Angle of attack
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In fluid dynamics, angle of attack (AOA, or (Greek letter alpha)) is the angle between a reference line on a body (often the chord line of an airfoil) and the vector representing the relative motion between the body and the fluid through which it is moving.1 Angle of attack is the angle between the body's reference line and the oncoming flow. This article focuses on the most common application, the angle of attack of a wing or airfoil moving through air.
In aerodynamics, angle of attack specifies the angle between the chord line of the wing of a fixed-wing aircraft and the vector representing the relative motion between the aircraft and the atmosphere. Since a wing can have twist, a chord line of the whole wing may not be definable, so an alternate reference line is simply defined. Often, the chord line of the root of the wing is chosen as the reference line. Another choice is to use a horizontal line on the fuselage as the reference line (and also as the longitudinal axis).2 Some authors34 do not use an arbitrary chord line, but use the zero lift axis instead — zero angle of attack corresponds to zero coefficient of lift.
Some British authors have used the term angle of incidence instead of angle of attack. However, this can lead to confusion with the term riggers' angle of incidence meaning the angle between the chord of an aerofoil and some fixed datum in the aeroplane.5
The lift coefficient of a fixed-wing aircraft varies with angle of attack. Increasing angle of attack is associated with increasing lift coefficient up to the maximum lift coefficient, after which lift coefficient decreases.6
As the angle of attack of a fixed-wing aircraft increases, separation of the airflow from the upper surface of the wing becomes more pronounced, leading to a reduction in the rate of increase of the lift coefficient. The figure shows a typical curve for a cambered straight wing. A symmetrical wing has zero lift at 0 degrees angle of attack. The lift curve is also influenced by wing planform. A swept wing has a lower, flatter curve with a higher critical angle.
The critical angle of attack is the angle of attack which produces maximum lift coefficient. This is also called the "stall angle of attack". Below the critical angle of attack, as the angle of attack increases, the coefficient of lift (Cl) increases. At the same time, above the critical angle of attack, as angle of attack increases, the air begins to flow less smoothly over the upper surface of the airfoil and begins to separate from the upper surface. On most airfoil shapes, as the angle of attack increases, the upper surface separation point of the flow moves from the trailing edge towards the leading edge. At the critical angle of attack, upper surface flow is more separated and the airfoil or wing is producing its maximum coefficient of lift. As angle of attack increases further, the upper surface flow becomes more and more fully separated and the airfoil/wing produces less coefficient of lift.6
Above this critical angle of attack, the aircraft is said to be in a stall. A fixed-wing aircraft by definition is stalled at or above the critical angle of attack rather than at or below a particular airspeed. The airspeed at which the aircraft stalls varies with the weight of the aircraft, the load factor, the center of gravity of the aircraft and other factors. However the aircraft always stalls at the same critical angle of attack. The critical or stalling angle of attack is typically around 15° for many airfoils.
Some aircraft are equipped with a built-in flight computer that automatically prevents the aircraft from increasing the angle of attack any further when a maximum angle of attack is reached, irrespective of pilot input. This is called the 'angle of attack limiter' or 'alpha limiter'. Modern airliners that have fly-by-wire technology avoid the critical angle of attack by means of software in the computer systems that govern the flight control surfaces.
In takeoff and landing operations from short runways, such as Naval Aircraft Carrier operations and STOL back country flying, aircraft may be equipped with angle of attack or Lift Reserve Indicators. These indicators measure the angle of attack (AOA) or the Potential of Wing Lift (POWL, or Lift Reserve) directly and help the pilot fly close to the stalling point with greater precision. STOL operations require the aircraft to be able to operate close to the critical angle of attack during landings and at the best angle of climb during takeoffs. Angle of attack indicators are used by pilots for maximum performance during these maneuvers since airspeed information is only indirectly related to stall behaviour.
Some military aircraft are able to achieve very high angles of attack, but at the cost of massive induced drag. This provides the aircraft with great agility. A famous military example is sometimes thought to be Pugachev's Cobra. This high pitch (the angle between the chord and level flight) maneuver is technically, by definition, not quite a true angle of attack,7 but is more accurately, supermaneuvering89 by means of thrust vectoring the whole airframe -- as the airflow, motion vector and wing chord or primary lift devices, are not in a classical angle-of-attack relationship.
Additional aerodynamic surfaces known as "high-lift devices" including leading edge wing root extensions allow fighter aircraft much greater flyable 'true' alpha, up to over 45°, compared to about 20° for aircraft without these devices. However, military aircraft usually do not obtain such high alpha in combat, as it robs the aircraft of speed very quickly. Not only do such maneuvers slow the aircraft down, but they cause significant structural stress at high speed. Modern flight control systems tend to limit a fighter's angle of attack to well below its maximum aerodynamic limit.citation needed
A boat's angle of attack is the angle between the boat's course and the wind direction. See points of sail.
- Advance ratio
- Angle of incidence
- Angle of sideslip
- Bernoulli's principle
- Drag equation
- Lift coefficient
- Lift (force)
- Stall (flight)
- Zero lift axis
- "NASA aeronautics guided tour".
- Gracey, William (1958). "Summary of Methods of Measuring Angle of Attack on Aircraft". NACA Technical Note (NASA Technical Reports) (NACA-TN-4351): 1–30.
- John S. Denker, See How It Flies. http://www.av8n.com/how/htm/aoa.html#sec-def-aoa
- Wolfgang Langewiesche, Stick and Rudder: An Explanation of the Art of Flying, McGraw-Hill Professional, first edition (September 1, 1990), ISBN 0-07-036240-8
- Kermode, A.C. (1972), Mechanics of Flight, Chapter 3 (8th edition), Pitman Publishing Limited, London ISBN 0-273-31623-0
- "NASA Lift Coefficient".
- Timothy Cowan
- Evans, Robin C. "HOW A SAIL BOAT SAILS INTO THE WIND". Reports on How Things Work. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
- Lawford, J.A. and Nippress, K.R.; Calibration of Air-data Systems and Flow Direction Sensors (NATO) Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, AGARDograph No. 300 Vol. 1 (AGARD AG-300 Vol. 1); "Calibration of Air-data Systems and Flow Direction Sensors"; Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment, Boscombe Down, Salisbury, Wilts SP4 OJF, United Kingdom
- USAF & NATO Report RTO-TR-015 AC/323/(HFM-015)/TP-1 (2001).