012
Kuwait Ref Vacant Kuwait City
Kyrgyzstan Ref Pamela L. Spratlen Bishkek April 2011
Laos Ref Daniel A. Clune Vientiane August 2013
Latvia Ref Mark A. Pekala Riga August 2012
Lebanon Ref David Hale Beirut August 2013
Lesotho Ref Vacant since December 2012
Carl B. Fox, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Liberia Ref Deborah R. Malac Monrovia July 2012
Libya Ref Deborah K. Jones Tripoli May 2013
Liechtenstein17 Ref Jeffrey R. Cellars, Chargé d'Affaires Bern
Lithuania Ref Deborah McCarthy Vilnius January 2013
Luxembourg Ref Robert A. Mandell Luxembourg October 2011
Macedonia Ref Paul D. Wohlers Skopje September 2011
Madagascar7 Ref Vacant since June 7, 2010
Eric M. Wong, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Malawi Ref Jeanine E. Jackson Lilongwe May 2011
Malaysia Ref Joseph Y. Yun Kuala Lumpur August 2013
Maldives18 Ref Michele J. Sison Colombo June 2012
Mali Ref Mary Leonard Bamako October 2011
Malta Ref Gina Abercrombie-Winstanley Valletta April 2012
Marshall Islands Ref Thomas Hart Armbruster Majuro August 2012
Mauritania Ref Jo Ellen Powell Nouakchott September 2010
Mauritius19 Ref Shari Villarosa Port Louis September 2012
Mexico Ref Earl Anthony Wayne Mexico City August 2011
Micronesia, Federated States of Ref Dorothea-Maria Rosen Kolonia June 2012
Moldova Ref William H. Moser Chisinau August 2011
Monaco1120 Ref Charles Rivkin Paris July 2009
Mongolia Ref Piper Anne Wind Campbell Ulaanbaatar June 2012
Montenegro Ref Sue K. Brown Podgorica April 2011
Morocco Ref Dwight L. Bush, Sr. Rabat March 2014
Mozambique Ref Douglas M. Griffiths Maputo June 2012
Namibia Ref Mary Grace McGeehan, Chargé d'Affaires a.i. Windhoek
Nauru10 Ref Frankie A. Reed Suva August 2011
Nepal Ref Peter W. Bodde Kathmandu June 2012
Netherlands Ref Timothy M. Broas The Hague March 2014
New Zealand21 Ref Vacant since 17 January, 2014
Marie C. Damour, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Nicaragua Ref Phyllis M. Powers Managua March 2012
Niger Ref Richard Bell, Chargé d'Affaires a.i. Niamey
Nigeria Ref James F. Entwistle Abuja August 2013
Norway Ref Barry B. White Oslo September 2009
Oman Ref Greta C. Holtz Muscat August 2012
Pakistan Ref Richard G. Olson Islamabad October 2010
Palau22 Ref Helen Reed-Rowe Koror September 2010
Palestine   The United States does not recognize Palestine.    
Panama Ref Jonathan D. Farrar Panama March 2012
Papua New Guinea23 Ref Walter North Port Moresby November 2012
Paraguay Ref James H. Thessin Asunción September 2011
Peru Ref Michael J. Fitzpatrick, Chargé d'Affaires Lima
Philippines22 Ref Philip Goldberg Manila April 2010
Poland Ref Stephen Mull Warsaw October 2012
Portugal Ref John Olson, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.; Robert A. Sherman, confirmed Feb 2014 Lisbon
Qatar Ref Susan L. Ziadeh Doha June 2011
Romania Ref Vacant since December 14, 2012
Duane C. Butcher, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Russia Ref Michael McFaul Moscow January 2012
Rwanda Ref Donald W. Koran Kigali August 2011
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic24        
Saint Kitts and Nevis4 Ref Larry Leon Palmer Bridgetown March 2012
Saint Lucia4 Ref Larry Leon Palmer Bridgetown March 2012
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines4 Ref Larry Leon Palmer Bridgetown March 2012
Samoa21 Ref Vacant since 17 January, 2014
Marie C. Damour, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
San Marino15 Ref John R. Phillips Florence, San Marino15 August 2013
São Tomé and Príncipe12 Ref Eric D. Benjaminson Libreville July 2010
Saudi Arabia Ref Joseph W. Westphal Riyadh March 2014
Senegal13 Ref Lewis A. Lukens Dakar August 2011
Serbia Ref Michael Kirby Belgrade August 2012
Seychelles19 Ref Mary Jo Wills Port Louis February 2010
Sierra Leone Ref Michael S. Owen Freetown August 2010
Singapore Ref Kirk W.B. Wagar Singapore August 2013
Slovakia Ref Theodore Sedgwick Bratislava July 2010
Slovenia Ref Joseph A. Mussomeli Ljubljana October 2010
Solomon Islands23 Ref Walter North Port Moresby November 2012
Somalia2526 Ref Virtual Presence Post
Managed through the U.S. Embassy in Kenya
Somalia VPP  
South Africa Ref Patrick Hubert Gaspard Pretoria August 2013
South Ossetia27
South Sudan Ref Susan Page Juba October 2011
Spain3 Ref James Costos Madrid August 2013
Sri Lanka18 Ref Michele J. Sison Colombo January 2010
Sudan28 Ref Vacant since 1996
Joseph D. Stafford, Chargé d’Affaires
Suriname Ref Jay N. Anania Paramaribo June 2012
Swaziland Ref Makila James Mbabane May 2012
Sweden Ref Mark Brzezinski Stockholm October 2011
Switzerland17 Ref Jeffrey R. Cellars, Chargé d'Affaires Bern
Syria29 Ref Robert Stephen Ford Damascus December 2010
Tajikistan Ref Susan Marsh Elliott Dushanbe June 2012
Tanzania Ref Mark B. Childress Dar es Salaam April 2014
Thailand Ref Kristie Kenney Bangkok January 2011
Togo Ref Robert E. Whitehead Lomé May 2012
Tonga10 Ref Frankie A. Reed Tonga August 2011
Trinidad and Tobago Ref Vacant
Margaret B. Diop, Chargé d'Affaires a.i.
Port of Spain
Tunisia Ref Jacob Walles Tunis July 2012
Turkey Ref Francis J. Ricciardone, Jr. Ankara January 2011
Turkmenistan Ref Robert E. Patterson, Jr. Ashgabat April 2011
Tuvalu10 Ref Frankie A. Reed Suva August 2011
Uganda Ref Scott H. DeLisi Kampala May 2012
Ukraine Ref Geoffrey R. Pyatt Kiev August 2013
United Arab Emirates Ref Michael H. Corbin Abu Dhabi July 2011
United Kingdom31 Ref Matthew Barzun London August 2013
Uruguay Ref Julissa Reynoso Montevideo March 2012
Uzbekistan Ref George A. Krol Tashkent June 2011
Vanuatu23 Ref Walter North Port Moresby November 2012
Venezuela Ref Vacant since July 2010
Phil Laidlaw, Chargé d'Affaires32
Vietnam Ref David B. Shear Hanoi August 2011
Yemen Ref Matthew H. Tueller Sana’a March 2014
Zambia Ref David J. Young, Chargé d'Affaires a.i. Lusaka
Zimbabwe Ref David Bruce Wharton Harare August 2012

Ambassadors to international organizations

Current ambassadors from the United States to international organizations

Host organization Location Ambassador
African Union Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Reuben Earl Brigety, II
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Washington, D.C., United States Patricia Haslach
Association of Southeast Asian Nations Jakarta, Indonesia David L. Carden
Conference on Disarmament Geneva, Switzerland Laura E. Kennedy
European Union Brussels, Belgium William Kennard
International Civil Aviation Organization Montreal, Canada Duane E Woerth
North Atlantic Treaty Organization Brussels, Belgium Douglas Edward Lute
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Paris, France Vacant (Jeri Guthrie-Corn, Charge d'Affaires a.i.)
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons The Hague, Netherlands Robert Mikulak
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Vienna, Austria Daniel Brooks Baer
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Rashad Hussain
Organization of American States Washington, D.C., United States Carmen Lomellin
United Nations New York, United States Samantha Power
United Nations Agencies in Rome Rome, Italy David J. Lane
United Nations and Other International Organizations in Geneva Geneva, Switzerland Vacant
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Paris, France Vacant (Beth Poisson, Charge d'Affaires a.i.)33
United Nations Environment Programme Nairobi, Kenya Joseph P. Murphy
United Nations Human Rights Council Geneva, Switzerland Eileen Chamberlain Donahoe
United Nations International Organizations in Vienna Vienna, Austria Joseph E. Macmanus
World Trade Organization Geneva, Switzerland Michael Punke


Current ambassadors-at-large from the United States with worldwide responsibility:

Title Ambassador U.S. State Department
Ambassador-at-Large for Counterterrorism Daniel Benjamin Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism
Ambassador-at-Large for Global Women's Issues Catherine M. Russell Office of Global Women’s Issues
Ambassador-at-Large for International Religious Freedom Suzan Johnson Cook Office of International Religious Freedom
Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues Stephen Rapp Office of Global Criminal Justice
Ambassador-at-Large to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons Luis CdeBaca Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons

Ambassadors to past countries

Other senior diplomatic representatives

Senior diplomatic representatives of the United States to posts other than embassies:

Host country Ambassador Title
Curaçao Valerie Belon Consul General and Chief of Mission
Hong Kong and Macau Stephen M. Young Consul General and Chief of Mission
Jerusalem Daniel Rubinstein Consul General and Chief of Mission
Taiwan Christopher J. Marut Director of the Taipei office of the American Institute in Taiwan
Cuba John Caulfield Chief of Mission, United States Interests Section in Havana

Selected past ambassadors

Well-known past ambassadors from the United States:

Ambassadors killed in office

Eight United States Ambassadors have been killed in office, six of them by armed attack and the other two in plane crashes.34

Name Ambassador to Place of death Date of death Killed by
Laurence A. Steinhardt Canada Ramsayville, Ontario, Canada March 28, 1950 plane crash
John Gordon Mein Guatemala Guatemala City, Guatemala August 28, 1968 attack by Fuerzas Armadas Rebeldes
Cleo A. Noel, Jr. Sudan Khartoum, Sudan March 2, 1973 attack by Black September
Rodger Davies Cyprus Nicosia, Cyprus August 19, 1974 attack during Greek Cypriot demonstration
Francis E. Meloy, Jr. Lebanon Beirut, Lebanon June 16, 1976 attack by Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
Adolph Dubs Afghanistan Kabul, Afghanistan February 14, 1979 attack by Setami Milli
Arnold L. Raphel Pakistan Bahawalpur, Pakistan August 17, 1988 plane crash
J. Christopher Stevens Libya Benghazi, Libya September 12, 2012 attack on a U.S. diplomatic mission

Nations without exchange of ambassadors

  • Bhutan: According to the United States Department of State, "The United States and the Kingdom of Bhutan have not established formal diplomatic relations; however, the two governments have informal and cordial relations."35 Informal contact with the nation of Bhutan is maintained through the U.S. Embassy in New Delhi.35
  • Cuba: Although the island country of Cuba is a close neighbor to the United States, the U.S. interacts with Cuba only via a U.S. Interests office at the Swiss Embassy in Havana and Washington, D.C.36 The U.S. broke diplomatic relations with Cuba on January 3, 1961.
  • Iran: On April 7, 1980, the United States broke diplomatic relations with theocratic Iran.37 On April 24, 1981, the Swiss government assumed representation of U.S. interests in Tehran, and Algeria assumed representation of Iranian interests in the U.S.38 Currently, Iranian interests in the United States are represented by the government of Pakistan. The U.S. Department of State named Iran a "State Sponsor of Terrorism" on January 19, 1984.39
  • North Korea: The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is not on friendly terms with the U.S., and while talks between the two countries are ongoing, there is no exchange of ambassadors. Sweden functions as Protective Power for the United States in Pyongyang, including consular responsibility for U.S. citizens.40

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ U.S. Senate – Powers & Procedure Retrieved 25 May 2012.
  2. ^ Henry B. Hogue. "Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). Congressional Research Service, the Library of Congress. Retrieved 2012-05-25. 
  3. ^ a b The U.S. Ambassador to Spain—resident at Madrid—is also accredited to Andorra.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g The United States Ambassador to Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean, resident in Bridgetown, Barbados, is concurrently accredited to Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
  5. ^
  6. ^ In 1989 the military government of Burma changed the name of the nation to Myanmar, but the United States government—and other Western governments—still refer to the country as Burma in official usage. See Myanmar.
  7. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Antananarivo—is accredited to Madagascar and Comoros.
  8. ^ The United States does not currently maintain diplomatic relations with Cuba. U.S. interests in Cuba are handled by the U.S. Interests section of the Embassy of Switzerland in Havana.
  9. ^ The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is not recognized by the United Nations, the United States, nor any other country aside from Turkey.
  10. ^ a b c d e One ambassador—resident at Suva—is accredited to Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga, and Tuvalu. Source U.S. Embassy Suva.
  11. ^ a b As of December 2006, the U.S. ambassador to France is also accredited to Monaco.
  12. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Libreville—is accredited to Gabon and São Tomé and Príncipe. Source: U.S. State Department
  13. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Dakar—is accredited to Guinea-Bissau and Senegal.
  14. ^ The United States does not currently maintain diplomatic relations with Iran. U.S. interests in Iran are handled by the U.S. Interests section of the Embassy of Switzerland in Tehran.
  15. ^ a b c The U.S. Ambassador to Rome is also accredited to San Marino. The U.S. Consulate in Florence handles matters concerned with San Marino.
  16. ^ The United States does not currently maintain diplomatic relations with North Korea. American citizens who travel to North Korea do so at their own risk and in some cases in violation of U.S. and/or UN sanctions.
  17. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Bern—is accredited to Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
  18. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Colombo—is accredited to Maldives and Sri Lanka.
  19. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Port Louis—is accredited to Mauritius and Seychelles.
  20. ^ Until December 2006, the United States and Monaco had no formal diplomatic relations (exchange of ambassadors). The U.S. Consul General in Marseille, France, under the authority of the U.S. Ambassador to France, managed relations with Monaco. In December 2006, the United States and Monaco upgraded from consular to full diplomatic relations and Ambassador Craig Stapleton (France) was accredited to Monaco. Source: Department of State: Background notes on Monaco, U.S. Embassy in France: U.S. Diplomatic Mission to Monaco.
  21. ^ a b One ambassador—resident at Wellington—is accredited to New Zealand and Samoa.
  22. ^ a b Until 2005 one ambassador—resident at Manila—was accredited to the Philippines and Palau. Source: CIA World Factbook. Helen Reed-Rowe is the first ambassador to Palau to be confirmed in 2010.
  23. ^ a b c One ambassador—resident at Port Moresby—is accredited to Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu.
  24. ^ The United States does not recognize the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, nor does the US recognize Moroccan claims to sovereignty over Western Sahara. Sources: Western Sahara, Foreign relations of Western Sahara, Foreign relations of Morocco.
  25. ^ The United States has no diplomatic relations with Somalia. The last ambassador to Somalia was James Keough Bishop when the embassy in Mogadishu was closed on January 5, 1991. Source: U.S State Department.
  26. ^ "Virtual Presence Post Somalia". 
  27. ^ Abkhazia and South Ossetia are not recognized by the United Nations, the United States, nor any other countries aside from Russia, Nicaragua and Venezuela.
  28. ^ The U.S. Embassy in Khartoum was closed on February 7, 1996. Timothy Michael Carney was the last ambassador to Sudan. The embassy was reopened on May 23, 2002, with Jeffrey Millington as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim. There has been no U.S. ambassador in Khartoum since then. Source U.S. Department of State.
  29. ^ Ambassador Margaret Scobey was recalled February 2005 in protest of Rafik Hariri assassination. Ref: U.S. Department of State press release, Background notes on Syria, BBC News. Ambassador Scobey has since been reassigned as the ambassador to Egypt.
  30. ^ The United States established relations with the People's Republic of China in 1979. Since then, relations between the US and Taiwan are carried out by the American Institute in Taiwan in Taipei.
  31. ^ The ambassador to the U.K. is known as the "Ambassador to the Court of St. James's."
  32. ^ President Chavez ordered the expulsion of the U.S. Ambassador, John Duddy, on September 11, 2008 in solidarity with the Bolivian government's decision to expel the U.S. Ambassador in La Paz. The U.S. Government ordered the reciprocal expulsion of the Venezuelan Ambassador in Washington. Source: U.S. Department of State Background Notes on Venezuela
  33. ^
  34. ^ "US Ambassadors Killed in the Line of Duty". Associated Press. 2012-09-12. Retrieved 2012-09-12. 
  35. ^ a b "Bhutan (08/04)". United States Department of State. 
  36. ^ May, Donald (January 17, 1961). "U.S. Halts Tourist Travel to Cuba; Special Permit Required for Visit". The Washington Post. p. A1. 
  37. ^ Goshko, John M.; Walsh, Edward (April 8, 1980). "U.S. Breaks Diplomatic Ties With Iran: Carter Breaks Ties, Orders Ouster of Iranian Diplomats". The Washington Post. p. A1. 
  38. ^ "Former No. 2 Iran Diplomat To Be Allowed Back in U.S.". The Washington Post. April 25, 1980. p. A27. 
  39. ^ "Chapter 3 - State Sponsors of Terrorism Overview". Retrieved 2011-09-04. 
  40. ^
  41. ^ Roy, Denny (2003). Taiwan: a political history (1. publ. ed.). Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801488054. 

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