5,000,000 Native Indonesians with Arab ancestry2
|Regions with significant populations|
Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi & Maluku
|Indonesian, Arabic, Indonesian regional languages|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Hadhramis, Arab diaspora|
Arab Indonesians are citizens of Indonesia of Arab, mainly Hadrami, descent. Restricted under Dutch East Indies' law until 1919, the community elites later gained economic power through real estate investment and trading. Currently found mainly in Java and South Sumatra, they are almost all (generally orthodox) Muslims.
Indonesia has had contact with the Arab world for hundreds of years, prior to the emergence of Islam in Indonesia. Most contact was with spice traders, but the first Arab settlements in the archipelago may date from the fifth century. Some later founded dynasties, including the Sultanate of Pontianak, while others intermingled with existing kingdoms. These early communities adopted much of the local culture, and some disappeared entirely while others formed ethnically distinct communities.3
Modern Arab Indonesians are generally descended from Hadramis, They were classified as "foreign orientals" along with Chinese Indonesians by the Dutch colonists, which led to them being unable to attend certain schools and restricted from travelling, and having to settle in special Arab districts, or kampung Arab. These laws were repealed in 1919.4
The community elites began to build economic power through trade and real estate acquisition, buying large amounts of real estate in Batavia (modern-day Jakarta), Singapore and other parts of the archipelago. Through charity work and "conspicuous consumption", they built and protected their social capital; eventually, some Arab Indonesians joined the Volksraad, the people's council of the Dutch East Indies.5
During the Indonesian National Awakening, Arab Indonesians began to experience hostility from native Indonesians owing to their foreign descent; they also experienced hostility from the Dutch. This led to the formation of organizations exclusively for Arab Indonesians beginning in 1913; these organizations viewed the Arabian peninsula as a homeland and tended to ignore Indonesia. An Indonesian nationalistic movement, Persatoean Arab Indonesia, was founded by Abdurrahman Baswedan in 1934, eventually leading to a "cultural reorientation".6
Indonesian scholar Azyumardi Azra depicts Indonesians of Arab descent as wishing to purge Indonesian Islam of its indigenous religious elements. Indonesian critics of Arab influence in Indonesia point to the founding of the radical group Jemaah Islamiah (JI) and leadership of Laskar Jihad (LJ) and Front Pembela Islam by Indonesian Arabs,.78
First generation immigrants are referred to as wulayātī or totok. They are a small minority of the Arab Indonesian population. The majority, muwallad, were born in Indonesia and may be of mixed heritage.9
Arab Indonesians are almost all Muslim; according to the 2000 census, 98.27 percent of Arab Indonesians are Muslim, compared to 88.22 percent of the general population. Historically, most have lived in kauman, or the area around mosques, but this has changed in recent years.11 The majority are Sunni, following the Shafi'i school of Islamic law; a growing minority are Shia.12 Children are generally sent to madrasahs.13
The Islam practiced by Arab Indonesians tends to be more orthodox than the local, indigenous-influenced forms like abangan. Many Arab Indonesians attempt to convince local Muslims to follow a more orthodox form of Islam as well.7
- Ali Alatas (half-Sundanese), former Minister of Foreign Affairs14
- Abdurrahman Baswedan, founder of Persatoean Arab-Indonesia14
- Abu Bakar Bashir, suspected head of Jemaah Islamiyah14
- Alwi Shihab, Indonesian statesman
- Asyifa Latief (half-Sundanese), Miss Indonesia 2010
- Haddad Alwi, Indonesian Nasheed singer
- Irfan Bachdim (half-Dutch), Indonesian footballer
- Munir Said Thalib (half-Javanese), human rights activist
- Raden Saleh (half-Javanese), Romanticist painter during Dutch colonial era
- Sultan Hamid II (half-Malay), Designer of Garuda Pancasila, national emblem of Indonesia
- Tuanku Imam Bonjol (Muhammad Syahab), a hero in the Indonesian struggle against Dutch rule
- Suryadinata 2008, p. 29.
- Hadramaut dan Para Kapiten Arab
- Cribb & Kahin 2004, pp. 18–19.
- Jacobsen 2009, p. 54.
- Freitag 2003, pp. 237–239.
- Jacobsen 2009, pp. 54–55.
- Diederich 2005, p. 140.
- Fealy 2004, pp. 109-110.
- Jacobsen 2009, pp. 21-22.
- Suryadinata 2008, p. 32.
- Suryadinata 2008, pp. 29-30.
- Jacobsen 2009, p. 19.
- Jacobsen 2009, p. 21.
- Cribb & Kahin 2004, pp. 18-19.
- Cribb, Robert; Kahin, Audrey (2004). Historical Dictionary of Indonesia. Historical dictionaries of Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-4935-8.
- Diederich, Mathias (2005). "Indonesians in Saudi Arabia: Religious and Economic Connections". In Al-Rasheed, Madawi. Transnational Connections and the Arab Gulf. London: Rutledge. pp. 128–146. ISBN 978-0-203-39793-0.
- Fealy, Greg (2004). "Islamic Radicalism in Indonesia: The Faltering Revival?". Southeast Asian Affairs (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies): 104–124. ISSN 0377-5437.
- Freitag, Ulrike (2003). Indian Ocean Migrants and State Formation in Hadhramaut: Reforming the Homeland. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-12850-7.
- Jacobsen, Frode (2009). Hadrami Arabs in Present-day Indonesia : an Indonesia-oriented Group with an Arab Signature. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-48092-5.
- Suryadinata, Leo (2008). Ethnic Chinese in Contemporary Indonesia. Singapore: Chinese Heritage Centre and Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-981-230-835-1.