|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2010)|
Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM)
Members of the ASEM in blue
The Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM) was officially established in 1996 at the first summit in Bangkok, Thailand. ASEM is an interregional forum which consists of 28 members of the European Union (EU), the European Commission, the 10 members of ASEAN, the ASEAN Secretariat, China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea as of 2008,1 India, Mongolia, and Pakistan, Australia, Russia and New Zealand as of 2010,2 and as of 2012 Bangladesh, Norway, and Switzerland. The main components of the ASEM process are the following so-called three pillars:
- Political Pillar
- Economical Pillar
- Social, Cultural and Educational Pillar
In general, the process is considered by the parties involved to be a way of deepening the relations between Asia and Europe at all levels, which is deemed necessary to achieve a more balanced political and economic world order. The process is enhanced by the biennial meetings of heads of state, alternately in Europe and Asia, and biennial meetings of Foreign Ministers as well as political, economic, and socio-cultural meetings and events at various levels.
ASEM currently has 51 partners: 49 countries and 2 international organizations. The partners are Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Laos, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Malta, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, the United Kingdom, Viet Nam, the European Commission and the ASEAN Secretariat.
The summits, attended by the heads of state and government of the respective members, have been held in:
- ASEM 10: 01/30 November 2014, Milan, Italy
- ASEM 9: 05/6 November 2012, Vientiane, Laos
- ASEM 8: 04/5 October 2010, Brussels, Belgium
- ASEM 7: 24/25 October 2008, Beijing, China
- ASEM 6: 10/11 September 2006, Helsinki, Finland
- ASEM 5: 08/9 October 2004, Hanoi, Vietnam
- ASEM 4: 22/24 September 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark
- ASEM 3: 20/21 October 2000, Seoul, Republic of Korea
- ASEM 2: 03/4 April 1998, London, United Kingdom
- ASEM 1: 01/2 March 1996, Bangkok, Thailand
Aside from summits, ministerial meetings are held on foreign affairs, economic, financial, environmental, cultural or educational issues, attended by the relevant government ministers.
- The 8th ASEM Foreign Ministers' Meeting: 28/29 May 2007, Hamburg, Germany
- The 9th ASEM Foreign Ministers' Meeting: 25/26 May 2009, Hanoi, Vietnam
- The 10th ASEM Foreign Ministers' Meeting: 06/7 June 2011, Gödöllő, Hungary
- The 11th ASEM Foreign Ministers' Meeting: 11/12 November 2013, New Delhi, India
Furthermore, ministerial conferences are held when needs arise to discuss specific issues and areas beyond the regular ministerial meetings.
- Asia-Europe Foundation (ASEF), the only physical institution under the ASEM framework.
- Asia-Europe Museum Network (ASEMUS)
- European Union (EU)
- Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
- Lay Hwee Yeo (2003). Asia and Europe: the development and different dimensions of ASEM. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-30697-3.
- ASEM ministers wrap up ‘productive’ session
- ASEM InfoBoard, the official information platform of the Asia-Europe Meeting process
- Introduction to the Asia-Europe Meeting
- ASEM in Its Tenth Year: Looking Forward, Looking Back
- Asia-Europe Foundation (ASEF)
- ASEF University Alumni Network (ASEFUAN
- Asia-Europe Museum Network (ASEMUS)
- Asia-Europe Classroom Network (AEC-NET)
- Asia-Europe People's Forum
- Asia-Europe Institute (AEI)