Atheism in Hinduism
Atheism (Sanskrit: निरीश्वरवाद, nir-īśvara-vāda, lit. "statement of no Lord", "doctrine of godlessness") or disbelief in God or gods has been a historically propounded viewpoint in many of the orthodox and heterodox streams of Hindu philosophies.12 Generally, atheism is valid in Hinduism, but some schools view the path of an atheist to be difficult to follow in matters of spirituality.3
Hinduism is a religion, but also a philosophy.4 Klaus Klostermaier, a prominent scholar of Hinduism, says that Hinduism is more than myth, ritual, doctrine, as it affects other aspects of existence such as economics, politics, and law.5 Among the various schools of Hindu philosophy, Mimamsa, and Samkhya while not rejecting Brahman, typically rejects a personal God, creator God, or a God with attributes. While Samkhya rejected the idea of an eternal, self-caused, creator God, Mimamsa argued that the Vedas could not have been authored by a deity.
The Sanskrit term Āstika ("pious, orthodox") refers to the systems of thought which admit the validity of the Vedas.7 Sanskrit asti means "there is", and Āstika (per Pāṇini 4.2.60) derives from the verb, meaning "one who says 'asti'". Technically, in Hindu philosophy the term Āstika refers only to acceptance of authority of Vedas, not belief in the existence of God.8 However, though not accepted universally, Āstika is sometimes translated as "theist" and Nāstika as "atheist", assuming the rejection of Vedas to be synonymous to the rejection of God.9 In Indian philosophy, three schools of thought are commonly referred to as nastika for rejecting the doctrine of Vedas: Jainism, Buddhism and Cārvāka. In this usage, nastika refers to the non-belief of Vedas rather than non-belief of God.7 However, all these schools also rejected a notion of a creationist god and so the word nastika became strongly associated with them.
The Rig Veda, the oldest of the Vedas, deals with a lot of skepticism when dealing with the fundamental question of a creator God and the creation of the universe. It does not, at many instances, categorically accept the existence of a creator God. Nasadiya Sukta (Creation Hymn) in the tenth chapter of the Rig Veda states:1011
Whence was it produced? Whence is this creation?
The gods came afterwards, with the creation of this universe.
The Brihadaranyaka, Isha, Mundaka (in which Brahman is everything and "no-thing") and especially Chandogya Upanishads have also been interpreted as atheistic because of their stress on the subjective self.12
Mimamsa was a realistic, pluralistic school of philosophy which was concerned with the exegesis of the Vedas.13 The core text of the school was the Purva Mimamsa Sutras of Jaimini (c. 200 BCE–200 CE). Mimamsa philosophers believed that the revelation of the Vedas was sacred, authorless (apaurusheyatva) and infallible, and that it was essential to preserve the sanctity of the Vedic ritual to maintain dharma (cosmic order).1415:52–53 As a consequence of the belief in sanctity of the ritual, Mimamsas rejected the notion of God in any form.13 Later commentators of the Mimamsa sutras such as Prabhākara (c. 7th century CE) advanced arguments against idea of God.1617 The early Mimamsa not only did not accept God but said that human action itself was enough to create the necessary circumstances for the enjoyment of its fruits.18
Samkhya is an atheistic19 and strongly dualistic2021 orthodox (Astika) school of Indian philosophy. The earliest surviving authoritative text on classical Samkhya philosophy is the Samkhyakarika (c. 350–450 CE) of Iśvarakṛṣṇa.15:63 The Samkhyakarika accepts the notion of higher selves or perfected beings but rejects the notion of God.22
Cārvāka, a materialistic and atheistic school of Indian philosophy, had developed a systematic philosophy by 6th century CE. Cārvākas rejected metaphysical concepts like reincarnation, afterlife, extracorporeal soul, efficacy of religious rites, other world (heaven and hell), fate, and accumulation of merit or demerit through the performance of certain actions. Cārvākas also refused to ascribe supernatural causes to describe natural phenomena. Cārvāka philosophy appears to have died out some time after 1200 CE.23
Ājīvikas (a movement extinct from at least the 13th century CE), whose founder, Makkhali Gosala, was a contemporary of Mahavira and Gautama Buddha (the central figures of Jainism and Buddhism, respectively). Gosala and his followers also denied the existence of a creator god.24
Mimamsas argued that there was no need to postulate a maker for the world, just as there was no need for an author to compose the Vedas or a God to validate the rituals.25 They further thought that the Gods named in the Vedas had no physical existence apart from the mantras that speak their names. In this regard, the power of the mantras was what was seen as the power of Gods.26 Mimamsas reasoned that an incorporeal God could not author the Vedas, for he would not have the organs of speech to utter words. An embodied God could not author the Vedas either because such a God would be subject to the natural limitations of sensory knowledge and therefore, would not be able to produce supernatural revelations like the Vedas.27
Samkhya gave the following arguments against the idea of an eternal, self-caused, creator God:22
- If the existence of karma is assumed, the proposition of God as a moral governor of the universe is unnecessary. For, if God enforces the consequences of actions then he can do so without karma. If however, he is assumed to be within the law of karma, then karma itself would be the giver of consequences and there would be no need of a God.
- Even if karma is denied, God still cannot be the enforcer of consequences. Because the motives of an enforcer God would be either egoistic or altruistic. Now, God's motives cannot be assumed to be altruistic because an altruistic God would not create a world so full of suffering. If his motives are assumed to be egoistic, then God must be thought to have desire, as agency or authority cannot be established in the absence of desire. However, assuming that God has desire would contradict God's eternal freedom which necessitates no compulsion in actions. Moreover, desire, according to Samkhya, is an attribute of prakriti and cannot be thought to grow in God. The testimony of the Vedas, according to Samkhya, also confirms this notion.
- Despite arguments to the contrary, if God is still assumed to contain unfulfilled desires, this would cause him to suffer pain and other similar human experiences. Such a worldly God would be no better than Samkhya's notion of higher self.
- Furthermore, there is no proof of the existence of God. He is not the object of perception, there exists no general proposition that can prove him by inference and the testimony of the Vedas speak of prakriti as the origin of the world, not God.
Therefore, Samkhya maintained that the various cosmological, ontological and teleological arguments could not prove God.
The Indian Nobel Prize-winner Amartya Sen, in an interview with Pranab Bardhan for the California Magazine published in the July–August 2006 edition by the University of California, Berkeley states:28
|“||In some ways people had got used to the idea that India was spiritual and religion-oriented. That gave a leg up to the religious interpretation of India, despite the fact that Sanskrit had a larger atheistic literature than what exists in any other classical language. Madhava Acharya, the remarkable 14th century philosopher, wrote this rather great book called Sarvadarshansamgraha, which discussed all the religious schools of thought within the Hindu structure. The first chapter is "Atheism" – a very strong presentation of the argument in favor of atheism and materialism.||”|
According to Markandey Katju, Chairman of the Press Council of India and former judge of the Supreme Court of India, eight out of the nine systems of Hindu Philosophy are atheistic, as they do not have a place for God in them. Only one of the nine systems, Uttara Mimansa, which is also called Vedanta, has a place for God in it.29
- Brahmananda Swami Sivayogi was an atheist and rationalist who founded the organization Ananda Mahasabha.30
- Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, the president of Hindu Mahasabha, described himself as a Hindu atheist.313233
- Shreela Flather, Baroness Flather of Windsor and Maidenhead (1934– ), the first Hindu woman in British politics. She has described herself as a "Hindu atheist". Broadly, she is an atheist with affinity to secular aspects of Hindu culture such as dress and diet.34
- Anu Garg, author, speaker, and founder of Wordsmith.org.35
- The Speak Tree – The Atheistic Roots of Hindu Philosophy. The Times of India.
- Atheism in Hinduism
- Chakravarti, Sitansu (1991). Hinduism, a way of life. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 71. ISBN 978-81-208-0899-7. "According to Hinduism, the path of the atheist is a very difficult one to follow in matters of spirituality, though it is a valid one."
- P. ix, The Book of Hindu Imagery: Gods, Manifestations and Their Meaning By Eva Rudy Jansen
- P. 126 Today's Woman in World Religions edited by Arvind Sharma
- Pandit, Bansi (2005), Explore Hinduism, Heart of Albion, p. 80, ISBN 978-1-872883-81-6
- Pruthi (2004). Vedic civilization – Culture and civilization series. Discovery Publishing House. p. 214. ISBN 978-81-7141-875-6.
- Kapoor, Subodh. The Systems of Indian Philosophy. Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd. p. 6. ISBN 978-81-7755-887-6.
- Monier-Williams, Monier; Leumann, Ernst; Cappeller, Carl (1999), A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymological And Philologically Arranged With Special Reference To Cognate Indo-european Languages, Asian Educational Services, p. 161, ISBN 978-81-206-0369-1
- Kenneth, Kramer (1986). World scriptures: an introduction to comparative religions. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-8091-2781-8.
- Subodh Varma (May 6, 2011). speculation "The gods came afterwards". Times of India. Retrieved 2011-06-09.
- Bhatt, Chetan (1997). Liberation and purity: race, new religious movements and the ethics of postmodernity. Routledge. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-85728-424-9.
- Vitsaxis, Vassilis (2009), Thought and Faith: The concept of divinity, Somerset Hall Press, pp. 517–518, ISBN 978-1-935244-05-9
- Encyclopædia Britannica (2007)
- King, Richard (1999), Indian Philosophy: An Introduction to Hindu and Buddhist Thought, Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 978-0-7486-0954-3
- Bales, Eugene F. (1987), A Ready Reference to Philosophy East and West, University Press of America, p. 198, ISBN 978-0-8191-6640-1
- Warder, Anthony Kennedy (1998), A Course In Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., p. 187, ISBN 978-81-208-1244-4
- Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan; Poolla Tirupati Raju (1960). The concept of man: a study in comparative philosophy. Allen & Unwin. p. 305.
- Dasgupta, Surendranath (1992). A history of Indian philosophy, Volume 1. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 258. ISBN 978-81-208-0412-8.
- Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism: Past and Present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, p. 264, ISBN 0-691-08953-1
- Sen Gupta, Anima (1986), The Evolution of the Samkhya School of Thought, New Delhi: South Asia Books, p. 6, ISBN 81-215-0019-2
- Sinha, Nandlal (2012), The Samkhya Philosophy, New Delhi: Hard Press, pp. xiii–iv, ISBN 1407698915
- Bhattacharya, Ramkrishna. Materialism in India: A Synoptic View. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Balsham, B.L. (2003). History and Doctrines of the Ājīvikas: A Vanished Indian Religion. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 81-208-1204-2.
- Neville, Robert. Religious truth. p. 51.
- Coward, Harold. The perfectibility of human nature in eastern and western thought. p. 114.
- Cowell, E. B.; Gough, A. E. (2001), The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha or Review of the Different Systems of Hindu Philosophy: Trubner's Oriental Series, Taylor & Francis, pp. 189–191, ISBN 978-0-415-24517-3
- California Magazine
- "Eighth Nehru Memorial Lecture in Jawaharlal Nehru University". Jnu.ac.in. Retrieved 2012-10-01.
- Journal of Indian History (Department of Modern Indian History): 270. 1996 http://books.google.com/books?id=c25DAAAAYAAJ
|url=missing title (help).
- Kumar, Pramod (1992). Towards Understanding Communalism. Chandigarh: Centre for Research in Rural and Industrial Development. p. 348. ISBN 978-81-85835-17-4. OCLC 27810012. "VD Savarkar was publicly an atheist. Even when he was the Hindu Mahasabha leader he used to publicly announce and advertise lectures on atheism, on why god is not there and why all religions are false. That is why when defining Hindutva, he said, Hindutva is not defined by religion and tried to define it in a non-religious term: Punyabhoomi."
- Nandy, Ashis (2003). Time Warps: The Insistent Politics of Silent and Evasive Pasts. Delhi: Orient Longman. p. 71. ISBN 978-81-7824-071-8. OCLC 49616949.
- Quack, Johannes (2011), Disenchanting India:Organized Rationalism and Criticism of Religion in India: Organized Rationalism and Criticism of Religion in India, Oxford University Press, p. 263, ISBN 978-0-19-981260-8
- BBC News
- "330 million gods, and you can't find one to suit you?". vimeo. 2011-03-26. Retrieved 2013-03-25.
- Lokayata/Carvaka - non-believers in ancient India
- Modern Hinduism, Atheism, and their philosophical roots