Temporal range: Pleistocene - present
(Daudin, 1802 [originally Crocodilus)
|American Alligator range map|
The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), sometimes referred to colloquially as a gator or common alligator, is a large crocodilian reptile endemic to the southeastern United States. It is one of two living species in the genus Alligator within the family Alligatoridae and larger than the other extant alligator species, the Chinese alligator. Adult male American alligators measure 3.4 m (11 ft) to 4.6 m (15 ft) in length, and can weigh 453 kg (999 lb). Females are smaller, measuring around 3 m (9.8 ft). The American alligator inhabits freshwater wetlands, such as marshes and cypress swamps from Texas to North Carolina. It is distinguished from the sympatric American crocodile by its broader snout, with overlapping jaws and darker coloration, and is less tolerant of seawater but more tolerant of cooler climates than the American crocodile which is found only in tropical climates.
Alligators are apex predators and consume fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Hatchlings feed mostly on invertebrates. Alligators play an important role as ecosystem engineers in wetland ecosystems through the creation of alligator holes which provide both wet and dry habitats for other organisms. Throughout the year, but especially during the breeding season, alligators bellow to declare territory and locate suitable mates.2 Male alligators use infrasound to attract females. Eggs are laid in a nest of vegetation, sticks, leaves, and mud in a sheltered spot in or near the water. Young are born with yellow bands around their bodies and are protected by their mother for up to one year.3
The American alligator is listed as Least Concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Historically, hunting has decimated their population and the American alligator was listed as an endangered species by the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Subsequent conservation efforts have allowed their numbers to increase and the species was removed from the list in 1987. Alligators are now harvested for their skins and meat. The species is the official state reptile of three states: Florida, Louisiana and Mississippi.
- 1 Taxonomy and phylogeny
- 2 Characteristics
- 3 Distribution and habitat
- 4 Ecology and behavior
- 5 Conservation status
- 6 Relationships with humans
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 External links
The American alligator was first classified by French zoologist François Marie Daudin as Crocodilus mississipiensis in 1801. Georges Cuvier classified the genus Alligator in 1807.4 The American alligator shares this genus with the Chinese alligator. They are grouped in the family Alligatoridae with the caimans. The superfamily Alligatoroidea includes all crocodilians (fossil and extant) that are more closely related to the American alligator than to either the Nile crocodile or the gharial.5
Members of this superfamily first arose in the Late Cretaceous. Leidyosuchus of Alberta is the earliest known genus. Fossil alligatoriods have been found throughout Eurasia as land bridges across both the North Atlantic and the Bering Strait have connected North America to Eurasia during the Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene periods. Alligators and caimans split in North America during the late Cretaceous and the latter reached South America by the Paleogene, before the closure of the Isthmus of Panama during the Neogene period. The Chinese alligator likely descended from a lineage that crossed the Bering land bridge, also during the Neogene. The modern American alligator is well represented in the fossil record of the Pleistocene.6 The alligator's full mitochondrial genome was sequenced in the 1990s and it suggests that animal evolved at a rate similar to mammals and more than birds and other cold-blooded vertebrates.7
Wild alligators range from long and slender to short and robust, possibly due to variations in factors like growth rate, diet and climate. Alligators have broad snouts, especially in captive individuals. When the jaws are closed, the edge of the upper jaws covers the lower teeth which fit into the jaws' depressions. Like the spectacled caiman, this species has a bony nasal ridge, though it is less prominent.8 The teeth number from 74–84.8 Dorsally, adult alligators may be olive, brown, gray or black in color while their undersides are cream colored.9 The American alligator also has a Critically Endangered Asian relative; the Chinese alligator.
Some alligators are missing an inhibited gene for melanin, which makes them albino. These alligators are extremely rare and almost impossible to find in the wild. They could survive only in captivity as they are very vulnerable to the sun and predators.10
The American alligator is a fairly large species of crocodilian, with males reaching an average maximum size of 4.6 m (15 ft) in length, weighing up to 453 kg (999 lb), while females grow to a maximum of 3 m (9.8 ft).1112 Occasionally, a large, old male may measure longer.1314 There have been reports during the 19th and 20th centuries of larger males reaching 5 to 6 m (16.4 to 19.7 ft).8 The largest reported size was a male killed in 1890 on Marsh Island, Louisiana and reportedly measured at 5.8 m (19 ft) in length but no voucher specimen was available since the alligator was left on a muddy bank after having been taped due to having been too massive to relocate.14 If the size of this animal was correct, it would have weighed around 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). The largest alligator shot in Florida was 5.31 m (17.4 ft), as reported by the Everglades National Park.1516 However on average, American alligators do not reach such extreme sizes. In males, size averages at around 3.4 to 4 m (11.2 to 13 ft) in length, weighing slightly in excess of 227 kg (500 lb), while in smaller females, it averages 2.7 m (8.9 ft), weighing slightly in excess of 91 kg (201 lb).17 Weight varies depending on length, age, health, season and available food sources. Similar to other reptiles, American alligators from the northern end of their range, such as southern Arkansas, Alabama, and northern North Carolina, tend to grow to smaller sizes. The largest alligator caught in Alabama was only 3.86 m (12.7 ft) in length, weighing 306.2 kg (675 lb).18
When on land, the alligator moves either by sprawling or walking, the latter involving the reptile lifting its belly off the ground. The sprawling of alligators and other crocodilians is not identical to the sprawling of salamanders and lizards, being similar to walking. Thus the two forms of territorial locomotion can be termed the "low walk" and the "high walk". Unlike most another land vertebrates, alligators increase their speed through the distal rather than proximal ends of their limbs.19 In the water, alligators swim like fish; moving their pelvic regions and tails from side to side.20 American alligators held the record as having the strongest laboratory-measured bite of any living animal, measured at up to 9,452 newtons (2,125 lbf) in laboratory conditions. It should be noted that this experiment had not at the time of the paper published been replicated in any other crocodilians and the same laboratory was able to measure a greater bite force in saltwater crocodiles.2122 During respiration, airflow is unidirectional; looping through the lungs during inhalation and exhalation.23
American alligators are only found in the Southeastern United States, from Great Dismal Swamp in North Carolina, south to Everglades National Park in Florida and west to the southern tip of Texas. They are found in the U.S. states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Texas, and Oklahoma. Alligators inhabit swamps, streams, rivers, ponds and lakes. Females and juveniles are also found in Carolina Bays and other seasonal wetlands. While they prefer freshwater, alligators sometimes enter more brackish water.24 However they are less tolerant of saltwater than crocodiles as the salt glands on their tongues are non-functioning.25 One study of alligators in north-central Florida found that males preferred open lake water during the spring while females used both swampy and open water areas. During summer, males still preferred open water while females stuck to the swamps to construct their nests and lay their eggs. Both sexes may den underneath banks or clumps of trees during the winter.26
American alligators are less vulnerable to cold than American crocodiles. Unlike the crocodile, which would immediately succumb to the cold and drown in water of 45 °F (7.2 °C), an alligator can survive in such temperatures for some time without any signs of discomfort.27 It is thought that this adaptiveness is the reason why American alligators spread farther north than the American crocodile.27 In fact, the American alligator is found farther from the equator and is more equipped to deal with cooler conditions than any other crocodilian.28 When the water begins to freeze, alligators stick their snouts though the surface which allows them to breathe above the ice.24
Alligators modify wetland habitats, most dramatically in flat areas such as the Everglades, by constructing small ponds known as alligator holes. This behavior has qualified the American alligator to be considered a keystone species. Alligator holes retain water during the dry season and provide a refuge for aquatic organisms. Aquatic organisms that survive the dry season by seeking refuge in alligator holes are a source of future populations. The construction of nests along the periphery of alligator holes as well as a build up of soils during the excavation process provide drier areas for other reptiles to nest and a place for plants that are not tolerant of inundation to colonize. Alligator holes are oases during the Everglades dry season and are consequently important foraging sites for other organisms.29 In the limestone depressions of cypress swamps, alligator holes tend to be large and deep while those in marl prairies and rocky glades are usually small and shallow and those in peat depressions of ridge and slough wetlands are more variable.30 Alligators play an important role in the restoration of the Everglades as biological indicators of restoration success.31 Alligators are highly sensitive to changes in the hydrology, salinity, and productivity of their ecosystems; all factors that are expected to change with Everglades restoration. Alligators also may control the long term vegetation dynamics in wetlands by reducing the population of small mammals, particularly nutria, which may otherwise over-graze marsh vegetation.32 In this way, they provide a vital ecological service that may be important in reducing rates of coastal wetland losses in Louisiana.33 It is believed that alligators may provide a protection service for water birds nesting on islands in freshwater wetlands. Alligators prevent predatory mammals from reaching island based rookeries and in return eat spilled food and birds that fall from their nests. Wading birds appear to be attracted to areas with alligators and have been known to nest at heavily trafficked tourist attractions with large numbers of alligators, such as the St. Augustine Alligator Farm in St. Augustine, Florida.34
The American alligator is considered the apex predator throughout its range. They are opportunists and their diet is determined largely by both the size and age of the predating alligator and the size and availability of prey. Most alligators will eat a wide variety of animals, including invertebrates, fish, birds, turtles, snakes, amphibians and mammals, in their life cycle. Hatchlings mostly feed on invertebrates such as insects, larvae, snails, spiders, and worms. As they grow, alligators gradually move on to larger prey. Once an alligator reaches adulthood, any animal living in the water or coming to the water to drink is potential prey, due to the size and power of the alligator. However, most animals captured by alligators are considerably smaller than the alligator itself.8 Stomach contents show that, amongst native mammals, muskrats and raccoons are some of the most commonly eaten species. In Louisiana, where introduced nutria (a large aquatic rodent) are common, they are perhaps the most regular prey for adult alligators, although it is only larger adults alligators that commonly eat this species.32
Other animals may occasionally be eaten, even large deer or feral wild boars, but these are not normally part of the diet. Occasionally, domestic animals, including dogs and calves, are taken as available but are secondary to wild and feral prey.8 Water birds, such as herons and egrets, storks and waterfowl, are taken when possible. Occasionally, unwary adult birds are grabbed and eaten by alligators, but most predation on bird occurs on unsteady fledgling birds in late summer as they attempt to make their first flights near the water's edge. Other prey, including snakes, lizards and various invertebrates are eaten occasionally by adults.13
Fish and other aquatic prey taken in the water or at the water edge form the major part of alligator's diet and may be eaten at any time of the day or night. Adult alligators also spend considerable time hunting on land, up to 50 m (170 feet) from water, ambushing terrestrial animals on trailsides and road shoulders. Usually, terrestrial hunting occurs on nights with warm temperatures.35 When hunting terrestrial prey, alligators may also ambush them from the edge of the water by grabbing them and pulling the prey into the water, the preferred method of predation of larger crocodiles.13 The teeth of the alligator are designed to grip prey but can not rip or chew flesh like dentition of some other predators (such as canids and felids). The alligator is capable of biting though a turtle's shell or a moderately sized mammal bone.36
In 2013, it was reported that alligators and other crocodilians also eat fruit, as was confirmed by herpetologist Steven Platt et al. Such behavior has been witnessed as well as documented from stomach contents, with the alligators eating such fruit as wild grapes, elderberries and citrus fruits directly from the trees. The discovery of this unexpected part of the alligator diet further reveals that alligators may be responsible for spreading seeds from the fruit it digests across its habitat.37
American alligators have been documented using lures to hunt prey such as birds.38 This means they are among the first reptiles recorded to use tools. By balancing sticks and branches on their heads, American alligators are able to lure birds looking for suitable nesting material to kill and consume. This strategy, which is shared by the Mugger crocodile, is particularly effective during the nesting season, in which birds are more likely to gather appropriate nesting materials. 39
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Crocodilians are the most vocal of all reptiles and have a variety of different calls depending on the age, size, and sex of the animal.40 The American alligator can perform specific vocalizations to declare territory, signal distress, threaten competitors, and locate suitable mates. Juvenile alligators can perform a High-pitched hatchling call (a trait common to many crocodilian species' hatchling young) to alert their mother when they are ready to emerge from the nest. Juveniles will also make a distress call to alert their mother if they are being threatened. Although alligators have no vocal cords, both males and females bellow loudly to attract mates and declare territory by sucking air into their lungs and blowing it out in intermittent, deep-toned roars. The bellowing of the American alligator is distinct from the loud roaring of most crocodilians and is considered unique. Male alligators are known to use infrasound during mating bellows. Bellowing is performed in a "head oblique tail arched" posture also known as HOTA. Infrasonic waves from a bellowing male alligator can cause the surface of the water that is directly over and to either side of their back to literally "sprinkle" in what is commonly called the "water dance".41 Large bellowing "choruses" of alligators during the breeding season are commonly initiated by females and perpetuated by males.42 Observers of large bellowing choruses have noted that they are often felt more than they are heard due to the intense infrasound emitted by males. It has been discovered that alligators bellow in B flat and bellowing choruses can be induced by tuba players, sonic booms, and large aircraft.43 In addition to bellowing, alligators can growl, hiss, or cough to threaten others and declare territory.
The breeding season begins in the spring. Recently it was discovered that on spring nights alligators gather in large numbers for group courtship, the so-called "alligator dances".44 The female builds a nest of vegetation, sticks, leaves, and mud in a sheltered spot in or near the water. After she lays her 20 to 50 white eggs, about the size of a goose egg, she covers them with more vegetation, which heats as it decays, helping to keep the eggs warm. This differs from Nile crocodiles which lay their eggs in pits.27
The temperature at which alligator eggs develop determines their sex (see temperature-dependent sex determination). Those eggs which are hatched at a temperature of 34 °C (93 °F) or more become males, while those at a temperature of 30 °C (86 °F) or lower become female. The nests built on levees are warmer and thus produce males while the cooler nests of wet marsh produce females.45 The female will remain near the nest throughout the 65-day incubation period, protecting it from intruders. When the young begin to hatch the mother quickly digs them out and carries them to the water in her mouth,8 as some other crocodilian species are known to do.
The young are tiny replicas of adult alligators with a series of yellow bands around their bodies that serve as camouflage.8 Hatchlings gather into pods and are guarded by their mother and keep in contact with her through vocalizations. Young alligators eat small fish, frogs, crayfish and insects.46 They are themselves preyed on by large fish, birds, raccoons and adult alligators.8 Mother alligators eventually become more aggressive towards their young, which encourages them to disperse.46 Young alligators grow 3–8 in (7.6–20 cm) a year and reach adulthood at 6 ft (1.8 m).24 An alligator can live up to 30 to 50 years.
Nutria were introduced into coastal marshes from South America in the mid-1900s, and since then their population has exploded into the millions. They cause serious damage to coastal marshes and may dig burrows in levees. Hence, Louisiana has had a bounty to try to reduce nutria numbers. Large alligators, however, feed heavily on nutria, and thus alligators may not only control nutria populations in Louisiana, but prevent them spreading east into the Everglades. Since hunting and trapping preferentially take the large alligators that are the most important in eating nutria, some changes in harvesting may be needed to capitalize on the ability of alligators to control nutria.32
Recently, a population of non-native Burmese Pythons has become established in Everglades National Park. While there have been observed events of predation by Burmese pythons on alligators and vice versa, there is currently no evidence of a net negative effect on alligator populations.474849
Historically, hunting and habitat loss has decimated alligator populations throughout their range, and it was doubted as to whether the species would survive. In 1967, the alligator was listed as an endangered species (under a law that was the precursor Endangered Species Act of 1973), since it was believed to be in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.50
Both the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and state wildlife agencies in the South contributed to the American alligator's recovery. Protection under the Endangered Species Act allowed the species to recuperate in many areas where it had been depleted. States begin monitoring their alligator populations to ensure that they would continue to grow. In 1987, the Fish and Wildlife Service removed the animal from the endangered species list as it was considered to be fully recovered. The Fish and Wildlife Service still regulates the legal trade in alligators and their products to protect still endangered crocodilians that may be passed off as alligators during trafficking.50
Alligators are capable of killing humans, but are generally wary enough not to see them as a potential prey. Mistaken identity leading to an attack is always possible, especially in or near cloudy waters. Alligators are often less aggressive towards humans than large crocodile species, a few of which (mainly the Nile and Saltwater crocodile) may prey on humans with some regularity.1451 Alligator bites are serious injuries due to the reptile's sheer bite force and risk of infection. Even with medical treatment, an alligator bite may still result in a fatal infection.52
As human populations increase, and as they build houses in low lying areas, fish, or hunt near water, there are inevitably incidents where alligators threaten, or at least appear to threaten, human life. Since 1948, there have been 275 documented attacks on humans in Florida (that is, about five incidents per year), of which at least 17 resulted in death.53 There were only nine fatal attacks in the US throughout the 1970s–90s, but alligators killed 12 people between 2001 and 2007. In May 2006, alligators killed three Floridians in less than a week.54
Since the late 1880s, Alligator wrestling has been a source of great entertainment. Created by the Miccosukee and Seminole tribes prior to the arrival of Europeans, this tourism tradition continues to the present day despite criticism from animal rights activists.55
Today alligator farming is a large, fast growing industry in Georgia, Florida, Texas and Louisiana. These states produce a combined annual total of some 45,000 alligator hides. Alligator hides bring good prices and hides in the 6 to 7 feet (1.8 to 2.1 m) range have sold for $300 each.56 The market for alligator meat is growing and approximately 300,000 pounds (140,000 kg) of meat is produced annually.57 According to the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, raw alligator meat contains roughly 200 calories (840 kJ) per 3 ounces (85 g) serving size, of which 27 calories (130 kJ) come from fat.58
The American alligator is the official state reptile of three states: Florida,59 Louisiana60 and Mississippi.61 In addition, Gators has been the nickname of the University of Florida's sports teams since 1911. In that year, a printer made a spur-of-the-moment decision to print an alligator emblem on a shipment of the school's football pennants; the mascot stuck, perhaps because the team captain's nickname was Gator.62
- Alligator (film), a movie about a giant alligator living in the sewer of an Illinois town
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alligator mississippiensis.|
- Crocodilian Online
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