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Anglican Use personal parishes in the United States were founded by former members of the Episcopal Church in the United States who join the Catholic Church as members of the Latin Rite and who wish to maintain some features of Anglicanism. Anglican Use is the liturgical worship of Anglican Use parishes, a form found in the Book of Divine Worship.
Anglican Use parishes are also called Pastoral Provision parishes, being established in accordance with the Pastoral Provision granted by Pope John Paul II on 20 June 1980,12 which permitted the ordination as Catholic priests of married former clergy of the Episcopal Church for service either in such personal parishes or elsewhere in Catholic dioceses of the United States.3
The remote origins of the demand for such an arrangement has been ascribed to the Oxford Movement in nineteenth-century England.2 More immediately the demand arose because of developments in the Episcopal Church in the United States of America in the 1970s, which began to ordain women as priests and bishops, rejected traditional teaching on human sexuality, blessed homosexual unions and ordained those who were openly living in such unions.4
In 1977, some of those who desired union with the Catholic Church contacted individual Catholic bishops, the Apostolic Delegate Archbishop Jean Jadot and the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in Rome, to inquire about the possibility for married Anglican priests to be received into the Catholic Church and function as Catholic priests.2
After the United States National Conference of Catholic Bishops and the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith had reacted favorably to the proposals that had been put before them, a formal request for union was presented in Rome on 3 November 1979 for acceptance into the Roman Catholic Church, for steps to be taken to eliminate any defects that might be found in their priestly orders, and that they be granted the oversight, direction, and governance of a Catholic bishop. They offered the allegiance of their whole hearts and minds and souls, and also "with that allegiance the Anglican patrimony that has been ours in so far as it is compatible with, acceptable to and an enhancement of Catholic teaching and worship".5
The decision of the Holy See was officially communicated in a letter of 22 July 1980 from the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith to the president of the United States episcopal conference, who published it on 20 August 1980.2
Though admittance of the Episcopalians in question to the Catholic Church was considered as reconciliation of individuals, the pastoral provision gave them a common group identity.6 After a period of being subject to the local Latin Rite bishop, the bishop could set up personal parishes for them, with the use, within the group, of a form of liturgy that retained certain elements of the Anglican liturgy; and married Episcopalian priests could on a case-by-case basis be ordained as Catholic priests, but not as bishops.47
An ecclesiastical delegate, a Catholic and preferably a bishop, was to be appointed to oversee the implementation of the decision and to deal with the Congregation.8
In March 1981, Bishop Bernard Francis Law was appointed Ecclesiastical Delegate. He was replaced by Newark Archbishop John J. Myers in 2003 and Kevin W. Vann in 2011. William H. Stetson, a priest of the Prelature of Opus Dei, is Secretary to the Ecclesiastical Delegate.1
In 1983, the first Anglican Use parish, Our Lady of the Atonement, was established in San Antonio, Texas. Our Lady of Walsingham parish in Houston, Texas followed the next year.9 Concern about ecumenical relations with the Episcopal Church prevented the Archbishop of Los Angeles from authorizing the establishment in his archdiocese of personal parishes of the kind envisaged, in spite of requests from two groups, whose membership exceeded that of any of the groups for which personal parishes were set up in other dioceses. The petitioners were told that they could only be received as members of the existing ordinary Catholic parishes.2 Since 1983 over 100 former Anglicans have been ordained for priestly ministry in various Catholic dioceses of the United States.310
On 9 December 2009, Pope Benedict XVI issued the Apostolic Constitution Anglicanorum Coetibus, authorizing the establishment of personal ordinariates for former Anglicans. One was established for the United States on 1 January 2012 under the title of the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter.1112
Canonical differences between the Anglican Use parishes and the personal ordinariate are outlined in a study published in the 23 January 2012 issue of the National Catholic Reporter.13 The Anglican Use parishes have not yet joined the new personal ordinariate. A meeting of the Anglican Use Society was scheduled for 8–10 November 2012, in which the leader of the personal ordinariate would take part.14
The Anglican Use is an authorized liturgical variant of the Roman Rite of the Latin Church. The Latin Church includes among its liturgical rites the widespread Roman Rite, the Ambrosian Rite of Milan, the Mozarabic Rite celebrated in the Cathedral of Toledo, the Braga Rite in some parts of northern Portugal, and specific uses of religious orders. The Catholic Church also includes several Eastern Catholic Churches, which are alongside the Latin Church but not within it.
The Anglican Use liturgy reflects many influences, including the Sarum Use, the English Missal, and the 1928 and 1979 versions of the Episcopal Book of Common Prayer, as well as the Roman Missal. Anglican Use liturgy and the 1962 Tridentine Latin Mass have very similar structures. Distinctive features of such Masses include 16th-century English (e.g., "thee" and "thou"), greater use of incense and bell-ringing, and English chants and hymns.15
The Congregation for Divine Worship gave provisional approval for the Anglican Use liturgy, the Book of Divine Worship, in 1984, an approval rendered definitive in 1987. This book incorporates elements of the 1928 Book of Common Prayer, but the Eucharistic liturgy is from the 1979 Book, with the Eucharistic Prayers taken from the Roman Missal and the ancient Sarum Rite (with the modern English Words of Institution inserted in the latter).2 New texts were promulgated by the congregation on 22 June 2012, namely the Order for Funerals and the Order for the Celebration of Holy Matrimony.16
- Personal ordinariate
- Sacerdotalis Caelibatus
- Unitatis Redintegratio
- Western Rite Orthodoxy
- Stetson, William H., "History of the Pastoral Provision", Office of the Ecclesiastical Delegate for the Pastoral Provision website
- Jack D. Barker, "A History of the Pastoral Provision for Roman Catholics in the USA", chapter 1 of Cavanaugh, Stephen E., Anglicans and the Roman Catholic Church, Ignatius Press 2011, ISBN 9781586174996
- Office of the Ecclesiastical Delegate for the Pastoral Provision
- Richert, Scott P. "Differences Between Anglicanism and Roman Catholicism". Catholicism. About.com. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
- Cavanaugh, Steve (2011), "Appendix A", Anglicans and Roman Catholics, Ignatius Press, ISBN 9781586174996
- Letter of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, I
- Letter, II
- Letter, V
- Mueller, Mary Ann (2009-06-17). "'Anglican Use' Catholic Liturgy". Catholic.org. p. 1. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "Cardinal announces establishment of US Anglican ordinariate". 16 November 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- Cardinal Levada, William (1 January 2012). Decree of Erection of the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter. Holy See.
- Bauman, Michelle (3 January 2012 (1 January 2012 print edition)). "New U.S. Anglican Ordinariate Has an Ordinary". National Catholic Register. EWTN News, Inc. Retrieved 2012-01-06.
- Fiteau, Jerry (23 January 2012), "New ordinariate and 1980 pastoral provision: An analysis", National Catholic Reporter
- 2012 Anglican Use Conference
- Mueller, Mary Ann (2009-06-17). "'Anglican Use' Catholic Liturgy". Catholic.org. p. 2. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- Letter of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith communicating the pastoral provision
- Office of the Ecclesiastical Delegate for the Pastoral Provision
- Anglican Use Society
- Unitatis Redintegratio, Decree from Second Vatican Council
- A Place Has Been Prepared: "Anglican Use" Catholic Parishes (article)
- Historical documents on Anglican-Roman Catholic relations
- The Book of Divine Worship (BDW)
- Online version of Anglican Use Mass, Rite 1, according to the BDW
- Online version of the Daily Office from the BDW
- Text of the Anglican Use Mass