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|Arguments for atheism|
Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities.12 In a narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities.345 Most inclusively, atheism is the absence of belief that any deities exist.4567 Atheism is contrasted with theism,89 which in its most general form is the belief that at least one deity exists.910
The term atheism originated from the Greek ἄθεος (atheos), meaning "without god(s)", used as a pejorative term applied to those thought to reject the gods worshipped by the larger society. With the spread of freethought, skeptical inquiry, and subsequent increase in criticism of religion, application of the term narrowed in scope. The first individuals to identify themselves using the word "atheist" lived in the 18th century.11
Arguments for atheism range from the philosophical to social and historical approaches. Rationales for not believing in any supernatural deity include the lack of empirical evidence,1213 the problem of evil, the argument from inconsistent revelations, rejection of concepts which cannot be falsified, and the argument from nonbelief.1214 Although some atheists have adopted secular philosophies,1516 there is no one ideology or set of behaviors to which all atheists adhere.17 Many atheists hold that atheism is a more parsimonious worldview than theism, and therefore the burden of proof lies not on the atheist to disprove the existence of God, but on the theist to provide a rationale for theism.18
Atheism is accepted within some religious and spiritual belief systems, including Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Raelism, Neopagan movements19 such as Wicca,20 and nontheistic religions. Jainism and some forms of Buddhism do not advocate belief in gods,21 whereas Hinduism holds atheism to be valid, but some schools view the path of an atheist to be difficult to follow in matters of spirituality.22
Since conceptions of atheism vary, determining how many atheists exist in the world today is difficult.23 According to one 2007 estimate, atheists make up about 2.3% of the world's population, while a further 11.9% are nonreligious.24 According to a 2012 global poll conducted by WIN/GIA, 13% of the participants say they are atheists.25 According to another study, rates of self-reported atheism are among the highest in Western nations, again to varying degrees: United States (4%), Italy (7%), Spain (11%), Great Britain (17%), Germany (20%), and France (32%).26
- 1 Definitions and distinctions
- 2 Concepts
- 3 Atheist philosophies
- 4 Atheism, religion, and morality
- 5 Etymology
- 6 History
- 7 New Atheism
- 8 Demographics
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Definitions and distinctions
Writers disagree how best to define and classify atheism,27 contesting what supernatural entities it applies to, whether it is an assertion in its own right or merely the absence of one, and whether it requires a conscious, explicit rejection. Atheism has been regarded as compatible with agnosticism,28293031323334 and has also been contrasted with it.353637 A variety of categories have been used to distinguish the different forms of atheism.
Some of the ambiguity and controversy involved in defining atheism arises from difficulty in reaching a consensus for the definitions of words like deity and god. The plurality of wildly different conceptions of god and deities leads to differing ideas regarding atheism's applicability. The ancient Romans accused Christians of being atheists for not worshiping the pagan deities. Gradually, this view fell into disfavor as theism came to be understood as encompassing belief in any divinity.38
With respect to the range of phenomena being rejected, atheism may counter anything from the existence of a deity, to the existence of any spiritual, supernatural, or transcendental concepts, such as those of Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism and Taoism.39
Implicit vs. explicit
Definitions of atheism also vary in the degree of consideration a person must put to the idea of gods to be considered an atheist. Atheism has sometimes been defined to include the simple absence of belief that any deities exist. This broad definition would include newborns and other people who have not been exposed to theistic ideas. As far back as 1772, Baron d'Holbach said that "All children are born Atheists; they have no idea of God."40 Similarly, George H. Smith (1979) suggested that: "The man who is unacquainted with theism is an atheist because he does not believe in a god. This category would also include the child with the conceptual capacity to grasp the issues involved, but who is still unaware of those issues. The fact that this child does not believe in god qualifies him as an atheist."41 Smith coined the term implicit atheism to refer to "the absence of theistic belief without a conscious rejection of it" and explicit atheism to refer to the more common definition of conscious disbelief. Ernest Nagel contradicts Smith's definition of atheism as merely "absence of theism", acknowledging only explicit atheism as true "atheism".42
Positive vs. negative
Philosophers such as Antony Flew43 and Michael Martin38 have contrasted positive (strong/hard) atheism with negative (weak/soft) atheism. Positive atheism is the explicit affirmation that gods do not exist. Negative atheism includes all other forms of non-theism. According to this categorization, anyone who is not a theist is either a negative or a positive atheist. The terms weak and strong are relatively recent, while the terms negative and positive atheism are of older origin, having been used (in slightly different ways) in the philosophical literature43 and in Catholic apologetics.44 Under this demarcation of atheism, most agnostics qualify as negative atheists.
While Martin, for example, asserts that agnosticism entails negative atheism,31 many agnostics see their view as distinct from atheism,4546 which they may consider no more justified than theism or requiring an equal conviction.45 The assertion of unattainability of knowledge for or against the existence of gods is sometimes seen as indication that atheism requires a leap of faith.4748 Common atheist responses to this argument include that unproven religious propositions deserve as much disbelief as all other unproven propositions,49 and that the unprovability of a god's existence does not imply equal probability of either possibility.50 Scottish philosopher J. J. C. Smart even argues that "sometimes a person who is really an atheist may describe herself, even passionately, as an agnostic because of unreasonable generalised philosophical skepticism which would preclude us from saying that we know anything whatever, except perhaps the truths of mathematics and formal logic."51 Consequently, some atheist authors such as Richard Dawkins prefer distinguishing theist, agnostic and atheist positions along a spectrum of theistic probability—the likelihood that each assigns to the statement "God exists".52
Definition as impossible or impermanent
Before the 18th century, the existence of God was so universally accepted in the western world that even the possibility of true atheism was questioned. This is called theistic innatism—the notion that all people believe in God from birth; within this view was the connotation that atheists are simply in denial.53
There is also a position claiming that atheists are quick to believe in God in times of crisis, that atheists make deathbed conversions, or that "there are no atheists in foxholes".54 There have however been examples to the contrary, among them examples of literal "atheists in foxholes".55
In fact, "atheism" is a term that should not even exist. No one ever needs to identify himself as a "non-astrologer" or a "non-alchemist". We do not have words for people who doubt that Elvis is still alive or that aliens have traversed the galaxy only to molest ranchers and their cattle. Atheism is nothing more than the noises reasonable people make in the presence of unjustified religious beliefs.56
The broadest demarcation of atheistic rationale is between practical and theoretical atheism.
In practical or pragmatic atheism, also known as apatheism, individuals live as if there are no gods and explain natural phenomena without reference to any deities. The existence of gods is not rejected, but may be designated unnecessary or useless; gods neither provide purpose to life, nor influence everyday life, according to this view.58 A form of practical atheism with implications for the scientific community is methodological naturalism—the "tacit adoption or assumption of philosophical naturalism within scientific method with or without fully accepting or believing it."59
Practical atheism can take various forms:
- Absence of religious motivation—belief in gods does not motivate moral action, religious action, or any other form of action;
- Active exclusion of the problem of gods and religion from intellectual pursuit and practical action;
- Indifference—the absence of any interest in the problems of gods and religion; or
- Unawareness of the concept of a deity.60
Theoretical (or theoric) atheism explicitly posits arguments against the existence of gods, responding to common theistic arguments such as the argument from design or Pascal's Wager. Theoretical atheism is mainly an ontology, precisely a physical ontology.
Epistemological atheism argues that people cannot know a God or determine the existence of a God. The foundation of epistemological atheism is agnosticism, which takes a variety of forms. In the philosophy of immanence, divinity is inseparable from the world itself, including a person's mind, and each person's consciousness is locked in the subject. According to this form of agnosticism, this limitation in perspective prevents any objective inference from belief in a god to assertions of its existence. The rationalistic agnosticism of Kant and the Enlightenment only accepts knowledge deduced with human rationality; this form of atheism holds that gods are not discernible as a matter of principle, and therefore cannot be known to exist. Skepticism, based on the ideas of Hume, asserts that certainty about anything is impossible, so one can never know for sure whether or not a god exists. Hume, however, held that such unobservable metaphysical concepts should be rejected as "sophistry and illusion".61 The allocation of agnosticism to atheism is disputed; it can also be regarded as an independent, basic worldview.58
Other arguments for atheism that can be classified as epistemological or ontological, including logical positivism and ignosticism, assert the meaninglessness or unintelligibility of basic terms such as "God" and statements such as "God is all-powerful." Theological noncognitivism holds that the statement "God exists" does not express a proposition, but is nonsensical or cognitively meaningless. It has been argued both ways as to whether such individuals can be classified into some form of atheism or agnosticism. Philosophers A. J. Ayer and Theodore M. Drange reject both categories, stating that both camps accept "God exists" as a proposition; they instead place noncognitivism in its own category.6263
One author writes:
"Metaphysical atheism ... includes all doctrines that hold to metaphysical monism (the homogeneity of reality). Metaphysical atheism may be either: a) absolute — an explicit denial of God's existence associated with materialistic monism (all materialistic trends, both in ancient and modern times); b) relative — the implicit denial of God in all philosophies that, while they accept the existence of an absolute, conceive of the absolute as not possessing any of the attributes proper to God: transcendence, a personal character or unity. Relative atheism is associated with idealistic monism (pantheism, panentheism, deism)."64
Logical atheism holds that the various conceptions of gods, such as the personal god of Christianity, are ascribed logically inconsistent qualities. Such atheists present deductive arguments against the existence of God, which assert the incompatibility between certain traits, such as perfection, creator-status, immutability, omniscience, omnipresence, omnipotence, omnibenevolence, transcendence, personhood (a personal being), nonphysicality, justice, and mercy.12
Theodicean atheists believe that the world as they experience it cannot be reconciled with the qualities commonly ascribed to God and gods by theologians. They argue that an omniscient, omnipotent, and omnibenevolent God is not compatible with a world where there is evil and suffering, and where divine love is hidden from many people.14 A similar argument is attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism.66
Reductionary accounts of religion
Philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach67 and psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud have argued that God and other religious beliefs are human inventions, created to fulfill various psychological and emotional wants or needs. This is also a view of many Buddhists.68 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, influenced by the work of Feuerbach, argued that belief in God and religion are social functions, used by those in power to oppress the working class. According to Mikhail Bakunin, "the idea of God implies the abdication of human reason and justice; it is the most decisive negation of human liberty, and necessarily ends in the enslavement of mankind, in theory and practice." He reversed Voltaire's famous aphorism that if God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him, writing instead that "if God really existed, it would be necessary to abolish him."69
Axiological, or constructive, atheism rejects the existence of gods in favor of a "higher absolute", such as humanity. This form of atheism favors humanity as the absolute source of ethics and values, and permits individuals to resolve moral problems without resorting to God. Marx and Freud used this argument to convey messages of liberation, full-development, and unfettered happiness.58 One of the most common criticisms of atheism has been to the contrary—that denying the existence of a god leads to moral relativism, leaving one with no moral or ethical foundation,70 or renders life meaningless and miserable.71 Blaise Pascal argued this view in his Pensées.72
French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre identified himself as a representative of an "atheist existentialism"73 concerned less with denying the existence of God than with establishing that "man needs ... to find himself again and to understand that nothing can save him from himself, not even a valid proof of the existence of God."74 Sartre said a corollary of his atheism was that "if God does not exist, there is at least one being in whom existence precedes essence, a being who exists before he can be defined by any concept, and ... this being is man."73 The practical consequence of this atheism was described by Sartre as meaning that there are no a priori rules or absolute values that can be invoked to govern human conduct, and that humans are "condemned" to invent these for themselves, making "man" absolutely "responsible for everything he does".75
Atheism, religion, and morality
Sociologist Phil Zuckerman analyzed previous social science research on secularity and non-belief, and concluded that societal well-being is positively correlated with irreligion. He found that there are much lower concentrations of atheism and secularity in poorer, less developed nations (particularly in Africa and South America) than in the richer industrialized democracies.7677 His findings relating specifically to atheism in the US were that compared to religious people in the US, "atheists and secular people" are less nationalistic, prejudiced, antisemitic, racist, dogmatic, ethnocentric, closed-minded, and authoritarian, and in US states with the highest percentages of atheists, the murder rate is lower than average. In the most religious states, the murder rate is higher than average.7879
Atheism and irreligion
People who self-identify as atheists are often assumed to be irreligious, but some sects within major religions reject the existence of a personal, creator deity.80 In recent years, certain religious denominations have accumulated a number of openly atheistic followers, such as atheistic or humanistic Judaism8182 and Christian atheists.838485
The strictest sense of positive atheism does not entail any specific beliefs outside of disbelief in any deity; as such, atheists can hold any number of spiritual beliefs. For the same reason, atheists can hold a wide variety of ethical beliefs, ranging from the moral universalism of humanism, which holds that a moral code should be applied consistently to all humans, to moral nihilism, which holds that morality is meaningless.86
Philosophers such as Georges Bataille, Slavoj Žižek,87 Alain de Botton,88 and Alexander Bard and Jan Söderqvist,89 have all argued that atheists should reclaim religion as an act of defiance against theism, precisely not to leave religion as an unwarranted monopoly to theists.
Divine command vs. ethics
According to Plato's Euthyphro dilemma, the role of the gods in determining right from wrong is either unnecessary or arbitrary. The argument that morality must be derived from God, and cannot exist without a wise creator, has been a persistent feature of political if not so much philosophical debate.909192 Moral precepts such as "murder is wrong" are seen as divine laws, requiring a divine lawmaker and judge. However, many atheists argue that treating morality legalistically involves a false analogy, and that morality does not depend on a lawmaker in the same way that laws do.93 Friedrich Nietzsche believed in a morality independent of theistic belief, and stated that morality based upon God "has truth only if God is truth—it stands or falls with faith in God."949596
There exist normative ethical systems that do not require principles and rules to be given by a deity. Some include virtue ethics, social contract, Kantian ethics, utilitarianism, and Objectivism. Sam Harris has proposed that moral prescription (ethical rule making) is not just an issue to be explored by philosophy, but that we can meaningfully practice a science of morality. Any such scientific system must, nevertheless, respond to the criticism embodied in the naturalistic fallacy.97
Philosophers Susan Neiman98 and Julian Baggini99 (among others) assert that behaving ethically only because of divine mandate is not true ethical behavior but merely blind obedience. Baggini argues that atheism is a superior basis for ethics, claiming that a moral basis external to religious imperatives is necessary to evaluate the morality of the imperatives themselves—to be able to discern, for example, that "thou shalt steal" is immoral even if one's religion instructs it—and that atheists, therefore, have the advantage of being more inclined to make such evaluations.100 The contemporary British political philosopher Martin Cohen has offered the more historically telling example of Biblical injunctions in favour of torture and slavery as evidence of how religious injunctions follow political and social customs, rather than vice versa, but also noted that the same tendency seems to be true of supposedly dispassionate and objective philosophers.101 Cohen extends this argument in more detail in Political Philosophy from Plato to Mao, where he argues that the Qur'an played a role in perpetuating social codes from the early 7th century despite changes in secular society.102
Dangers of religions
Some prominent atheists—including communists such as Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin, philosopher Bertrand Russell, novelist José Saramago, and New Atheists, Christopher Hitchens, Daniel Dennett, Sam Harris and Richard Dawkins—have criticized religions, citing harmful aspects of religious practices and doctrines.103 Citing anti-religious ideology, Marxist‒Leninist atheism, Maoism, and similar movements have purged or persecuted religious people, while, in modern democracies, atheists have often engaged in debate with religious advocates, and the debates sometimes address the issue of whether religions provide a net benefit to individuals and society.
The 19th-century German political theorist and sociologist Karl Marx criticised religion as "the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people".104 Marx became an ardent atheist who complained that the danger in religion was that it fixed people's hopes on an afterlife, "whereas", wrote Blainey, "communism would create a paradise on earth in which poverty was unknown".105 Marxist‒Leninist atheism, took hold in Russia following the 1917 Revolution, and involved a systematic effort to eradicate Christianity.106107 Lenin said that "every religious idea and every idea of God "is unutterable vileness ... of the most dangerous kind, 'contagion' of the most abominable kind. Millions of sins, filthy deeds, acts of violence and physical contagions ... are far less dangerous that the subtle, spiritual idea of God decked out in the smartest ideological constumes ..."107
Sam Harris criticises Western religion's reliance on divine authority as lending itself to authoritarianism and dogmatism.108 There is a correlation between religious fundamentalism and extrinsic religion (when religion is held because it serves ulterior interests)109 and authoritarianism, dogmatism, and prejudice.110 These arguments—combined with historical events that are argued to demonstrate the dangers of religion, such as the Crusades, inquisitions, witch trials, and terrorist attacks—have been used in response to claims of beneficial effects of belief in religion.111 Believers counter-argue that some regimes that espouse atheism, such as in Soviet Russia, have also been guilty of mass murder.112113 In response to those claims, atheists such as Sam Harris and Richard Dawkins have stated that Stalin's atrocities were influenced not by atheism but by dogmatic Marxism, and that while Stalin and Mao happened to be atheists, they did not do their deeds in the name of atheism.114115
In early ancient Greek, the adjective atheos (ἄθεος, from the privative ἀ- + θεός "god") meant "godless". It was first used as a term of censure roughly meaning "ungodly" or "impious". In the 5th century BCE, the word began to indicate more deliberate and active godlessness in the sense of "severing relations with the gods" or "denying the gods". The term ἀσεβής (asebēs) then came to be applied against those who impiously denied or disrespected the local gods, even if they believed in other gods. Modern translations of classical texts sometimes render atheos as "atheistic". As an abstract noun, there was also ἀθεότης (atheotēs), "atheism". Cicero transliterated the Greek word into the Latin atheos. The term found frequent use in the debate between early Christians and Hellenists, with each side attributing it, in the pejorative sense, to the other.117
The term atheist (from Fr. athée), in the sense of "one who ... denies the existence of God or gods",118 predates atheism in English, being first found as early as 1566,119 and again in 1571.120 Atheist as a label of practical godlessness was used at least as early as 1577.121 The term atheism was derived from the French athéisme,122 and appears in English about 1587.123 An earlier work, from about 1534, used the term atheonism.124125 Related words emerged later: deist in 1621,126 theist in 1662,127 deism in 1675,128 and theism in 1678.129 At that time "deist" and "deism" already carried their modern meaning. The term theism came to be contrasted with deism.
Karen Armstrong writes that "During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the word 'atheist' was still reserved exclusively for polemic ... The term 'atheist' was an insult. Nobody would have dreamed of calling himself an atheist."11
Atheism was first used to describe a self-avowed belief in late 18th-century Europe, specifically denoting disbelief in the monotheistic Abrahamic god.130131 In the 20th century, globalization contributed to the expansion of the term to refer to disbelief in all deities, though it remains common in Western society to describe atheism as simply "disbelief in God".38
Early Indic religion
Atheistic schools are found in early Indian thought and have existed from the times of the historical Vedic religion.132 Among the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy, Samkhya, the oldest philosophical school of thought, does not accept God, and the early Mimamsa also rejected the notion of God.133 The thoroughly materialistic and anti-theistic philosophical Cārvāka (also called Nastika or Lokaiata) school that originated in India around the 6th century BCE is probably the most explicitly atheistic school of philosophy in India, similar to the Greek Cyrenaic school. This branch of Indian philosophy is classified as heterodox due to its rejection of the authority of Vedas and hence is not considered part of the six orthodox schools of Hinduism, but it is noteworthy as evidence of a materialistic movement within Hinduism.134 Chatterjee and Datta explain that our understanding of Cārvāka philosophy is fragmentary, based largely on criticism of the ideas by other schools, and that it is not a living tradition:
"Though materialism in some form or other has always been present in India, and occasional references are found in the Vedas, the Buddhistic literature, the Epics, as well as in the later philosophical works we do not find any systematic work on materialism, nor any organized school of followers as the other philosophical schools possess. But almost every work of the other schools states, for refutation, the materialistic views. Our knowledge of Indian materialism is chiefly based on these."135
Western atheism has its roots in pre-Socratic Greek philosophy, but did not emerge as a distinct world-view until the late Enlightenment.137 The 5th-century BCE Greek philosopher Diagoras is known as the "first atheist",138 and is cited as such by Cicero in his De Natura Deorum.139 Atomists such as Democritus attempted to explain the world in a purely materialistic way, without reference to the spiritual or mystical. Critias viewed religion as a human invention used to frighten people into following moral order140 and Prodicus also appears to have made clear atheistic statements in his work. Philodemus reports that Prodicus believed that "the gods of popular belief do not exist nor do they know, but primitive man, [out of admiration, deified] the fruits of the earth and virtually everything that contributed to his existence". Protagoras has sometimes been taken to be an atheist but rather espoused agnostic views, commenting that "Concerning the gods I am unable to discover whether they exist or not, or what they are like in form; for there are many hindrances to knowledge, the obscurity of the subject and the brevity of human life."141 In the 3rd-century BCE the Greek philosophers Theodorus Cyrenaicus139142 and Strato of Lampsacus143 did not believe gods exist.
Socrates (c. 471–399 BCE) was associated in the Athenian public mind with the trends in pre-Socratic philosophy towards naturalistic inquiry and the rejection of divine explanations for phenomena. Although such an interpretation misrepresents his thought he was portrayed in such a way in Aristophanes' comic play Clouds and was later to be tried and executed for impiety and corrupting the young. At his trial Socrates is reported as vehemently denying that he was an atheist and contemporary scholarship provides little reason to doubt this claim.144145
Euhemerus (c. 330–260 BCE) published his view that the gods were only the deified rulers, conquerors and founders of the past, and that their cults and religions were in essence the continuation of vanished kingdoms and earlier political structures.146 Although not strictly an atheist, Euhemerus was later criticized for having "spread atheism over the whole inhabited earth by obliterating the gods".147
Also important in the history of atheism was Epicurus (c. 300 BCE). Drawing on the ideas of Democritus and the Atomists, he espoused a materialistic philosophy according to which the universe was governed by the laws of chance without the need for divine intervention. Although he stated that deities existed, he believed that they were uninterested in human existence. The aim of the Epicureans was to attain peace of mind and one important way of doing this was by exposing fear of divine wrath as irrational. The Epicureans also denied the existence of an afterlife and the need to fear divine punishment after death.148
The Roman philosopher Sextus Empiricus held that one should suspend judgment about virtually all beliefs—a form of skepticism known as Pyrrhonism—that nothing was inherently evil, and that ataraxia ("peace of mind") is attainable by withholding one's judgment. His relatively large volume of surviving works had a lasting influence on later philosophers.149
The meaning of "atheist" changed over the course of classical antiquity. The early Christians were labeled atheists by non-Christians because of their disbelief in pagan gods.150 During the Roman Empire, Christians were executed for their rejection of the Roman gods in general and Emperor-worship in particular. When Christianity became the state religion of Rome under Theodosius I in 381, heresy became a punishable offense.151
Early Middle Ages to the Renaissance
During the Early Middle Ages, the Islamic world underwent a Golden Age. With the associated advances in science and philosophy, Arab and Persian lands produced outspoken rationalists and atheists, including Muhammad al Warraq (fl. 7th century), Ibn al-Rawandi (827–911), Al-Razi (854–925) and Al-Maʿarri (973–1058). Al-Ma'arri wrote and taught that religion itself was a "fable invented by the ancients"152 and that humans were "of two sorts: those with brains, but no religion, and those with religion, but no brains."153 Despite being relatively prolific writers, nearly none of their writing survives to the modern day, most of what little remains being preserved through quotations and excerpts in later works by Muslim apologists attempting to refute them.154 Other prominent Golden Age scholars have been associated with rationalist thought and atheism as well, although the current intellectual atmosphere in the Islamic world, and the scant evidence that survives from the era, make this point a contentious one today.
In Europe, the espousal of atheistic views was rare during the Early Middle Ages and Middle Ages (see Medieval Inquisition); metaphysics and theology were the dominant interests pertaining to religion.155 There were, however, movements within this period that furthered heterodox conceptions of the Christian god, including differing views of the nature, transcendence, and knowability of God. Individuals and groups such as Johannes Scotus Eriugena, David of Dinant, Amalric of Bena, and the Brethren of the Free Spirit maintained Christian viewpoints with pantheistic tendencies. Nicholas of Cusa held to a form of fideism he called docta ignorantia ("learned ignorance"), asserting that God is beyond human categorization, and thus our knowledge of him is limited to conjecture. William of Ockham inspired anti-metaphysical tendencies with his nominalistic limitation of human knowledge to singular objects, and asserted that the divine essence could not be intuitively or rationally apprehended by human intellect. Followers of Ockham, such as John of Mirecourt and Nicholas of Autrecourt furthered this view. The resulting division between faith and reason influenced later radical and reformist theologians such as John Wycliffe, Jan Hus, and Martin Luther.155
The Renaissance did much to expand the scope of free thought and skeptical inquiry. Individuals such as Leonardo da Vinci sought experimentation as a means of explanation, and opposed arguments from religious authority. Other critics of religion and the Church during this time included Niccolò Machiavelli, Bonaventure des Périers, and François Rabelais.149
Early modern period
Historian Geoffrey Blainey wrote that the Reformation had paved the way for atheists by attacking the authority of the Catholic Church, which in turn "quietly inspired other thinkers to attack the authority of the new Protestant churches".156 Deism gained influence in France, Prussia, and England. The Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza was "probably the first well known 'semi-atheist' to announce himself in a Christian land in the modern era", according to Blainey. Spinoza believed that natural laws explained the workings of the universe. In 1661 he published his Short Treatise on God.157
Criticism of Christianity became increasingly frequent in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially in France and England, where there appears to have been a religious malaise, according to contemporary sources. Some Protestant thinkers, such as Thomas Hobbes, espoused a materialist philosophy and skepticism toward supernatural occurrences, while the Jewish-Dutch philosopher Spinoza rejected divine providence in favour of a panentheistic naturalism. By the late 17th century, deism came to be openly espoused by intellectuals such as John Toland who coined the term "pantheist".158
The first known explicit atheist was the German critic of religion Matthias Knutzen in his three writings of 1674.159 He was followed by two other explicit atheist writers, the Polish ex-Jesuit philosopher Kazimierz Łyszczyński and in the 1720s by the French priest Jean Meslier.160 In the course of the 18th century, other openly atheistic thinkers followed, such as Baron d'Holbach, Jacques-André Naigeon, and other French materialists.161 John Locke in contrast, though an advocate of tolerance, urged authorities not to tolerate atheism, believing that the denial of God's existence would undermine the social order and lead to chaos.162
The philosopher David Hume developed a skeptical epistemology grounded in empiricism, and Immanuel Kant's philosophy has strongly questioned the very possibility of a metaphysical knowledge. Both philosophers undermined the metaphysical basis of natural theology and criticized classical arguments for the existence of God. However, they were not atheists themselves.
During the Terror of 1792–93, France's Christian calendar was abolished, monasteries, convents and church properties were seized and monks and nuns expelled. Historic churches were dismantled.163 Blainey notes that, although Voltaire is widely considered to have strongly contributed to atheistic thinking during the Revolution, he also considered fear of God to have discouraged further disorder, having said "If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him."164 In Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), the philosopher Edmund Burke denounced atheism, writing of a "literary cabal" who had "some years ago formed something like a regular plan for the destruction of the Christian religion. This object they pursued with a degree of zeal which hitherto had been discovered only in the propagators of some system of piety ... These atheistical fathers have a bigotry of their own ...". But, Burke asserted, "man is by his constitution a religious animal" and "atheism is against, not only our reason, but our instincts; and ... it cannot prevail long".165
The French Revolution took atheism and anti-clerical deism outside the salons and into the public sphere.citation needed Baron d'Holbach was a prominent figure in the French Enlightenment who is best known for his atheism and for his voluminous writings against religion, the most famous of them being The System of Nature (1770) but also Christianity Unveiled. A major goal of the French revolution was a restructuring and subordination of the clergy with respect to the state through the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. Attempts to enforce it led to anti-clerical violence and the expulsion of many clergy from France. The chaotic political events in revolutionary Paris eventually enabled the more radical Jacobins to seize power in 1793, ushering in the Reign of Terror. The Jacobins were deists and introduced the Cult of the Supreme Being as a new French state religion. Some atheists surrounding Jacques Hébert instead sought to establish a Cult of Reason, a form of atheistic pseudo-religion with a goddess personifying reason. Both movements in part contributed to attempts to forcibly de-Christianize France. The Cult of Reason ended after three years when its leadership, including Jacques Hébert, was guillotined by the Jacobins. The anti-clerical persecutions ended with the Thermidorian Reaction.citation needed
The Napoleonic era institutionalized the secularization of French society, and exported the revolution to northern Italy, in the hopes of creating pliable republics. In the 19th century, atheists contributed to political and social revolution, facilitating the upheavals of 1848, the Risorgimento in Italy, and the growth of an international socialist movement.citation needed
In the latter half of the 19th century, atheism rose to prominence under the influence of rationalistic and freethinking philosophers. Many prominent German philosophers of this era denied the existence of deities and were critical of religion, including Ludwig Feuerbach, Arthur Schopenhauer, Max Stirner, Karl Marx, and Friedrich Nietzsche.166
Atheism in the 20th century, particularly in the form of practical atheism, advanced in many societies. Atheistic thought found recognition in a wide variety of other, broader philosophies, such as existentialism, objectivism, secular humanism, nihilism, anarchism, logical positivism, Marxism, feminism,167 and the general scientific and rationalist movement.
Blainey wrote that during the twentieth century, atheists in Western societies became more active and even militant, though they often "relied essentially on arguments used by numerous radical Christians since at least the eighteenth century". They rejected the idea of an interventionist God, and said that Christianity promoted war and violence, though "the most ruthless leaders in the Second World War were atheists and secularists who were intensely hostile to both Judaism and Christianity" and "Later massive atrocities were committed in the East by those ardent atheists, Pol Pot and Mao Zedong". Some scientists were meanwhile articulating a view that as the world becomes more educated, religion will be superseded.168
Logical positivism and scientism paved the way for neopositivism, analytical philosophy, structuralism, and naturalism. Neopositivism and analytical philosophy discarded classical rationalism and metaphysics in favor of strict empiricism and epistemological nominalism. Proponents such as Bertrand Russell emphatically rejected belief in God. In his early work, Ludwig Wittgenstein attempted to separate metaphysical and supernatural language from rational discourse. A. J. Ayer asserted the unverifiability and meaninglessness of religious statements, citing his adherence to the empirical sciences. Relatedly the applied structuralism of Lévi-Strauss sourced religious language to the human subconscious in denying its transcendental meaning. J. N. Findlay and J. J. C. Smart argued that the existence of God is not logically necessary. Naturalists and materialistic monists such as John Dewey considered the natural world to be the basis of everything, denying the existence of God or immortality.51169
Emergence of state atheism under Communism
State atheism is the official promotion of atheism by a government, sometimes combined with active suppression of religious freedom and practice. In contrast, a secular state purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion. State atheism may refer to a government's anti-clericalism, (such as during the French Revolution) which opposes religious institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, including the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen.
The 20th century saw the political advancement of atheism, spurred on by interpretation of the works of Marx and Engels and the patronage of one-party Communist states. Historian Geoffrey Blainey wrote that in Germany and France, "the zeal of many socialists had originally come from their Christian principles... but most revolutionaries, as distinct from social democrats, were not Christians."105 The Soviet leaders Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin energetically pursued a campaign against religion, particularly Russian Orthodoxy.170 Later communist states also opposed religion and mandated state atheism,171 including the former governments of Albania,172173174 and currently, China,175176 North Korea,176177 and Cuba.176178
Martin Amis wrote that from the beginning the Bolshevik line in the Soviet Union had been "militant atheism", but that it was not only the lynching, show-trials and executions of Russian Orthodox clergy for their links to Tsarism that was state policy, but also the "intention to stamp out private, even individual, worship too ('aiming to replace faith in God with faith in science and the machine')."170 While the Soviet Constitution of 1936 guaranteed freedom to hold religious services, the Soviet state under Stalin's policy of state atheism did not consider education a private matter; it outlawed religious instruction and waged campaigns to persuade people, at times violently, to abandon religion.179180181182183
Lenin wrote that every religious idea and every idea of God "is unutterable vileness ... of the most dangerous kind, 'contagion of the most abominable kind".107 The Russian Orthodox Church, for centuries the strongest of all Orthodox Churches, was suppressed by the state.184 Many priests were killed and imprisoned.185 Seminaries were closed and teaching the faith to the young was criminalized. In 1922, the Bolsheviks arrested the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church.106 Thousands of churches were closed, some turned into temples of atheism. In 1925 the government founded the League of Militant Atheists to intensify the persecution. The regime only relented in its persecution following the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941.184 Watching from the West, Pope Pius XI, protested "persecutions" in Russia, Mexico and Spain, and issued the 1937 encyclical Divini redemptoris ('Divine Redeemer'), denouncing the "trend to atheism which is alarmingly on the increase".186187
Across Eastern Europe following World War Two, the parts of the Nazi Empire conquered by the Soviet Red Army, and Yugoslavia became one party Communist states, which, like the Soviet Union, were antipathetic to religion.188189 The Soviet Union ended its truce against the Russian Orthodox Church, and extended its persecutions to the Eastern block: "the atheist messages were amplified at home, and relayed to the new Communist countries of Eastern Europe. In Poland, Hungary, Lithuania and other Eastern European countries, Catholic leaders who were unwilling to be silent were denounced, publicly humiliated or imprisoned by the Communists. Leaders of the national Orthodox Churches in Romania and Bulgaria had to be cautious and submissive", wrote Blainey.184
Anti-religious campaigns were conducted throughout the Eastern Bloc, including the Romanian and Polish anti-religious campaigns. In 1967, the Albanian government under Enver Hoxha announced the closure of all religious institutions in the country, declaring Albania the world's first officially atheist state,190 although religious practice in Albania was restored in 1991. These regimes enhanced the negative associations of atheism, especially where anti-communist sentiment was strong in the United States, despite the fact that prominent atheists were anti-communist.191
In 1949, China became a Communist state under the leadership of Mao Zedong's Communist Party of China. China itself had been a cradle of religious thought since ancient times, being the birthplace of Confucianism and Daoism, and Buddhists having arrived in the first century AD. Under Mao, China became officially atheist, and though some religious practices were permitted to continue under State supervision, religious groups deemed a threat to order have been suppressed—as with Tibetan Buddhism from 1959 and Falun Gong in recent years. Today around two-fifths of the population claim to be nonreligious or atheist.192 During the Cultural Revolution, Mao instigated "struggles" against the Four Olds: "old ideas, customs, culture, and habits of mind".193 In 1999, the Communist Party launched a three-year drive to promote atheism in Tibet, saying intensifying propaganda on atheism is "especially important for Tibet because atheism plays an extremely important role in promoting economic construction, social advancement and socialist spiritual civilization in the region".194
Under Pol Pot, the Communist Party of Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge) also instigated a purge of religion during their 1975–1979 rule in Cambodia. Influenced by Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution in China, and Stalin's collectivization experiments, Pol Pot instigated a rapid and radical social transformation, resulting in the Cambodian genocide. Until 1975, Buddhism had been officially recognized as the state religion. Under Pol Pot, all religious practices were forbidden and Buddhist monasteries were closed.195196
Irreligion under fascism
The central figure in Italian Fascism was the atheist Benito Mussolini.197 In his early career, Mussolini made violent pronouncements against the Church, and the first Fascist programme, written in 1919, had called for the secularization of Church property in Italy.198 A pragmatist, Mussolini later moderated his stance, and in office, permitted the teaching of religion in schools and came to terms with the Pope.197 Nevertheless, the Pope denounced Fascism's "pagan worship of the State" and "revolution which snatches the young from the Church and from Jesus Christ, and which inculcates in its own young people hatred, violence and irreverence."199
In seeking power, Mussolini's admirer and ally Adolf Hitler, for a time courted and benefited from fear among German Christians of militant communist atheism, despite his own opposition to Christianity.197 Upon taking office, his regime sought to coerce religious groups in the service of the state, and moved to reduce the influence of Christianity on society.201 This was contrary to undertakings given by Hitler during his rise to power. While leading Nazis like Hitler's atheist deputy Martin Bormann urged the regime to go harder against religion, Hitler himself generally wanted to delay an open show-down with the churches until after "victory" in the war, though his private anti-religious rhetoric encouraged the likes of Bormann and Goebbels to continue their repression.200202 The regime encouraged party functionaries to abandon their religion,201 and persecuted religious groups—including Jews, Christians and Jehovah's Witnesses.197 Bormann recorded in Hitler's Table Talk that Nazism was secular, scientific and anti-religious in outlook.201
Hitler's instruction for a truce in the Church Struggle at the outbreak of War, was soon superseded by an intensification of repression, led by the anti-church radical Reinhard Heydrich.203 From 1941, the atheist Martin Bormann was Hitler's chosen "deputy".204205 He said publicly that "National Socialism and Christianity are irreconcilable".206
In the Nazi Empire, priests were watched closely and frequently denounced, arrested and sent to concentration camps.207 By 1939 all Catholic denominational schools in the Third Reich had been disbanded or converted to public facilities.201 Hitler ultimately intended to eradicate Christianity from Germany.206 Some leading Nazis advocated a mysticism, of which Hitler also disapproved.208 He "poured scorn" on Rosenberg and Himmler for wanting to re-establish pagan mythology and rites, and on Hess for resorting to astrology.200 By 1939, 95% of Germans still called themselves Protestant or Catholic, while 3.5% were 'Deist' (gottglaubig) and 1.5% atheist. Evans wrote that most in these latter categories were "convinced Nazis who had left their Church at the behest of the Party, which had been trying since the mid 1930s to reduce the influence of Christianity in society".201 The great majority of ordinary members of the Nazi Party continued to register as Christians.209
Alan Bullock wrote that though Hitler was personally dismissive of religion, like Napoleon before him, he frequently employed the language of "Providence" in defence of his own myth, but ultimately shared with the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, "the same materialist outlook, based on the nineteenth century rationalists' certainty that the progress of science would destroy all myths and had already proved Christian doctrine to be an absurdity".200 Samuel Koehne, Research Fellow at the Alfred Deakin Research Institute, asserts Hitler was probably not an atheist and refers to the fact that recent works have argued that he was a deist.210 Richard J. Evans wrote that "Hitler emphasised again and again his belief that Nazism was a secular ideology founded on modern science. Science, he declared, would easily destroy the last remaining vestiges of superstition [-] 'In the long run', [Hitler] concluded, 'National Socialism and religion will no longer be able to exist together'".201
Other leaders like E. V. Ramasami Naicker (Periyar), a prominent atheist leader of India, fought against Hinduism and Brahmins for discriminating and dividing people in the name of caste and religion.211 This was highlighted in 1956 when he arranged for the erection of a statue depicting a Hindu god in a humble representation and made antitheistic statements.212
Atheist Vashti McCollum was the plaintiff in a landmark 1948 Supreme Court case that struck down religious education in US public schools.213 Madalyn Murray O'Hair was perhaps one of the most influential American atheists; she brought forth the 1963 Supreme Court case Murray v. Curlett which banned compulsory prayer in public schools.214 In 1966, Time magazine asked "Is God Dead?"215 in response to the Death of God theological movement, citing the estimation that nearly half of all people in the world lived under an anti-religious power, and millions more in Africa, Asia, and South America seemed to lack knowledge of the one God.216 The Freedom From Religion Foundation was co-founded by Anne Nicol Gaylor and her daughter, Annie Laurie Gaylor, in 1976 in the United States, and incorporated nationally in 1978. It promotes the separation of church and state.217218
Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, the number of actively anti-religious regimes has reduced considerably. In 2006, Timothy Shah of the Pew Forum noted "a worldwide trend across all major religious groups, in which God-based and faith-based movements in general are experiencing increasing confidence and influence vis-à-vis secular movements and ideologies."219 However, Gregory S. Paul and Phil Zuckerman consider this a myth and suggest that the actual situation is much more complex and nuanced.220
A 2010 survey found that those identifying themselves as atheists or agnostics are on average more knowledgeable about religion than followers of major faiths. Nonbelievers scored better on questions about tenets central to Protestant and Catholic faiths. Only Mormon and Jewish faithful scored as well as atheists and agnostics.221
In 2012, the first "Women in Secularism" conference was held in Arlington, Virginia.222 Secular Woman was organized in 2012 as a national organization focused on nonreligious women.223 The atheist feminist movement has also become increasingly focused on fighting sexism and sexual harassment within the atheist movement itself.224 In August 2012, Jennifer McCreight (the organizer of Boobquake) founded a movement within atheism known as Atheism Plus, or A+, that "applies skepticism to everything, including social issues like sexism, racism, politics, poverty, and crime".225226227
In 2013 the first atheist monument on American government property was unveiled at the Bradford County Courthouse in Florida: a 1,500-pound granite bench and plinth inscribed with quotes by Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and Madalyn Murray O'Hair.228229
New Atheism is the name given to a movement among some early-21st-century atheist writers who have advocated the view that "religion should not simply be tolerated but should be countered, criticized, and exposed by rational argument wherever its influence arises."230 The movement is commonly associated with Sam Harris, Daniel C. Dennett, Richard Dawkins, Victor J. Stenger and Christopher Hitchens231232 Several best-selling books by these authors, published between 2004 and 2007, form the basis for much of the discussion of New Atheism.232
These atheists generally seek to disassociate themselves from the mass political atheism that gained ascendency in various nations in the 20th century. In best selling books, the religiously motivated terrorist events of 9/11 and the partially successful attempts of the Discovery Institute to change the American science curriculum to include creationist ideas, together with support for those ideas from George W. Bush in 2005, have been cited by authors such as Harris, Dennett, Dawkins, Stenger and Hitchens as evidence of a need to move society towards atheism.233
It is difficult to quantify the number of atheists in the world. Respondents to religious-belief polls may define "atheism" differently or draw different distinctions between atheism, non-religious beliefs, and non-theistic religious and spiritual beliefs.235 A Hindu atheist would declare oneself as a Hindu, although also being an atheist at the same time.236 A 2010 survey published in Encyclopædia Britannica found that the non-religious made up about 9.6% of the world's population, and atheists about 2.0%. This figure did not include those who follow atheistic religions, such as some Buddhists.237 The average annual change for atheism from 2000 to 2010 was −0.17%.237 A broad figure estimates the number of atheists and agnostics on Earth at 1.1 billion.238
A November–December 2006 poll published in the Financial Times gives rates for the United States and five European countries. The lowest rates of atheism were in the United States at only 4%, while the rates of atheism in the European countries surveyed were considerably higher: Italy (7%), Spain (11%), Great Britain (17%), Germany (20%), and France (32%).26 The European figures are similar to those of an official European Union survey, which reported that 18% of the EU population do not believe in a god.239 Other studies have placed the estimated percentage of atheists, agnostics, and other nonbelievers in a personal god as low as single digits in Poland, Romania, Cyprus, and some other European countries,240 and up to 85% in Sweden, 80% in Denmark, 72% in Norway, and 60% in Finland.23 According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, 22% of Australians have "no religion", a category that includes atheists.241 Between 64% and 65%23 of Japanese and up to 81%242 of Vietnamese are atheists, agnostics, or do not believe in a god. A 2012 Gallup survey reported that 13% of people surveyed worldwide self-report to be atheists.243 In the United States, there was a 1% to 5% increase in self-reported atheism from 2005 to 2012, and a larger drop in those who self-identified as "religious", down by 13%, from 73% to 60%.244
A study noted positive correlations between levels of education and secularity, including atheism, in America,78 and an EU survey found a positive correlation between leaving school early and believing in a God.239 According to evolutionary psychologist Nigel Barber, atheism blossoms in places where most people feel economically secure, particularly in the social democracies of Europe, as there is less uncertainty about the future with extensive social safety nets and better health care resulting in a greater quality of life and higher life expectancy. By contrast, in underdeveloped countries, there are virtually no atheists.245 A letter published in Nature in 1998 reported a survey suggesting that belief in a personal god or afterlife was at an all-time low among the members of the U.S. National Academy of Science, 7.0% of whom believed in a personal god as compared with more than 85% of the general U.S. population,246 although this study has been criticized by Rodney Stark and Roger Finke for its definition of belief in God. The definition was "I believe in a God to whom one may pray in the expectation of receiving an answer".247 According to a 2012 report by the Pew Research Center, 2.4% of the US adult population identify as atheist, and within the religiously unaffiliated (or "no religion") demographic, atheists made up 12%.248 An article published by The University of Chicago Chronicle that discussed the above study, stated that 76% of physicians in the United States believe in God, more than the 7% of scientists above, but still less than the 85% of the general population.249 Another study assessing religiosity among scientists who are members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science found that "just over half of scientists (51%) believe in some form of deity or higher power; specifically, 33% of scientists say they believe in God, while 18% believe in a universal spirit or higher power."250 Frank Sulloway of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Michael Shermer of California State University conducted a study which found in their polling sample of "credentialed" U.S. adults (12% had Ph.Ds and 62% were college graduates) 64% believed in God, and there was a correlation indicating that religious conviction diminished with education level.251 In 1958, Professor Michael Argyle of the University of Oxford analyzed seven research studies that had investigated correlation between attitude to religion and measured intelligence among school and college students from the U.S. Although a clear negative correlation was found, the analysis did not identify causality but noted that factors such as authoritarian family background and social class may also have played a part.252 Sociologist Philip Schwadel found that higher levels of education are associated with increased religious participation and religious practice in daily life, but also correlate with greater tolerance for atheists' public opposition to religion and greater skepticism of "exclusivist religious viewpoints and biblical literalism".253
- Nielsen 2011: "Instead of saying that an atheist is someone who believes that it is false or probably false that there is a God, a more adequate characterization of atheism consists in the more complex claim that to be an atheist is to be someone who rejects belief in God for the following reasons ... : for an anthropomorphic God, the atheist rejects belief in God because it is false or probably false that there is a God; for a nonanthropomorphic God ... because the concept of such a God is either meaningless, unintelligible, contradictory, incomprehensible, or incoherent; for the God portrayed by some modern or contemporary theologians or philosophers ... because the concept of God in question is such that it merely masks an atheistic substance—e.g., "God" is just another name for love, or ... a symbolic term for moral ideals."
- Edwards 2005: "On our definition, an 'atheist' is a person who rejects belief in God, regardless of whether or not his reason for the rejection is the claim that 'God exists' expresses a false proposition. People frequently adopt an attitude of rejection toward a position for reasons other than that it is a false proposition. It is common among contemporary philosophers, and indeed it was not uncommon in earlier centuries, to reject positions on the ground that they are meaningless. Sometimes, too, a theory is rejected on such grounds as that it is sterile or redundant or capricious, and there are many other considerations which in certain contexts are generally agreed to constitute good grounds for rejecting an assertion."
- Rowe 1998: "As commonly understood, atheism is the position that affirms the nonexistence of God. So an atheist is someone who disbelieves in God, whereas a theist is someone who believes in God. Another meaning of 'atheism' is simply nonbelief in the existence of God, rather than positive belief in the nonexistence of God. ... an atheist, in the broader sense of the term, is someone who disbelieves in every form of deity, not just the God of traditional Western theology."
- Harvey, Van A. "Agnosticism and Atheism", in Flynn 2007, p. 35: "The terms ATHEISM and AGNOSTICISM lend themselves to two different definitions. The first takes the privative a both before the Greek theos (divinity) and gnosis (to know) to mean that atheism is simply the absence of belief in the gods and agnosticism is simply lack of knowledge of some specified subject matter. The second definition takes atheism to mean the explicit denial of the existence of gods and agnosticism as the position of someone who, because the existence of gods is unknowable, suspends judgment regarding them ... The first is the more inclusive and recognizes only two alternatives: Either one believes in the gods or one does not. Consequently, there is no third alternative, as those who call themselves agnostics sometimes claim. Insofar as they lack belief, they are really atheists. Moreover, since absence of belief is the cognitive position in which everyone is born, the burden of proof falls on those who advocate religious belief. The proponents of the second definition, by contrast, regard the first definition as too broad because it includes uninformed children along with aggressive and explicit atheists. Consequently, it is unlikely that the public will adopt it."
- Simon Blackburn, ed. (2008). "atheism". The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (2008 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2013-11-21. "Either the lack of belief that there exists a god, or the belief that there exists none. Sometimes thought itself to be more dogmatic than mere agnosticism, although atheists retort that everyone is an atheist about most gods, so they merely advance one step further."
- Most dictionaries (see the OneLook query for "atheism") first list one of the more narrow definitions.
- Runes, Dagobert D.(editor) (1942 edition). Dictionary of Philosophy. New Jersey: Littlefield, Adams & Co. Philosophical Library. ISBN 0-06-463461-2. Archived from the original on 2011-05-13. Retrieved 2011-04-09. "(a) the belief that there is no God; (b) Some philosophers have been called "atheistic" because they have not held to a belief in a personal God. Atheism in this sense means "not theistic". The former meaning of the term is a literal rendering. The latter meaning is a less rigorous use of the term though widely current in the history of thought" – entry by Vergilius Ferm
- "atheism". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2013-11-21.
- "Definitions: Atheism". Department of Religious Studies, University of Alabama. Retrieved 2012-12-01.
- Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). 1989. "Belief in a deity, or deities, as opposed to atheism"
- "Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Archived from the original on 2011-05-14. Retrieved 2011-04-09. "belief in the existence of a god or gods"
- Armstrong 1999.
- Various authors. "Logical Arguments for Atheism". The Secular Web Library. Internet Infidels. Retrieved 2012-10-02.
- Shook, John R. "Skepticism about the Supernatural". Retrieved 2012-10-02.
- Drange, Theodore M. (1996). "The Arguments From Evil and Nonbelief". Secular Web Library. Internet Infidels. Retrieved 2012-10-02.
- Honderich, Ted (Ed.) (1995). "Humanism". The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford University Press. p 376. ISBN 0-19-866132-0.
- Fales, Evan. "Naturalism and Physicalism", in Martin 2006, pp. 122–131.
- Baggini 2003, pp. 3–4.
- Stenger 2007, pp. 17–18, citing Parsons, Keith M. (1989). God and the Burden of Proof: Plantinga, Swinburne, and the Analytical Defense of Theism. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-0-87975-551-5.
- Johnson, Philip et. al. (2005). "Religious and Non-religious Spirituality in the Western World ("New Age")". In David Clayton. A New Vision A New Heart A Renewed Call – Volume Two (William Carey Library). p. 194. ISBN 978-0-87808-364-0. "Although Neo-Pagans share common commitments to nature and spirit there is a diversity of beliefs and practices ... Some are atheists, others are polytheists (several gods exists), some are pantheists (all is God) and others are panentheists (all is in God)."
- Matthews, Carol S. (2009). New Religions. Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7910-8096-2. "There is no universal worldview that all Neo-Pagans/Wiccans hold. One online information source indicates that depending on how the term God is defined, Neo-Pagans might be classified as monotheists, duotheists (two gods), polytheists, pantheists, or atheists."
- Kedar, Nath Tiwari (1997). Comparative Religion. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 50. ISBN 81-208-0293-4.
- Chakravarti, Sitansu (1991). Hinduism, a way of life. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 71. ISBN 978-81-208-0899-7. Retrieved 2011-04-09. "According to Hinduism, the path of the atheist is very difficult to follow in matters of spirituality, though it is a valid one."
- Zuckerman, Phil (2007). Martin, Michael T, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-521-60367-6. OL 22379448M. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- "Worldwide Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-2007". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved 2013-11-21.
- 2.3% Atheists: Persons professing atheism, skepticism, disbelief, or irreligion, including the militantly antireligious (opposed to all religion).
- 11.9% Nonreligious: Persons professing no religion, nonbelievers, agnostics, freethinkers, uninterested, or dereligionized secularists indifferent to all religion but not militantly so.
- <!-none specified--> (27 July 2012). "Religiosity and Atheism Index". Zurich: WIN/GIA. Retrieved 2013-10-01.
- "Religious Views and Beliefs Vary Greatly by Country, According to the Latest Financial Times/Harris Poll". Financial Times/Harris Interactive. 20 December 2006. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- "Atheism". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. Archived from the original on 2011-05-12. Retrieved 2011-04-09. "The term as generally used, however, is highly ambiguous. Its meaning varies (a) according to the various definitions of deity, and especially (b) according as it is (i.) deliberately adopted by a thinker as a description of his own theological standpoint, or (ii.) applied by one set of thinkers to their opponents. As to (a), it is obvious that atheism from the standpoint of the Christian is a very different conception as compared with atheism as understood by a Deist, a Positivist, a follower of Euhemerus or Herbert Spencer, or a Buddhist."
- Martin 1990, pp. 467–468: "In the popular sense an agnostic neither believes nor disbelieves that God exists, while an atheist disbelieves that God exists. However, this common contrast of agnosticism with atheism will hold only if one assumes that atheism means positive atheism. In the popular sense, agnosticism is compatible with negative atheism. Since negative atheism by definition simply means not holding any concept of God, it is compatible with neither believing nor disbelieving in God."
- Flint 1903, pp. 49–51: "The atheist may however be, and not unfrequently is, an agnostic. There is an agnostic atheism or atheistic agnosticism, and the combination of atheism with agnosticism which may be so named is not an uncommon one."
- Holland, Aaron. "Agnosticism", in Flynn 2007, p. 34: "It is important to note that this interpretation of agnosticism is compatible with theism or atheism, since it is only asserted that knowledge of God's existence is unattainable."
- Martin 2006, p. 2: "But agnosticism is compatible with negative atheism in that agnosticism entails negative atheism. Since agnostics do not believe in God, they are by definition negative atheists. This is not to say that negative atheism entails agnosticism. A negative atheist might disbelieve in God but need not."
- Barker 2008, p. 96: "People are invariably surprised to hear me say I am both an atheist and an agnostic, as if this somehow weakens my certainty. I usually reply with a question like, "Well, are you a Republican or an American?" The two words serve different concepts and are not mutually exclusive. Agnosticism addresses knowledge; atheism addresses belief. The agnostic says, "I don't have a knowledge that God exists." The atheist says, "I don't have a belief that God exists." You can say both things at the same time. Some agnostics are atheistic and some are theistic."
- Besant, Annie. "Why Should Atheists Be Persecuted?". in Bradlaugh 1884, pp. 185–186: "The Atheist waits for proof of God. Till that proof comes he remains, as his name implies, without God. His mind is open to every new truth, after it has passed the warder Reason at the gate."
- Holyoake, George Jacob (1842). "Mr. Mackintosh's New God". The Oracle of Reason, Or, Philosophy Vindicated 1 (23): 186. "On the contrary, I, as an Atheist, simply profess that I do not see sufficient reason to believe that there is a god. I do not pretend to know that there is no god. The whole question of god's existence, belief or disbelief, a question of probability or of improbability, not knowledge."
- Nielsen 2011: "atheism, in general, the critique and denial of metaphysical beliefs in God or spiritual beings. As such, it is usually distinguished from theism, which affirms the reality of the divine and often seeks to demonstrate its existence. Atheism is also distinguished from agnosticism, which leaves open the question whether there is a god or not, professing to find the questions unanswered or unanswerable."
- "Atheism". Encyclopædia Britannica Concise. Merriam Webster. Retrieved 2011-12-15. "Critique and denial of metaphysical beliefs in God or divine beings. Unlike agnosticism, which leaves open the question of whether there is a God, atheism is a positive denial. It is rooted in an array of philosophical systems."
- "Atheism". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. Archived from the original on 2011-05-12. Retrieved 2011-04-09. "But dogmatic atheism is rare compared with the sceptical type, which is identical with agnosticism in so far as it denies the capacity of the mind of man to form any conception of God, but is different from it in so far as the agnostic merely holds his judgment in suspense, though, in practice, agnosticism is apt to result in an attitude towards religion which is hardly distinguishable from a passive and unaggressive atheism."
- Martin 2006.
- "Atheism as rejection of religious beliefs". Encyclopædia Britannica 1 (15th ed.). 2011. p. 666. 0852294735. Archived from the original on 2011-05-12. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- d'Holbach, P. H. T. (1772). Good Sense. Retrieved 2011-04-07.
- Smith 1979, p. 14.
- Nagel, Ernest (1959). "Philosophical Concepts of Atheism". Basic Beliefs: The Religious Philosophies of Mankind. Sheridan House. "I shall understand by "atheism" a critique and a denial of the major claims of all varieties of theism ... atheism is not to be identified with sheer unbelief ... Thus, a child who has received no religious instruction and has never heard about God, is not an atheist – for he is not denying any theistic claims. Similarly in the case of an adult who, if he has withdrawn from the faith of his father without reflection or because of frank indifference to any theological issue, is also not an atheist – for such an adult is not challenging theism and not professing any views on the subject."
reprinted in Critiques of God, edited by Peter A. Angeles, Prometheus Books, 1997.
- Flew 1976, pp. 14ff: "In this interpretation an atheist becomes: not someone who positively asserts the non-existence of God; but someone who is simply not a theist. Let us, for future ready reference, introduce the labels 'positive atheist' for the former and 'negative atheist' for the latter."
- Maritain, Jacques (July 1949). "On the Meaning of Contemporary Atheism". The Review of Politics 11 (3): 267–280. doi:10.1017/S0034670500044168.
- Kenny, Anthony (2006). "Why I Am Not an Atheist". What I believe. Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-8971-0. "The true default position is neither theism nor atheism, but agnosticism ... a claim to knowledge needs to be substantiated; ignorance need only be confessed."
- "Why I'm Not an Atheist: The Case for Agnosticism". Huffington Post. 28 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-26.
- O'Brien, Breda (7 July 2009). "Many atheists I know would be certain of a high place in heaven". Irish Times. Archived from the original on 2011-05-20. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- Matthew Warner (8 June 2012). "More faith to be an atheist than a Christian". Retrieved 2013-11-26.
- Baggini 2003, pp. 30–34. "Who seriously claims we should say 'I neither believe nor disbelieve that the Pope is a robot', or 'As to whether or not eating this piece of chocolate will turn me into an elephant I am completely agnostic'. In the absence of any good reasons to believe these outlandish claims, we rightly disbelieve them, we don't just suspend judgement."
- Baggini 2003, p. 22. "A lack of proof is no grounds for the suspension of belief. This is because when we have a lack of absolute proof we can still have overwhelming evidence or one explanation which is far superior to the alternatives."
- Smart, J.C.C. (9 March 2004). "Atheism and Agnosticism". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- Dawkins 2006, p. 50.
- Cudworth, Ralph (1678). The True Intellectual System of the Universe: the first part, wherein all the reason and philosophy of atheism is confuted and its impossibility demonstrated.
- See, for instance, "Atheists call for church head to retract slur". 3 September 1996. Archived from the original on 2011-05-15. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- Lowder, Jeffery Jay (1997). "Atheism and Society". Archived from the original on 2011-05-22. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- Harris 2006, p. 51.
- Paul Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach, System of Nature; or, the Laws of the Moral and Physical World (London, 1797), Vol. 1, p. 25
- Zdybicka 2005, p. 20.
- Schafersman, Steven D. (February 1997). "Naturalism is an Essential Part of Science and Critical Inquiry". Conference on Naturalism, Theism and the Scientific Enterprise. Department of Philosophy, The University of Texas. Retrieved 2011-04-07. Revised May 2007
- Zdybicka 2005, p. 21.
- Hume 1748, Part III: "If we take in our hand any volume; of divinity or school metaphysics, for instance; let us ask, Does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quantity or number? No. Does it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence? No. Commit it then to the flames: for it can contain nothing but sophistry and illusion."
- Drange, Theodore M. (1998). "Atheism, Agnosticism, Noncognitivism". Internet Infidels, Secular Web Library. Retrieved 2007-APR-07.
- Ayer, A. J. (1946). Language, Truth and Logic. Dover. pp. 115–116. In a footnote, Ayer attributes this view to "Professor H. H. Price".
- Zdybicka 2005, p. 19.
- Hume 1779.
- V.A. Gunasekara, "The Buddhist Attitude to God". Archived from the original on 2008-01-02. In the Bhuridatta Jataka, "The Buddha argues that the three most commonly given attributes of God, viz. omnipotence, omniscience and benevolence towards humanity cannot all be mutually compatible with the existential fact of dukkha."
- Feuerbach, Ludwig (1841) The Essence of Christianity
- Walpola Rahula, What the Buddha Taught. Grove Press, 1974. Pages 51–52.
- Bakunin, Michael (1916). "God and the State". New York: Mother Earth Publishing Association. Archived from the original on 2011-05-21. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- Gleeson, David (10 August 2006). "Common Misconceptions About Atheists and Atheism". Retrieved 2013-11-21.
- Smith 1979, p. 275. "Perhaps the most common criticism of atheism is the claim that it leads inevitably to moral bankruptcy."
- Pascal, Blaise (1669). Pensées, II: "The Misery of Man Without God".
- Sartre 2004, p. 127.
- Sartre 2001, p. 45.
- Sartre 2001, p. 32.
- Norris, Pippa and Ronald Inglehart (2004). Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide. Cambridge University Press.
- Bruce, Steve (2003). Religion and Politics location=Cambridge, UK.
- Zuckerman, Phil (2009). "Atheism, Secularity, and Well-Being: How the Findings of Social Science Counter Negative Stereotypes and Assumptions". Sociology Compass 3 (6): 949–971. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9020.2009.00247.x.
- "Societies without God are more benevolent". The Guardian. 2 September 2010. Retrieved 2013-11-21.
- Winston, Robert (Ed.) (2004). Human. New York: DK Publishing, Inc. p. 299. ISBN 0-7566-1901-7. "Nonbelief has existed for centuries. For example, Buddhism and Jainism have been called atheistic religions because they do not advocate belief in gods."
- "Humanistic Judaism". BBC. 20 July 2006. Archived from the original on 2011-04-16. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- Levin, S. (May 1995). "Jewish Atheism". New Humanist 110 (2): 13–15.
- "Christian Atheism". BBC. 17 May 2006. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- Altizer, Thomas J. J. (1967). The Gospel of Christian Atheism. London: Collins. pp. 102–103. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
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- Smith 1979, pp. 21–22
- Slavoj Žižek: Less Than Nothing (2012)
- Alain de Botton: Religion for Atheists (2012)
- Alexander Bard and Jan Söderqvist: The Global Empire (2012)
- Smith 1979, p. 275. "Among the many myths associated with religion, none is more widespread - sicor more disastrous in its effects—than the myth that moral values cannot be divorced from the belief in a god."
- In Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov (Book Eleven: Brother Ivan Fyodorovich, Chapter 4) there is the famous argument that If there is no God, all things are permitted.: "'But what will become of men then?' I asked him, 'without God and immortal life? All things are lawful then, they can do what they like?'"
- For Kant, the presupposition of God, soul, and freedom was a practical concern, for "Morality, by itself, constitutes a system, but happiness does not, unless it is distributed in exact proportion to morality. This, however, is possible in an intelligible world only under a wise author and ruler. Reason compels us to admit such a ruler, together with life in such a world, which we must consider as future life, or else all moral laws are to be considered as idle dreams ..." (Critique of Pure Reason, A811).
- Baggini 2003, p. 38
- Human Rights, Virtue, and the Common Good. Rowman & Littlefield. 1996. ISBN 978-0-8476-8279-9. Retrieved 2011-04-09. "That problem was brought home to us with dazzling clarity by Nietzsche, who had reflected more deeply than any of his contemporaries on the implications of godlessness and come to the conclusion that a fatal contradiction lay at the heart of modern theological enterprise: it thought that Christian morality, which it wished to preserve, was independent of Christian dogma, which it rejected. This, in Nietzsche's mind, was an absurdity. It amounted to nothing less than dismissing the architect while trying to keep the building or getting rid of the lawgiver while claiming the protection of the law."
- The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology. Wiley-Blackwell. 11 May 2009. ISBN 978-1-4051-7657-6. Retrieved 2011-04-09. "Morality "has truth only if God is truth–it stands or falls with faith in God" (Nietzche 1968, p. 70). The moral argument for the existence of God essentially takes Nietzche's assertion as one of its premises: if there is no God, then "there are altogether no moral facts"."
- Victorian Subjects. Duke University Press. 1991. ISBN 978-0-8223-1110-2. Retrieved 2011-04-09. "Like other mid-nineteenth-century writers, George Eliot was not fully aware of the implications of her humanism, and, as Nietzsche saw, attempted the difficult task of upholding the Christian morality of altruism without faith in the Christian God."
- Moore, G. E. (1903). Principia Ethica. Archived from the original on 2011-05-14. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- Susan Neiman (6 November 2006). Beyond Belief Session 6 (Conference). Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA: The Science Network.
- Baggini 2003, p. 40
- Baggini 2003, p. 43
- 101 Ethical Dilemmas, 2nd edition, by Cohen, M., Routledge 2007, pp 184–5. (Cohen notes particularly that Plato and Aristotle produced arguments in favour of slavery.)
- Political Philosophy from Plato to Mao, by Cohen, M, Second edition 2008
- Harris 2005, Harris 2006, Dawkins 2006, Hitchens 2007, Russell 1957
- Marx, K. 1976. Introduction to A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right. Collected Works, v. 3. New York.
- Geoffrey Blainey; A Short History of Christianity; Viking; 2011; p.492
- Geoffrey Blainey; A Short History of Christianity; Viking; 2011; p.493
- Martin Amis; Koba the Dread; Vintage Books; London; 2003; ISBN 978-0-09-943802-1; p. 30–31
- Harris 2006a.
- Moreira-almeida, A.; Neto, F.; Koenig, H. G. (2006). "Religiousness and mental health: a review". Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 28 (3): 242–250. doi:10.1590/S1516-44462006005000006. PMID 16924349.
- See for example: Kahoe, R.D. (June 1977). "Intrinsic Religion and Authoritarianism: A Differentiated Relationship". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 16 (2): 179–182. doi:10.2307/1385749. JSTOR 1385749. Also see: Altemeyer, Bob; Hunsberger, Bruce (1992). "Authoritarianism, Religious Fundamentalism, Quest, and Prejudice". International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 2 (2): 113–133. doi:10.1207/s15327582ijpr0202_5.
- Harris, Sam (2005). "An Atheist Manifesto". Truthdig. Archived from the original on 2011-05-16. Retrieved 2011-04-09. "In a world riven by ignorance, only the atheist refuses to deny the obvious: Religious faith promotes human violence to an astonishing degree."
- Feinberg, John S.; Feinberg, Paul D. (4 November 2010). Ethics for a Brave New World. Stand To Reason. ISBN 978-1-58134-712-8. Retrieved 2007-10-18. "Over a half century ago, while I was still a child, I recall hearing a number of old people offer the following explanation for the great disasters that had befallen Russia: 'Men have forgotten God; that's why all this has happened.' Since then I have spend well-nigh 50 years working on the history of our revolution; in the process I have read hundreds of books, collected hundreds of personal testimonies, and have already contributed eight volumes of my own toward the effort of clearing away the rubble left by that upheaval. But if I were asked today to formulate as concisely as possible the main cause of the ruinous revolution that swallowed up some 60 million of our people, I could not put it more accurately than to repeat: 'Men have forgotten God; that's why all this has happened.'"
- D'Souza, Dinesh. "Answering Atheist's Arguments". Catholic Education Resource Center. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- Dawkins 2006, p. 291.
- 10 myths and 10 truths about Atheism Sam Harris
- The word αθεοι—in any of its forms—appears nowhere else in the Septuagint or the New Testament. Robertson, A.T. (1960) . "Ephesians: Chapter 2". Word Pictures in the New Testament. Broadman Press. Retrieved 2011-04-09. "Old Greek word, not in LXX, only here in N.T. Atheists in the original sense of being without God and also in the sense of hostility to God from failure to worship him. See Paul's words in Ro 1:18–32."
- Drachmann, A. B. (1977) . Atheism in Pagan Antiquity. Chicago: Ares Publishers. ISBN 0-89005-201-8. "Atheism and atheist are words formed from Greek roots and with Greek derivative endings. Nevertheless they are not Greek; their formation is not consonant with Greek usage. In Greek they said atheos and atheotēs; to these the English words ungodly and ungodliness correspond rather closely. In exactly the same way as ungodly, atheos was used as an expression of severe censure and moral condemnation; this use is an old one, and the oldest that can be traced. Not till later do we find it employed to denote a certain philosophical creed."
- "atheist". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 2009. Retrieved 2013-11-21.
- Martiall, John (1566). A Replie to Mr Calfhills Blasphemous Answer Made Against the Treatise of the Cross. English recusant literature, 1558–1640 203. Louvain. p. 51. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- Rendered as Atheistes: Golding, Arthur (1571). The Psalmes of David and others, with J. Calvin's commentaries. pp. Ep. Ded. 3. "The Atheistes which say..there is no God." Translated from Latin.
- Hanmer, Meredith (1577). The auncient ecclesiasticall histories of the first six hundred years after Christ, written by Eusebius, Socrates, and Evagrius. London. p. 63. OCLC 55193813. "The opinion which they conceaue of you, to be Atheists, or godlesse men."
- Merriam-Webster Online:Atheism, retrieved 2013-11-21, "First Known Use: 1546"
- Rendered as Athisme: de Mornay, Philippe (1581). A Woorke Concerning the Trewnesse of the Christian Religion: Against Atheists, Epicures, Paynims, Iewes, Mahumetists, and other infidels De la vérite de la religion chréstienne (1581, Paris). Translated from French to English by Arthur Golding & Philip Sidney and published in London, 1587. "Athisme, that is to say, vtter godlesnes."
- Vergil, Polydore (c. 1534). English history. Retrieved 2011-04-09. "Godd would not longe suffer this impietie, or rather atheonisme."
- The Oxford English Dictionary also records an earlier, irregular formation, atheonism, dated from about 1534. The later and now obsolete words athean and atheal are dated to 1611 and 1612 respectively. prep. by J. A. Simpson ... (1989). The Oxford English Dictionary (Second ed.). Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-19-861186-2.
- Burton, Robert (1621). "deist". The Anatomy of Melancholy. Part III, section IV. II. i. Retrieved 2011-04-09. "Cousin-germans to these men are many of our great Philosophers and Deists"
- Martin, Edward (1662). "Five Letters". His opinion concerning the difference between the Church of England and Geneva [etc.] London. p. 45. "To have said my office..twice a day..among Rebels, Theists, Atheists, Philologers, Wits, Masters of Reason, Puritanes [etc.]."
- Bailey, Nathan (1675). An universal etymological English dictionary. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- "Secondly, that nothing out of nothing, in the sense of the atheistic objectors, viz. that nothing, which once was not, could by any power whatsoever be brought into being, is absolutely false; and that, if it were true, it would make no more against theism than it does against atheism ..." Cudworth, Ralph. The true intellectual system of the universe. 1678. Chapter V Section II p.73
- In part because of its wide use in monotheistic Western society, atheism is usually described as "disbelief in God", rather than more generally as "disbelief in deities". A clear distinction is rarely drawn in modern writings between these two definitions, but some archaic uses of atheism encompassed only disbelief in the singular God, not in polytheistic deities. It is on this basis that the obsolete term adevism was coined in the late 19th century to describe an absence of belief in plural deities.
- "Atheonism". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
- Pandian (1996). India, that is, sidd. Allied Publishers. p. 64. ISBN 978-81-7023-561-3. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- Dasgupta, Surendranath (1992). A history of Indian philosophy, Volume 1. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 258. ISBN 978-81-208-0412-8. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore. A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. (Princeton University Press: 1957, Twelfth Princeton Paperback printing 1989) pp. 227–249. ISBN 0-691-01958-4.
- Satischandra Chatterjee and Dhirendramohan Datta. An Introduction to Indian Philosophy. Eighth Reprint Edition. (University of Calcutta: 1984). p. 55.
- Joshi, L.R. (1966). "A New Interpretation of Indian Atheism". Philosophy East and West 16 (3/4): 189–206. doi:10.2307/1397540. JSTOR 1397540.
- Baggini 2003, pp. 73–74. "Atheism had its origins in Ancient Greece but did not emerge as an overt and avowed belief system until late in the Enlightenment."
- Solmsen, Friedrich (1942). Plato's Theology. Cornell University Press. p 25.
- ... nullos esse omnino Diagoras et Theodorus Cyrenaicus ... Cicero, Marcus Tullius: De natura deorum. Comments and English text by Richard D. McKirahan. Thomas Library, Bryn Mawr College, 1997, page 3. ISBN 0-929524-89-6
- "religion, study of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-02.
- Bremmer, Jan. "Atheism in Antiquity", in Martin 2006, pp. 12–13
- Diogenes Laërtius, The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, ii
- Cicero, Lucullus, 121. in Reale, G., A History of Ancient Philosophy. SUNY Press. (1985).
- Bremmer, Jan. "Atheism in Antiquity", in Martin 2006, pp. 14–19
- Brickhouse, Thomas C.; Smith, Nicholas D. (2004). Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Plato and the Trial of Socrates. Routledge. p. 112. ISBN 0-415-15681-5. In particular, he argues that the claim he is a complete atheist contradicts the other part of the indictment, that he introduced "new divinities".
- Fragments of Euhemerus' work in Ennius' Latin translation have been preserved in Patristic writings (e.g. by Lactantius and Eusebius of Caesarea), which all rely on earlier fragments in Diodorus 5,41–46 & 6.1. Testimonies, especially in the context of polemical criticism, are found e.g. in Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus 8.
- Plutarch, Moralia—Isis and Osiris 23
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- "Atheism" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
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- Reynold Alleyne Nicholson, 1962, A Literary History of the Arabs, page 318. Routledge
- Freethought Traditions in the Islamic World by Fred Whitehead; also quoted in Cyril Glasse, (2001), The New Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 278. Rowman Altamira.
- Al-Zandaqa Wal Zanadiqa, by Mohammad Abd-El Hamid Al-Hamad, first edition 1999, Dar Al-Taliaa Al-Jadida, Syria (Arabic)
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- Geoffrey Blainey; A Short History of Christianity; Viking; 2011; p.388
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- Winfried Schröder, in: Matthias Knutzen: Schriften und Materialien (2010), p. 8. See also Rececca Moore, The Heritage of Western Humanism, Scepticism and Freethought (2011), calling Knutzen "the first open advocate of a modern atheist perspective" online here
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- Geoffrey Blainey; A Short History of Christianity; Viking; 2011; p.543
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- Simons, William B.; te Leiden, Rijksuniversiteit (2001). The Constitutions of the Communist World. Springer. ISBN 978-0-8147-2214-5. Retrieved 2011-03-05. "Article 37. The State recognizes no religion and supports and carries out atheist propaganda in order to implant a scientific materialist world outlook in people."
- Elsie, Robert (2001). A Dictionary of Albanian Religion, Mythology, and Folk culture. New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-2214-5. Retrieved 2011-03-05. "Article 37 of the Albanian constitution of 1976 stipulated, "The State recognizes no religion and supports and carries out atheist propaganda in order to implant a scientific materialist world outlook in people.""
- Staar, Richard Felix (1982). Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe. The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, Stanford University. ISBN 978-0-8179-7692-7. Retrieved 2011-03-05. "By 1976 all places of worship had been closed. However, the regime has had to admit that religion still maintains a following among Albanians. In order to suppress religious life, the following article has been included in the 1976 constitution: "The state recognizes no religion and supports and carries out atheistic propaganda to implant the scientific materialistic world outlook in people" (Article 37). In its antireligious moves, the regime has gone so far as to order persons to change their names if they are of a religious origin."
- China in the 21st century. Oxford University Press. 16 April 2010. ISBN 978-0-19-539447-4. Retrieved 2011-03-05. "China is still officially an atheist country, but many religions are growing rapidly, including evangelical Christianity (estimates of how many Chinese have converted to some form of Protestantism range widely, but at least tens of millions have done so) and various hybrid sects that combine elements of traditional creeds and belief systems (Buddhism mixed with local folk cults, for example)."
- The State of Religion Atlas. Simon & Schuster. 1993. Retrieved 2013-11-24. "Atheism continues to be the official position of the governments of China, North Korea and Cuba."
- World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia. Marshall Cavendish. September 2007. ISBN 978-0-7614-7631-3. Retrieved 2011-03-05. "North Korea is officially an atheist state in which almost the entire population is nonreligious."
- Freeing God's Children: The Unlikely Alliance for Global Human Rights. Rowman & Littlefield. September 2006. ISBN 978-0-7425-4732-2. Retrieved 2011-03-05. "Cuba is the only country in the Americas that has attempted to impose state atheism, and since the 1960s onward its jails have been filled with pastors and other believers."
- Simon, Gerhard (1974). Church, State, and Opposition in the U.S.S.R.. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-02612-4. "On the other hand the Communist Party has never made any secret of the fact, either before or after 1917, that it regards 'militant atheism' as an integral part of its ideology and will regard 'religion as by no means a private matter'. It therefore uses 'the means of ideological influence to educate people in the spirit of scientific materialism and to overcome religious prejudices..' sic Thus it is the goal of the C.P.S.U. and thereby also of the Soviet state, for which it is after all the 'guiding cell', gradually to liquidate the religious communities."
- Pospielovsky, Dimitry (1998). The Orthodox Church in the History of Russia. St Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88141-179-9. "It might be expected that as a Christian leader, he would at least declare that a Christian could not vote for a party that preached and practiced genocide, whether racial or class-based , nor for a party whose ideology included a militant atheism aiming at liquidation of religion."
- Richmond, Simon (2006). Russia & Belarus. BBC Worldwide. ISBN 978-1-74104-291-7. "Soviet 'militant atheism' led to the closure and destruction of nearly all the mosques and madrasahs (Muslim religious schools) in Russia, although some remained in the Central Asian states. Under Stalin there were mass deportations and liquidation of the Muslim elite."
- Bočorišvili, Tʻinatʻin; Sweet, William; Ahern, Daniel R. (30 June 2005). Politics, ethics and challenges to democracy in 'new independent states'. Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-56518-224-0. Retrieved 2011-03-05. "During the past 150 years in Azerbaijan, Islam has experienced an ascendancy over the official Orthodoxy of the Russian Empire and, then, the state atheism of the Soviet Union."
- Russian postmodernism: new perspectives on post-Soviet culture. Berghahn Books. 1999. ISBN 978-1-57181-028-1. Retrieved 2011-03-05. "The seven decades of Soviet atheism, whether one calls it "mass atheism," "scientific atheism," or "state atheism," was unquestionably a new phenomenon in world history."
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- Atheism at PhilPapers
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- Atheism entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
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- The New Atheists in The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Atheism on the Open Directory Project – Includes links to organizations and websites.
- Positive atheism: Great Historical Writings Historical writing sorted by authors.
- Religion & Ethics—Atheism at bbc.co.uk.
- Secular Web library – Library of both historical and modern writings, a comprehensive online resource for freely available material on atheism.
- The Demand for Religion – A study on the demographics of Atheism by Wolfgang Jagodzinski (University of Cologne) and Andrew Greeley (University of Chicago and University of Arizona).