Army of Northern Virginia

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Army of Northern Virginia
Flag of the Army of North Virginia.svg
Flag of the Army of Northern Virginia during Lee's command
Active October 22, 1861-Most units deactivated January–April 1862, last units deactivated April 9, 1865
Country  Confederate States of America
Branch  Confederate States Army
Role Premier Confederate Army in Eastern Theater
Garrison/HQ Richmond, Virginia
Engagements American Civil War
Commanders
Notable
commanders
P. G. T. Beauregard
Joseph E. Johnston
Gustavus Woodson Smith
Robert E. Lee

The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War, as well as the primary command structure of the Department of Northern Virginia. It was most often arrayed against the Union Army of the Potomac. Three districts were created under the Department of Northern Virginia:

While the Aquia and Potomac Districts ceased to exist by the spring of 1862, the need remained for military organization in the Valley throughout the remainder of the war, and the Valley District remained in place for the duration of the war.

Origin

Army of Northern Virginia Battle Flag, designed by William Porcher Miles

The name Army of Northern Virginia referred to its primary area of operation, as did most Confederate States Army names at the time. The Army originated as the (Confederate) Army of the Potomac, which was organized on June 20, 1861, from all operational forces in northern Virginia. On July 20 and July 21, the Army of the Shenandoah and forces from the District of Harpers Ferry were added. Units from the Army of the Northwest were merged into the Army of the Potomac between March 14 and May 17, 1862. The Army of the Potomac was renamed Army of Northern Virginia on March 14. The Army of the Peninsula was merged on April 12, 1862.1

Robert E. Lee's biographer, Douglas S. Freeman, asserts that the army received its final name from Lee when he issued orders assuming command on June 1, 1862.2 However, Freeman does admit that Lee corresponded with Joseph E. Johnston, his predecessor in army command, prior to that date and referred to Johnston's command as the Army of Northern Virginia. Part of the confusion results from the fact that Johnston commanded the Department of Northern Virginia (as of October 22, 1861) and the name Army of Northern Virginia can be seen as an informal consequence of its parent department's name. Jefferson Davis and Johnston did not adopt the name, but it is clear that the organization of units as of March 14 was the same organization that Lee received on June 1, and thus it is generally referred to today as the Army of Northern Virginia, even if that is correct only in retrospect.

In addition to Virginians, it included regiments from all over the Confederacy, even those as far away as Georgia, Texas and Arkansas. Of those, one of the most well known was the Texas Brigade, made up of the 1st, 4th, and 5th Texas, and the 3rd Arkansas, which distinguished themselves in numerous battles, perhaps most notably during their fight for the Devil's Den at the Battle of Gettysburg. The 50th Georgia Volunteer Infantry are Georgia's most famous contribution to the army.

Command under Brigadier General P. G. T. Beauregard

Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard

The first commander of the Army of Northern Virginia was General P.G.T. Beauregard (under its previous name, the Confederate Army of the Potomac) from June 20 to July 20, 1861. His forces consisted of six brigades, with various militia and artillery from the former Department of Alexandria. During his command, Gen. Beauregard is noted for creating the battle flag of the army, which came to be the primary battle flag for all corps and forces under the Army of Northern Virginia. The flag was designed due to confusion during battle between the Confederate "Stars and Bars" flag and the flag of the United States. Beauregard continued commanding these troops as the new First Corps under Gen. J. E. Johnston as it was joined by the Army of the Shenandoah on July 20, 1861, when command was relinquished to General J. E. Johnston. The following day this army fought its first major engagement in the First Battle of Manassas.

Command under General J. E. Johnston

Gen. J. E. Johnston

With the merging of the Army of the Shenandoah, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston took command from July 20, 1861, until May 31, 1862.

Corps organization under Johnston

  • First Corps - commanded by Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard
  • Second Corps - commanded by Maj. Gen. G. W. Smith

Under the command of Johnston, the Army immediately entered into the First Battle of Manassas. On October 22, 1861, the Department of Northern Virginia was officially created, officially ending the Army of the Potomac. The Department comprised three districts: Aquia District, Potomac District, and the Valley District. In April 1862 the Department was expanded to include the Departments of Norfolk and the Peninsula (of Virginia). Gen. Johnston was eventually forced into maneuvering the Army southward to the defenses of Richmond during the opening of the Peninsula Campaign, where it conducted delay and defend tactics until Johnston was severely wounded at the Battle of Seven Pines.

Temporary command under Major General G. W. Smith

The army was very briefly commanded by Maj. Gen. Gustavus Woodson Smith on May 31, 1862, following the wounding of Gen. J. E. Johnston, while President Jefferson Davis drafted orders to place Gen. Robert E. Lee in command the following day.

Command under General R. E. Lee

General Robert E. Lee, commander of the Army of Northern Virginia
Organization of the Army of Northern Virginia at the time of the Battle of Fredericksburg (December 1862)
Organization of the Army of Northern Virginia at the time of the Battle of the Wilderness (May 5–7, 1864)

On June 1, 1862, its most famous and final leader, General Robert E. Lee, took command after Johnston was wounded, and Smith suffered what may have been a nervous breakdown, at the Battle of Seven Pines. In the first year of his command, Lee had two principal subordinate commanders. The right wing of the army was under the command of Lt. Gen. James Longstreet and the left wing under Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. These wings were redesignated as the First Corps (Longstreet) and Second Corps (Jackson) on November 6, 1862. Following Jackson's death after the Battle of Chancellorsville, Lee reorganized the army into three corps on May 30, 1863, under Longstreet, Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell, and Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill. A Fourth Corps, under Lt. Gen. Richard H. Anderson, was organized on October 19, 1864; on April 8, 1865, it was merged into the Second Corps. The commanders of the first three corps changed frequently in 1864 and 1865. The Cavalry Corps was led by Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart. It was established on August 17, 1862, and abolished on May 11, 1864 (the day Stuart was mortally wounded), with cavalry units being assigned to the headquarters of the Army. The Reserve Artillery was commanded by Brig. Gen. William N. Pendleton.1

Corps organization under Lee

Although the Army of Northern Virginia swelled and shrank over time, its units of organization consisted primarily of the following corps, sometimes referred to as "wings" or "commands":

Campaigns and battles

The Army fought in a number of campaigns and battles, including:

Campaign Year Army strength at the beginning of campaign Major Battles
Peninsula Campaign 1862 55,633 Seven Pines (Fair Oaks)
Seven Days Battles 1862 approx. 92,000 Gaines' Mill, Malvern Hill
Northern Virginia Campaign 1862 approx. 54,000 Second Bull Run (Second Manassas)
Maryland Campaign 1862 approx. 60,000 Antietam (Sharpsburg)
Fredericksburg Campaign 1862 approx. 75,000 Fredericksburg
Chancellorsville Campaign 1863 approx. 75,000 Chancellorsville
Gettysburg Campaign 1863 75,054 Gettysburg
Bristoe Campaign 1863 55,221  
Mine Run Campaign 1863 approx. 50,000  
Overland Campaign 1864 62,230 Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House, Cold Harbor
Richmond–Petersburg Campaign 1864–65 82,633 Siege of Petersburg, including the Battle of the Crater
Appomattox Campaign 1865 around 50,000 Five Forks, Battle of Appomattox Court House

On April 9, 1865, the Army of Northern Virginia surrendered to the Army of the Potomac at Appomattox Court House, effectively ending the Civil War, with General Lee signing the papers of surrender to General Ulysses S. Grant. The day after his surrender, Lee issued his Farewell Address to the Army of Northern Virginia.

History of the army

Organization October 22, 1861

Battleflag made out of silk from November, 1861

The Military district of Northern Virginia was embattled on October 22, 1861.3 The commander was General Joseph E. Johnston. The military district consisted of three defence districts.

Defence district Division Brigade Commander/Officers in charge
Potomac General P.G.T. Beauregard
1. Division Major General Earl Van Dorn
2. Division Major General Gustavus W. Smith
3. Division Major General James Longstreet
4. Division Major General Edmund Kirby Smith
Aquia Major General Theophilus H. Holmes
French's Brigade Brigadier General Samuel Gibbs French
2. Brigade Brigadier General John G. Walker
Valley Major General Thomas J. Jackson
Garnett's Brigade Brigadier General Richard B. Garnett
Ashby's Cavalry Colonel Turner Ashby

On February 28, 1862, there were 47,617 soldiers present for duty to the military district.4 The Cavalry Brigade was provided from the Potomac's Military District and under direct control from the Defense District. The artillery formed an Artillery Corps with 109 cannons.

Organization April 30, 1862

Battleflag made of wool, 1862

The Military District of Northern Virginia was never renamed into The Army of Northern Virginia during the District's existence. This designation was forced through General Lee taking supreme command. The name was mentioned for the first time in the order for the Defence Districts of Virginia Peninsula and Norfolk on April 12, 1862 about the diversification of command.5 On April 30, 1862 the army was structured as follows:6

Wing of the Army Division Brigade Commander/Officers in charge
Left wing Major General John B. Magruder
McLaws' Division Brigade General Lafayette McLaws
Toombs' Division Brigadier General Robert A. Toombs
Ewell's Brigade Colonel B. S. Ewell
Center Major General James Longstreet
A.P. Hill's Brigade Brigadier General Ambrose P. Hill
Anderson's Brigade Brigadier General Richard H. Anderson
Colston's Brigade Brigadier General Raleigh E. Colston
Pickett's Brigade Brigadier General George E. Pickett
Wilcox's Brigade Brigadier General Cadmus M. Wilcox
Pryor's Brigade Colonel G. A. Winston
Left Emplacement Major General Daniel H. Hill
Early's Division Brigadier General Jubal A. Early
Early's Brigade Brigadier General Jubal A. Early
Rodes' Brigade Brigadier General Robert E. Rodes
Rains' Division Brigadier General Gabriel J. Rains
Rains' Brigade Brigadier General Gabriel J. Rains
Featherston's Brigade Brigadier General Winfield S. Featherston
Gloucester Point Colonel Crump
Reserve Major General Gustavus W. Smith
Whiting's Brigade Brigadier General W. H. C. Whiting
Hood's Brigade Brigadier General John B. Hood
Colston's Brigade Brigadier General Raleigh E. Colston
Hampton's Brigade Colonel Wade Hampton
Anderson's Brigade Brigadier General Samuel R. Anderson
Pettigrew's Brigade Brigadier General James J. Pettigrew
Cavalry Brigade Brigadier General J. E. B. Stuart

At the outset of the Peninsula Campaign the Army of Northern Virginia had more than 55,633 soldiers. The cannon was assigned to the brigades, as well as the Reserve's artillery. Nominally, Jackson's Corps in the Shenandoah Valley, was subordinate to the Army. Since Jackson led his own campaign at the time of the Peninsula Campaign and was not under Lee's direct command this overview does not include his three divisions.

The Army's organization soon proved inept in the course of the Peninsula Campaign. The corps-like structure was rearranged before the Seven Days Battle to converge with the requirements of actual command. In the course of this battle the Army featured two Corps; Jackson's and Magruder's, with four and three divisions respectively, and three actual divisions with five to six brigades. Also the Defense District of North Carolina answered directly to the Army as well as the Reserve Artillery with six battalions and the cavalry with six regiments.7 The army's complete strength was about 90,000 soldiers. The exact strength cannot be determined, because only a few notes for actual provisionings survived. The estimated strength results, if not explicitly noted, from in-battle dispatches.

Organization at the setout of the Northern Virginia Campaign

The Seven Days Battle showed the Army still suffered from insufficient organization in army command. General Lee subdivided the army again, but this time only with single commands. He introduced a corps-like structure of command, and as an intermediate army management he named the left and right wing. The Army was organized on August 28, 1862 as follows.8

Wing of the Army/Army troops Division Brigade/Combat support Commander/Officers in charge
Right Wing 3 Artillery Battalions Major General James Longstreet
Anderson's Division 3 Brigades Major General Richard H. Anderson
Jones's Division 3 Brigades Brigadier General David Rumph Jones
Wilcox's Division 3 Brigades / 2 Artillery Batteries Brigadier General Cadmus M. Wilcox
Hood's Division 2 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Brigadier General John B. Hood
Kemper's Division 3 Brigades Brigadier General James L. Kemper
Evan's Brigade / 1 Artillery Battery Brigadier General Nathan George Evans
Left Wing Major General Thomas J. Jackson
Jackson's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Regiment Brigadier General William B. Taliaferro
Hill's Light Division 6 Brigades / 1 Artillery Regiment Major General Ambrose P. Hill
Ewell's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Regiment Major General Richard S. Ewell
Cavalry Division 3 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battery Major General J. E. B. Stuart

The Army's Reserve Artillery consisted of one regiment and two battalions. They stayed in the area of Richmond in the course of the whole Northern Virginia Campaign and only returned on September 3, 1862 to the Army. Major General Hill's Division also remained in the eastern parts of Richmond with the order to bind McClellan's attention as long as possible.9 As it became predictable that the Army of the Potomac would soon be transferred to support Pope, Lee ordered the Division north.10 Hill never entered battle in the campaign. A total of about 54,000 soldiers saw action throughout the campaign.

Organization at the Beginning of the Maryland Campaign

The Army's losses before and following the Battle of Second Manassas needed to be replaced before the Maryland Campaign could commence. While fundamental changes in the Army's command structure were not necessary, General Lee exchanged divisions and brigades or added additional strength to some. The wings of the Army were now officially called 'Corps'. In the Maryland Campaign the Army was subdivided as follows.11

Corps / Army group Division Brigade/Combat support Commander/Officers in charge
Longstreet's Corps 2 Artillery Battalions Major General James Longstreet
Anderson's Division 6 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General Richard H. Anderson
Jones's Division 6 Brigades / 4 Artillery Batteries Brigadier General David Rumph Jones
McLaws's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General Lafayette McLaws
Hood's Division 2 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Brigadier General John B. Hood
Walker's Division 2 Brigades / 2 Batteries Brigadier General John G. Walker
Evans's Brigade / 1 Artillery Battery Brigadier General Nathan George Evans
Jackson's Corps Major General Thomas J. Jackson
Jackson's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Regiment Brigadier General John R. Jones
Hill's Light Division 6 Brigades / 1 Artillery Regiment Major General Ambrose P. Hill
Hill's Division 5 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General Daniel H. Hill
Ewell's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Regiment Brigadier General Alexander R. Lawton
Cavalry Division 3 Brigades / 3 Artillery Batteries Major General J. E. B. Stuart
Reserve Artillery 4 Battalions / 5 Batteries Brigadier General William N. Pendleton

While organization of the corps was found to be generally reliable, the corps' subdivision into four or five divisions hampered overall ease of command. General Lee had already considered before the Battle of Antietam to slim down the overall structure, but intended there be no changes in leadership. The Confederate Congress authorized the establishment of the Corps, and President Davis affirmed the assignment of the commanders and promoted Major Generals Longstreet and Jackson to Lieutenant Generals. General Lee announced this in Special Order 234 on November 6, 1862.12 About 60,000 soldiers served at the Maryland Campaign.

Battleflag made from wool, 1863

Organization from May 30, 1863 until April 9, 1865

Lee took Jackson's death as an opportunity to subdivide the North Virginia Corps again. President Jefferson Davis agreed to the subdivision and ordered Lee in his Special Order Nr. 146 to reorganize the Army.13

Corps/Army group Division Brigade/Combat support Commander/Officers in charge
I Corps Lieutenant General James Longstreet
Pickett's Division 3 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General George E. Pickett
McLaws's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General Lafayette McLaws
Hood's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General John B. Hood
II Corps Lieutenant General Richard S. Ewell
Early's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General Jubal A. Early
Johnson's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General Edward Johnson
Rodes's Division 5 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General Robert E. Rodes
III Corps Lieutenant General A.P. Hill
Anderson's Division 5 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General Richard H. Anderson
Heth's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General Henry Heth
Pender's Division 4 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General W. Dorsey Pender
Cavalry Division 6 Brigades / 1 Artillery Battalion Major General J. E. B. Stuart
Reserve Artillery 6 Battalions Brig. General William N. Pendleton
Imboden's Command gem. Brigade / 1 Artillery Battery Brigadier General John D. Imboden

Lee ordered the artillery battalions of the Reserve Artillery to serve directly with the Corps for the duration of the Gettysburg Campaign. The Army of Northern Virginia now comprised a total of 75,054 soldiers at the Battle of Gettysburg.14

The army fielded more than 241 cannons following the Battle of Gettysburg.15 The artillery battalions were merged into the Artillery Reserve again following the end of the campaign.

On September 9, General Lee had to dispatch the First Corps to Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee. Following this the army was resubordinated again. Changes were not significant; only the cavalry saw important reorganization.16

Corps / Army group Division Brigade/Combat support Commander/Officers in charge
II Corps 5 Artillery Battalions Lieutenant General Richard S. Ewell
Early's Division 4 Brigades Major General Jubal A. Early
Johnson's Division 4 Brigades Major General Edward Johnson
Rodes's Division 5 Brigades Major General Robert E. Rodes
III Corps 5 Artillery Battalions Lieutenant General A.P. Hill
Anderson's Division 5 Brigades Major General Richard H. Anderson
Heth's Division 4 Brigades Major General Henry Heth
Wilcox's Division 4 Brigades Major General Cadmus M. Wilcox
Cavalry Corps 1 Artillery Battalion Major General J. E. B. Stuart
Hampton's Division 2 Brigades Major General Wade Hampton
Lee's Division 3 Brigades Major General Fitzhugh Lee
Reserve Artillery 2 Battalions Major General William N. Pendleton
Defense District of Shenandoah Valley gem. Brigade / 1 Artillery Battery Brigadier General John D. Imboden
Cooke's Brigade Brigadier General John R. Cooke

The Army's strength was then 55,221 soldiers. The changes in command until December 31, 1863 were only minor. Cooke's Brigade was assigned to serve with Heth's Division, Hampton's Division grew by a cavalry brigade and the Third Corps gained an additional artillery battalion. Imboden's Command remained at Shenandoah Valley and was taken over by Major General Early as the Defense District of Shenandoah Valley. The strength of the army was 54,715 men on December 31.

The organization of the Army of Northern Virginia did not change until the end of the war. The Army featured several corps, the corps featured several divisions, and the artillery was divided between the corps. The strength of the Army grew in the first six months from about 46,380 to 62,230 soldiers. The army was assigned in July to the Defense District of North Carolina and Richmond. In the course of the Richmond-Petersburg Campaign the number of soldiers temporarily grew to 82,633 while parts of the Army were under the command by Lieutenant General Early in Shenandoah Valley.

In 1864 the Army of Northern Virginia fought against the more than twice as strong Potomac-, James- and Shenandoah Army in Grant's Overland Campaign, Early's Raid against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the Richmond-Petersburg Campaign, and Shenandoah Campaign in the Shenandoah Valley. The Army's organization for January 31, 186517 because 69,659 soldiers were fit for battle, but a minimum of 4,500 had no rifles.18

Corps / Army group Division Brigade/Combat support Commander/Officers in charge
I Corps 6 Artillery Battalions Lieutenant General James Longstreet
Pickett's Division 4 Brigades Major General George E. Pickett
Field's Division 5 Brigades Major General Charles W. Field
Kershaw's Division 4 Brigades Major General Joseph B. Kershaw
II Corps 4 Artillery Battalions Major General John B. Gordon
Early's Division 3 Brigades Brigadier General John Pegram
Gordon's Division 3 Brigades Brigadier General Clement A. Evans
Rodes's Division 4 Brigades Brigadier General Bryan Grimes
III Corps 7 Artillery Battalions Lieutenant General A.P. Hill
Mahone's Division 5 Brigades Major General William Mahone
Heth's Division 4 Brigades Major General Henry Heth
Wilcox's Division 4 Brigades Major General Cadmus M. Wilcox
Anderson's Corps 4 Artillery Battalions Lieutenant General Richard H. Anderson
Johnson's Division 4 Brigades Major General Bushrod Rust Johnson
Defense District of Shenandoah Valley 6 Artillery Battalions Lieutenant General Jubal A. Early
Wharton's Division 3 Infantry / 1 Cavalry Brigades Brigadier General John A. Wharton
Cavalry Corps 3 Artillery Battalions Major General Wade Hampton
Lee's Division 3 Brig Major general William H. F. Lee

Following Lieutenant General A.P. Hill's death on April 2, 1865 the Third Corps was dissolved and assigned to the First Corps. On April 9, 1865, General Lee surrendered. One day later he thanked his men and his officers for their bravery and sturdiness and announced the dismissal of all troops on their word of honor in General Order No. 9.19 The listings of the Army of Northern Virginia say that 28,231 soldiers were dismissed on their word of honor on April 10, 1865.20

Legacy

The Army of Northern Virginia is one of the most respected military formations in American history. Although usually outnumbered, it won victories in the American Civil War at Fredericksburg, Second Manassas, Chancellorsville, and Cold Harbor. Additionally, it successfully drove the Army of the Potomac away from the "gates" of Richmond in the Seven Days Battles, effectively ending McClellan's Peninsula Campaign in 1862. The army held out against long odds in the 1864 Overland Campaign and the Siege of Petersburg, inflicting grievous casualties on the opposing forces of Grant. These successes sometimes gave the army a psychological advantage over its enemies. However, the army was most defined by its commander, Robert E. Lee. To this day, the army and Lee are famed in Southern culture.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Eicher, pp. 889-90.
  2. ^ Freeman, Vol. II, p. 78 and footnote 6.
  3. ^ The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band V, S. 913f: General Orders No. 15
  4. ^ The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band V, S. 1086: Army's day-service strength
  5. ^ The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band V, S. 438: Special Order No. 6
  6. ^ The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XI, Part III, S. 479 - 484: Disposition on April,30 1862
  7. ^ The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XI, Part II, S. 483ff: Disposition at the beginning of the Seven Days Battle
  8. ^ The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XII, Part II, S. 546ff: Disposition on the setout of the Northern Virginia Campaign
  9. ^ The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XII, Part II, S. 176: Hill's order
  10. ^ The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XII, Part II, S. 553: Hill's stay
  11. ^ The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XIX, Part I, S. 803ff: Disposition on the setout of the Maryland Campaign
  12. ^ The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XIX, Part II, S. 698f: Nomination of Commanding Generals
  13. ^ The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XXV, Part II, S. 840: Special Orders No. 146
  14. ^ National Park Service: Army's day-service strength
  15. ^ The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XXV, Part II, S. 355ff: Artillery in the armory following the Battle of Gettysburg
  16. ^ The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XXIX, Part I, S. 398ff: Disposition on September,30 1863
  17. ^ The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XLVI, Part II, S. 1170ff: Disposition on January,31 1865
  18. ^ The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XLVI, Part I, S. 384ff: Army's strength on January,31 1865
  19. ^ The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XLVI, Part I, S. 1267: Dismissal
  20. ^ The War of the Rebellion, Series I, Band XLVI, Part I, S. 1277ff: Discharge on word of honor

References

  • Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Freeman, Douglas S., R. E. Lee, A Biography (4 volumes), Scribners, 1934.
  • Freeman, Douglas S. R. E. Lee. A Biography. 4. Bde., Charles Scribner's Sons, New York und London 1934f. online here
  • Freeman, Douglas S. Lee's Lieutenants. A Study in Command. 3 Bde., Scribners, New York 1942–1944.
  • Katcher, Philip R. N. & Youens, Michael: The Army of Northern Virginia - Osprey Verlag 1975 Men at Arms Series Book Nr. 37 - ISBN 0-85045-210-4
  • Katcher, Philip R. N. & Volstad Ron: American Civil War Armies 1 - Confederate Troops - Osprey Verlag 1986 Men at Arms Series Book Nr. 170 - ISBN 0-85045-679-7
  • Katcher, Philip R. N. & Volstad Ron: American Civil War Armies 3 - Specialist Troops - Osprey Verlag 1987 Men at Arms Series Book Nr. 179 - ISBN 0-85045-722-X
  • United States. War Dept.: The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Govt. Print. Off., Washington 1880–1901, online here.

Further reading

External links








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