Australian Antarctic Territory
|Australian Antarctic Territory
Map of Antarctica indicating
Australian territorial claim (red area).
|Largest research station||Mirny Station (Russian)|
|Government||Territory of Australia|
2,276,651 sq mi
|-||estimate||less than 1,000|
|a.||Ex officio as Governor-General of Australia.|
The Australian Antarctic Territory (AAT) is a part of Antarctica. It was claimed by the United Kingdom and placed under the authority of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1933. It is the largest territory of Antarctica claimed by any nation. In 1961, the Antarctic Treaty came into force. Article 4 deals with territorial claims, and although it does not renounce or diminish any preexisting claims to sovereignty, it also doesn't prejudice the position of Contracting Parties in their recognition or non-recognition of territorial sovereignty. As a result, only four other states recognize Australia's claim to sovereignty in Antarctica.1
AAT consists of all the islands and territory south of 60°S and between 45°E and 160°E, except for Adélie Land (136°E to 142°E), which divides the territory into Western AAT (the larger portion) and Eastern AAT. It is bounded by Queen Maud Land in the West and by Ross Dependency in the East. The area is estimated at 5,896,500 km².2
The territory is inhabited by the staff of research stations. The Australian Antarctic Division administers the area primarily by maintaining three year-round stations (Mawson, Davis and Casey), which support various research projects.
The territory is divided into nine districts, which are from West to East:citation needed
|No.||District||Area (km²)||Western Border||Eastern Border|
|1||Enderby Land||045° E||056°25' E|
|2||Kemp Land||056°25' E||059°34' E|
|3||Mac. Robertson Land||059°34' E||072°35' E|
|4||Princess Elizabeth Land||072°35' E||087°43' E|
|5||Kaiser Wilhelm II Land||087°43' E||091°54' E|
|6||Queen Mary Land||091°54' E||100°30' E|
|7||Wilkes Land||2,600,000||100°30' E||136°11' E|
|8||George V Land||142°02' E||153°45' E|
|9||Oates Land||153°45' E||160°00' E|
The Australian Antarctic territorial waters are international waters3 extending 200 nautical miles out to sea from the Australian Antarctic territory. Australia claims the territorial waters are within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the Australian Antarctic territory. Because Australia's Antarctic claim is contested, many states protested the Australian proclamation of an Antarctic EEZ. Some argued it was an "extension" of Australia's claim prohibited by Article IV of the Antarctic Treaty. The provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) define the exclusive economic zone of a coastal state as not exceeding 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured.
Whaling in Australian Antarctic territorial waters is controversial and has received international attention.4 Anti-whaling protest groups in particular, Sea Shepherd Conservation Society have been active within the Australian Antarctic territorial waters. Sea Shepherd small boat crews have had multiple encounters with Japanese ships that claim to be on research expeditions while opponents argue this is only a "cover" for banned commercial whaling.56 The Australian Whale Sanctuary, in Australian Antarctic territory, is not recognised by the government of Japan.4 Anti-whaling legislation passed by the Australian Government applies to Australian territorial waters, however Australia's claims of sovereignty over the Australian Antarctic Territory—and thus sovereignty over Australian Antarctic territorial waters—are recognised by only four countries, not including Japan.7
Active and closed stations in the territory, from West to East:
|Molodyozhnaya (Russian) (closed)||Enderby Land|
|Mawson (Australian)||Mac Robertson Land (Mawson Coast)|
|Soyuz (Russian) (closed)||Mac Robertson Land (Lars Christensen Land)|
|Druzhnaya (Russian) (closed)||Princess Elizabeth Land (Ingrid Christensen Land)|
|Zhongshan (Chinese)||Princess Elizabeth Land (Ingrid Christensen Land)|
|Law-Racovita Station (Romanian)||Princess Elizabeth Land (Ingrid Christensen Land)|
|Progress Station (Russian)||Princess Elizabeth Land (Ingrid Christensen Land)|
|Davis (Australian)||Princess Elizabeth Land (Ingrid Christensen Land)|
|Sovetskaya (Russian) (closed)||Wilhelm II Land|
|Mirny Station (Russian)||Queen Mary Land|
|Komsomolskaya (Russian) (closed)||Queen Mary Land|
|Vostok (Russian)||Wilkes Land (Knox Land)|
|Wilkes Station (closed)||Wilkes Land (Budd Land)|
|Casey (Australian)||Wilkes Land (Budd Land)|
|Concordia Station (Dome C) (Franco-Italian)||Wilkes Land (Banzare Land)|
|Leningradskaya (Russian) (closed)||Oates Land|
The United Kingdom first claimed Victoria Land on 9 January 1841 and then claimed Enderby Land in 1930. In 1933, a British imperial order transferred territory south of 60° S and between meridians 160° E and 45° E to Australia.
That part of His Majesty's dominions in the Antarctic Seas which comprises all the islands and territories other than Adélie Land which are situated south of the 60th degree of South Latitude and lying between the 160th degree of East Longitude and the 45th degree of East Longitude is hereby placed under the authority of the Commonwealth of Australia.8
Australian Antarctic Territory Acceptance Act 1933
That part of the territory in the Antarctic seas which comprises all the islands and territories, other than Adelie Land, situated south of the 60th degree south latitude and lying between the 160th degree east longitude and the 45th degree east longitude, is hereby declared to be accepted by the Commonwealth as a Territory under the authority of the Commonwealth, by the name of the Australian Antarctic Territory. C2004C00416 / Australian Antarctic Territory Acceptance Act 1933 ( Cth )
The borders with Adélie Land were fixed definitively in 1938. In 1947, Britain transferred Heard Island and McDonald Islands to the territory. On 13 February 1954,9 Mawson Station was established as the first Australian station on the continent proper.
Australia's claim to sovereignty over the Australian Antarctic Territory is recognised by the United Kingdom, New Zealand, France and Norway.10 Japan does not recognise this claim, and Japan does not recognise the Australian claim to the Australian Antarctic territorial waters in which Japanese ships conduct whaling.11
During the early 1980s there was a brief debate in Australia on whether or not to allow mining on the mineral-rich continent.12 Several mining proposals have been discussed and have all been rejected.13
On the 9 August 2011, influential Australian think-tank, the Lowy Institute, published a report warning Canberra against complacency when it comes to its claim.14 The global treaty banning resource exploitation becomes reviewable in 2041,15 and some states may then decide to withdraw from it considering the continent's mineral deposits. These include coal seams, manganese, iron and uranium, while Antarctica's forecast oil reserves are estimated as among the largest in the world after Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. Lowy's national security fellow Ellie Fogarty said in the paper that Australia cannot adequately patrol its claim, lacking the kind of ski-planes it needs to reach some areas. It also lacks an ice-breaking ship in the region.
Australia issues postage stamps for the Australian Antarctic Territory. The first issues came in 1957, and sporadically thereafter, settling into a pattern of an annual issue by the 1990s. All have been Antarctic-themed, and all are valid for postage in Australia and its territories, including Antarctica.
Assigned the country calling code +672, the four bases operated by the Australian Antarctic Division can be reached by direct calling from anywhere in the world. The area codes are 10-6 for Davis, 11-7 for Mawson, 12-8 for Casey and 13-9 for Macquarie Island, in each case followed by three additional digits.
- "US National Science Foundation - Office of Polar Programs - The Antarctic Treaty". Retrieved 2012-01-03.
- "National recovery plan for Albatrosses and Giant-petrels: Section 4.1.6 Australian Antarctic Territory, Geography". Australian Government, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Archived from the original on 17 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-16.
- "Humane Society International Inc v Kyodo Senpaku Kaisha Ltd", Federal Court of Australia, 15 January 2008, Australasian Legal Information Institute
- "Japanese whalers told to keep out of Australian territory". The New Zealand Herald. 16 January 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- "'Stink' attack on Japan's whalers, BBC, 27 December 2008
- "Japanese whaling ship detains 2 protesters", MSNBC, 15 January 2008
- "An honorable way out of the whaling debacle", Sydney Morning Herald, 19 January 2008
- Antarctica and international law: a collection of inter-state and national documents, Volume 2. pp. 143. Author: W. M. Bush. Editor: Oceana Publications, 1982. ISBN 0-379-20321-9, ISBN 978-0-379-20321-9
- "A Brief History of Mawson". Australian Government - Australian Arctic Division. Archived from the original on 27 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-16.
- "Chapter 6: Antarctic Territories". Parliament of Australia. Archived from the original on 26 June 2008. Retrieved 2013-03-29.
- "Mining". In the 1980s the question of possible mineral exploitation (including the hydrocarbons oil and gas) was addressed by the nations of the Antarctic Treaty. They negotiated an agreement called the Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (CRAMRA) which would have regulated mining should it have ever been contemplated. CRAMRA did not come into force. Instead, the Madrid Protocol was negotiated and it includes a ban on Antarctic mining. Australian Government. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- "No mining in Antarctica, say Aussies". Despite the current global appetite for minerals, which has underpinned two decades of economic growth in Australia, the country currently has no plans to allow any mining in Antarctica. IOL. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- "Antarctica: Assessing and Protecting Australia’s National Interests". International interest in Antarctica is rising. Lowy Institute. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Swan, Robert. "2041". In the year 2041 the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty could potentially be modified or amended. 2041.com. Retrieved 26 June 2013.