|Headquarters||Mioveni, Argeş, Romania|
|Key people||Luc-Alexandre Menard, President|
|Products||Automobiles, commercial vehicles|
|Revenue||RON 14.05 bln [€3.120 bln] (2011)1|
|Net income||RON 300|
Automobile Dacia S.A.3 (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈdat͡ʃi.a]) is a Romanian car manufacturer, named for the historic region that constitutes much of present-day Romania. It is now a subsidiary of the French carmaker Renault. The company is the largest exporter from Romania with 7.9% of total exports in 2011.4
The Dacia automobile company was founded in 1966 under the name Uzina de Autoturisme Pitești (UAP). The main Dacia factory was built in 1968, in Colibaşi (now called Mioveni), near Piteşti. Dacia acquired the tooling and basic designs of the Renault 12. However, until the tooling was ready it was decided to produce the Renault 8 under licence; it was known as the Dacia 1100.5 From 1968 to 1972, some 44,000 were produced, with a very minor cosmetic change to the front in early 1970. Also produced in very limited numbers was the 1100S, with twin headlamps and a more powerful engine, used by the police and in motor racing.
The first Dacia 1300 left the assembly line ready for the 23 August parade in 1969, and was exhibited at the Paris and Bucharest shows of that year. Romanians were delighted with the modernity and reliability of the car, and waiting lists were always lengthy. As early as 1970, there were several variants: the standard 1300, the 1300L (for Lux) and the 1301 Lux Super, which had novelties such as a heated rear screen, a radio, windscreen mirrors on both sides and a more luxurious trim. This was reserved for the Communist Party nomenklatura.
Changes soon followed as export markets opened up. In 1973, the estate variant, 1300 Break, was produced. There were 1300F (estate with no rear seats, for carrying goods) and 1300S (ambulance) variants, and in 1975 the Dacia 1302 pick-up was developed. 2,000 units were made until 1982.
Dacia also produced the D6, a CKD version of the Renault Estafette van, in limited numbers, but given the competition of the Bucharest-made T.V. van, numbers were very limited. In the very early 1980s, the Renault 20 was also assembled as the Dacia 2000; because of the exclusivity of this model numbers were always very limited. The 2000 was only available in dark blue or black, and was reserved for the Party elite. Beginning in 1978, the Renault 18 was also assembled by Dacia.6
At the Bucharest show in 1979, the restyled 1310 models were presented. These had quad lamps at the front, larger lamps at the rear, re-profiled bumpers, and a new interior. The changes were heavily inspired by Renault's own restyling of its 12 in 1975. After a brief series of "crossover" cars in 1979 (for example, there were no more rectangular headlights available for the 1300, so the last models used the quad lamps of the 1310), the 1310 finally hit the Romanian market in late 1979. In the UK, where it was known as the Dacia Denem, the top of the range model included such luxuries as a five-speed gearbox, alloy wheels and electric windows. The advertising slogan used for the car was "The Very Acceptable Dacia Denem", but this proved not to be the case with the British buyers, who increasingly opted for the more reliable Japanese, South Korean and Malaysian models. Sales were very limited, and the number surviving are not thought to exceed single digit figures, although the Romanian Embassy in South Kensington kept a fleet running until the mid-1990s. Sales of the pick-up version, known as the Shifter, continued until about 1990, and the Aro 10 was also sold as the Dacia Duster. The plug was pulled on the Denem, however, in late 1982.
At the same time the Sport model was produced.7 At the 1980 show, crowds admired the Braşovia, a prototype of a sports coupé based on the 1310 and developed at a service station in Braşov. The go-ahead was given for a prestige model, and so from 1981 the two-door Dacia 1310 Sport (1410 Sport from 1983), was available for the gilded youth of the period. These were very popular for rallies, and racing drivers such as Nicu Grigoraş tuned them to extract extraordinary power from the old Renault engine.
The designers were still coming up with fresh ideas, many of them shrouded in secrecy. Prototypes such as the 500cc Mini-Dacia, as well as Dacia 1310 variants, were designed; some, such as the Dacia 1310 Limousine, are still on the road. These cars are eagerly prized by Dacia enthusiasts, and Dacia web forums are full of evidence about the rarities and oddities produced by Dacia during the 1980s. In 1982, after the 1302 was dropped, the Dacia 1304 Pick-up and 1305 Drop-side models were introduced. Actually, they had been launched from 1981. These were a commercial success and remained in production, gradually being modified along with the rest of the range, until December 2006. From 1985, also, the 1410 was available as a larger-engined variant, while the relatively short-lived 1210 was the economy variant until about 1992.
In 1983, there were more slight modifications, with a new horizontal rear vent and chunkier, rubber mouldings around the front grille. Work was developing on the 1320 CN1 model, which was a hatchback based on the 1310. The new front end seen on the 1320 also appeared on the top-of-the-range models (known under Dacia brand nomenclature as MLS) from about 1989; these cars were distinguishable by two large headlights, a much plusher interior clad in blue plastic and known as the CN1 dashboard, and often a proliferation of aerials to indicate the owner's status. Most were owned by senior officials in the Communist Central Committee. While the 1320 was the most expensive model in the Dacia range when it appeared in 1987, most were used as taxis until the mid-1990s. The 1320 did not last long, however; as early as 1989 there were prototypes using the front of the 1320 and a new rear, with wrap-around tail lights and other modern features.
The 1320 model emerged in 1991 as the Dacia 1325 Liberta (after the 1989 revolution, themes of liberty were very much in fashion) and stayed in production until 1996.
The last of the quad-lamped models were produced in 1989, and all the Dacia range received the new front end of the 1320, called CN1. An effort was made to rejuvenate the model range: the Sport was dropped, due to lack of sales, and new commercial vehicles were introduced. The 1307 was a double-cabbed pick-up; the 1309 was an estate with a tarpaulin instead of a boot; the car was a cross-over between estate and pick-up and sold very well on the Chinese market. There were also several prototypes:
- the 1610 diesel estate, powered by Volkswagen, with about 150 units sold
- the Dacia Star, with curved side windows
- the 1308 Jumbo, a camper-van, and several attempts to give the 1310 a more modern look by grafting the front of contemporary cars such as the Nissan Primera onto it.
The cars of 1992–1994 are curiosities: although efforts were obviously being made to renew the model range, there were numerous stylistic hangovers from the quad-lamped models. Thus, the last of the 1983-designed dashboards were seen in 1994 although a new dashboard had been seen on some model ranges since 1987. Similarly, although the CN1 restyling eliminated anachronisms such as a kink upwards at the C-pillar and a rubber rear spoiler, it was not applied consistently. One wonders about the techniques used on the production lines of the era.
The 1993 facelift was known within the industry as CN2. A reprojected front end was distinguished by a horizontal metal line in the grille. There were new headlamps, front and rear bumpers, and the shape of the front wings was accordingly different. Inside, there was a new dashboard for the base models, while the top-of-the-range cars had luxuries such as body-coloured bumpers, rear head restraints, a radio-cassette, hubcaps, and the ever-present CN1 dashboard, this time in black plastic. This model was not to stay in production for very long; in 1995 the CN3 type was introduced on the European market, followed by the Latin American market in 1996. Practically the only differences were those of trim level and the radiator grille.
From late 1994 little attention was paid to the improvement of the 1310 range, as Dacia launched a new model, the Dacia Nova. This was a compact saloon/sedan or hatchback with a three-box design. The design was rather outdated, because development work had started in 1983. Urban myth in Romania suggests that it was a version of the Renault 11 or the Peugeot 309. However, the Nova is a 100% Romanian designcitation needed, started after the end of any French involvement in Daciacitation needed. The model was initially unpopular, due to reliability and rustproofing issues, one rumour suggesting that when it rained outside, it also rained inside. However, after improvements in 1996, the Nova became more often seen on Romanian roads. In 1998 a seven-seater prototype was produced using the panels and windows from the standard Nova saloon.
In 1998, the anniversary year of three decades of production since the first Dacia rolled off the assembly line, vehicle number 2,000,000 emerged from the plant; this year saw the last restyling of the 1310. It was known as CN4 and involved a comprehensive restyling of the front end, as well as new door handles and a lightly restyled rear view mirror. The estate version was fitted with larger tail lights. The load-carrying models followed suit in 1999. It must be stressed that, even though the model was over thirty years old, it still sold exceptionally well due to a starting price of about 4,200 Euros and high availability of parts. "Goodies" such as a fuel-injection also helped keep the model relatively modern.
In 2000, a special edition was produced for the first time, known as Dacia Dedicaţie.8 This luxury version of the saloon and estate had alloy wheels, body-coloured bumpers, power steering, electric windows, and a far better level of finish. The models were all painted two-tone silver, and sold at a significantly higher price. From 2002, the cars became known as Berlina and Break, with the 1310 lettering being relegated to an insignificant position underneath the side light.
On 21 July 2004, the last models of the 1300 series rolled out the gates of the Mioveni production facility, just one month before their 35th anniversary. The very last Dacia 1310 (saloon version), number 1,979,730, will be kept in the Dacia Museum.
On 8 December 2006, the utility Dacia Pick-Up suffered the same fate. Although many improvements had been made in recent years, such as four-wheel drive, the introduction of a 1.9 diesel engine, the dashboard from the Dacia Solenza (also seen on the very last 1310s) and wheels fastened by five studs as opposed the archaic three, Romania's entry in the European Union effectively prevented the continued production of the old models. The assembly lines will be remodelled and expanded to increase production of the Dacia Logan.
In over thirty-four years of production, and more than 2.5 million units produced, the Dacia 1300/1310 easily became the most common car on Romanian roads. Almost everybody owned one and became adept at carrying out repairs or home-made modifications. For example, many older cars had newer front ends grafted onto them to make them seem more modern, or purely because newer parts were easier to get. Consequently, original early 1300s are quite rare, with prices steadily increasing for the best-preserved models. Tuning of Dacias is also a popular pastime, although the home-made nature of much of the work casts doubt on the level of quality, safety and reliability of the finished product.
According to popular belief, during the Communist era, in the plant where Dacias were made, there were two assembly lines: one line producing Dacias intended for sale in Romania and the other line producing the same car (albeit from superior parts, and assembled with greater care) for export. Romanians living near the border would commonly purchase their Dacia in neighbouring countries expecting a higher level of quality.
Meanwhile, work was continuing on the other Dacia models. In September 1999, Dacia was bought by the Renault group, with a view to making Romania its hub of automobile development in both Central and Eastern Europe, and investment was consequently increased. The first sign of this came in 2000, with the introduction of the SupeRNova, an improved version of the Nova with engine and transmission from Renault. The top-of-the range version had air conditioning, electric windows and a CD player. Sales were very good, although the outdatedness of the concept was striking. Dacia sold 53,000 vehicles in 2002 and it holds an almost 50 per cent market share in Romania.
In 2003, a restyled version replaced the SupeRNova with Dacia Solenza, featuring a new interior, the options for an airbag. This was, however, only meant to be a stopgap model filling the need for a saloon model before the introduction of the all-important Dacia Logan, as well as to familiarise workers with the demands of manufacturing a model acceptable to Western European markets. Production was stopped in 2005.
The Dacia Logan is the most successful model since the original 1300. It was introduced after considerable media interest in August 2004, and despite design-related criticism, it became one of the top-selling cars in Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Russia. The Logan is sold in a large number of countries, occasionally under the Renault brand. It was awarded 3 (out of 5) stars in NCAP crash testing.9 It is by far the best-selling car in Romania, with a market share of 27% in February 2008.10 A diesel version was also introduced in 2005. Before its launch, it was known as the 5000-Euro car due to its projected launch price. This was never quite the case, although it is one of the cheapest cars for its size on the market.
In 2006, the prototype Logan Steppe was exhibited. This showed a speculative 4x4 estate version of the Logan. The estate version was launched in late 2006. The van, basically an estate with the rear windows filled in and a separate cabin for the driver, was launched in February 2007 after the stopping production of the classic utility vehicle, the Dacia Pick-Up.
The Renault Technologie Roumanie engineering centre was set up in 2006, in Bucharest, Romania. Employing approximately 2,500 engineers, its main fields of activity are the development, testing and design of the new vehicles in the Dacia range, as well as the marketing and technical support.11 The following year, the company also set up a styling office, Renault Design Central Europe.12
A pick-up model and the Logan-based hatchback Sandero were launched in 2008, the latter at the Geneva Motor Show.13 This also marked a point of rebranding for the company,1415 which adopted a new logo and later the same year launched the facelifted Logan model.16
In 2009, a new concept called the Dacia Duster was unveiled at the Geneva Motor Show, signaling manufacturer's intentions of releasing an SUV model.17 This was reportedly the inauguration of the platform that would be used for the second generation of the Logan and Sandero models, released in 2012.18
In 2010, the Dacia Duster was exhibited at the Geneva Motor Show. It is the first crossover SUV built by Dacia since the Renault acquisition, in both 4x2 and 4x4 versions. Officially revealed since 8 December 2009, it became available in Europe from 18 March 2010.19
In September 2010, a testing center was opened in Titu, Romania, as part of Renault Technologie Roumanie.20 It is intended for developing and optimizing the new vehicles in the Dacia range and has nine types of track with a total length of 32 kilometres and around one hundred test benches, used to test the resistance of vehicles and replacement parts to cold, heat and rain.12
The Dokker, released in June 2012, is a slightly smaller leisure activity vehicle, also manufactured in Tangier, sharing the same platform with the Lodgy, available in passenger and panel van variants.22
In September 2012, the second generations of the Logan and Sandero were revealed at the Paris Motor Show. They feature a common front end design and come with improved standard safety features, a new engine and other new comfort equipment.23
The following year, the facelifted Duster was presented at the Frankfurt Motor Show.24 It received mild modifications to the front and rear ends, the new interior introduced on the new Logan and Sandero models,25 as well as a new turbocharged petrol engine.26
The company's single plant is located in Mioveni, Romania, together with its headquarters, and has a production capacity of 350,000 vehicles per year.27 It is divided into several sections, such as bodywork, painting, assembly, mechanical and chassis, foundry etc.28 It works in conjunction with the Renault Technologie Roumanie engineering centre, located in Bucharest and set up in 2006,11 which also comprises a styling office, Renault Design Central Europe,12 and with the testing center located in Titu, opened in 2010.20
A large logistical centre was also set near the plant in March 2005, the International Logistic Network, from where complete knock down (CKD) kits are exported to other Renault production sites in Russia, Morocco, Colombia, Argentina, Brazil, South Africa, Iran and India.29 It is reportedly the biggest logistic centre of its kind not only in the Renault Group, but in the entire world automotive industry.30 In 2012, the total equivalent of the kits sent worldwide from the centre was 920,646 vehicles.29
The Dacia brand is marketed in most of the Western and Eastern European countries, as well as in some Northern African countries,32 such as Algeria, Tunisia or Morocco, and in several Middle East countries. Its models have also been produced by Renault in its production sites on other continents (in Russia, Iran, India, South Africa, Colombia and Brazil) and sold under its own brand or other specific local brands (such as Mahindra, Lada or Nissan for example).
In 2012, Dacia has sold a total of 359,822 vehicles, of which approximately 230,000 were exported to Western Europe, the most of them in France and in Germany. Besides the domestic market, its other key markets have been Algeria, Turkey, Italy and Spain.33
The historical sales figures of all the models are the following (under the Dacia brand only):
- Dacia Logan (2004–present)
- Dacia Sandero (2008–present)
- Dacia Sandero Stepway (2009–present)
- Dacia Duster (2010–present)
- Dacia Lodgy (2012–present)
- Dacia Dokker (2012–present)
- Dacia Dokker Van (2012–present)
- Dacia 1100 (1968–1972)
- Dacia 1210 (based on the 1310 version)
- Dacia 1300 (1969–1979)
- Dacia 1310 (1979–2004; Dacia Denem in the United Kingdom)
- Dacia 1301 (1970–1974)
- Dacia 1302 (1975–1982)
- Dacia 1304 Pick Up (1979–2006)
- Dacia Duster (1983–1990s; rebadged ARO 10 in the United Kingdom)
- Dacia 1305 Drop Side (1985–2006)
- Dacia 1307 Double Cab (1992–2006)
- Dacia 1307 King Cab (1992–1999)
- Dacia 1309 (1992–1997)
- Dacia 1310/1410 Sport (1981–1992)
- Dacia 1410 (based on the 1310 version)
- Dacia 2000
- Dacia D6 (1974–1976)
- Dacia 500 Lăstun (1985–1989)
- Dacia 1320 (1985–1989)
- Dacia Liberta (1990–1996)
- Dacia Nova (1994–1999)
- Dacia SupeRNova (2000–2002)
- Dacia Solenza (2003–2005)
- Dacia Logan MCV (2006–2012)
- Dacia Logan Van (2007–2012)
- Dacia Logan Pick-Up (2008–2012)
- See Automobile Romanesti for photos
- Dacia Braşovia coupè (1980)
- Mini-Dacia (1980s) – prototype made from cut-down Dacia 1310 panels and easily changeable from hatchback to pick-up to convertible according to removable panels
- Dacia Jumbo highrise van (1990)
- Dacia Nova minivan (1998)
- Several prototypes of the 1310 with diesel, LPG or smaller engines, throughout the model history
- Dacia Star (1991)
- Dacia 1310 convertible (1987; three produced)
- Dacia 1306 saloon-derived pick-up (1994/5; very small series)
- Dacia 1310 Break Limousine (late 1980s) – stretched estate with seven seats, several produced in normal-roofed and high-roofed variants
- Dacia D33 (1997) – prototype made by IDEA design house in Turin, one model only
- Dacia 1310 4x4 / Aro 12 (late 1980s) – estate-derived 4x4, very small series
- Dacia Duster concept car (2009)
- "Dacia a avut în 2010 o cifră de afaceri de 3,120 miliarde de Euro". ZF.ro. 27 April 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- "Profile". Dacia. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
- "Automobile Dacia Official Site". Dacia. Archived from the original on 9 September 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2010.
- "Dacia a ajuns la 8% din exporturile României". Ziarul Financiar. 18 February 2012.
- "Background". Dacia. Archived from the original on 5 November 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- Mastrostefano, Raffaele, ed. (1985). Quattroruote: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1985 (in Italian). Milano: Editoriale Domus S.p.A. p. 230. ISBN 88-7212-012-8.
- "The history of Dacia Sport". Dacia Sport. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- "Dacia Dedicaţie". Dacia Club. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
- "Dacia Logan". Euro NCAP. Archived from the original on 9 February 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2010.
- "Dacia Logan, cea mai vanduta masina din Romania in februarie". Corporatenews.ro. Retrieved 20 February 2010.dead link
- "Who we are". Renault Technologie Roumanie. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- "Renault in Romania". Renault.com. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- "2008 Dacia Sandero". Taume News. Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008.
- "Premiera Dacia: Sandero si noul logo". AutoMarket. 4 March 2008. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- "Dacia, o marca generoasa si ingenioasa". Dacia. 4 March 2008. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- "Noua Dacia Logan: mult mai bine!". Dacia. 1 July 2008. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- "Geneva Preview: Dacia Duster concept first from low-cost brand". Autoblog. 2 March 2009.
- "Système alphanumérique (1979-présent)". Renault Concepts. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- "Dacia Launches its Off-Roader Dacia Duster at 2010 Geneva Motor Show". thenewsmarket.com. 2 March 2010. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Renault Technologie Roumanie a inaugurat Centrul Tehnic Titu". Dacia. 16 September 2010. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- "Dacia Lodgy, lansată la Geneva". RFI România. 6 March 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
- "Dacia rolls out Dokker vanlet in Casablanca". Autoblog. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- "Noile Dacia Logan, Sandero şi Sandero Stepway". Dacia. 27 September 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- "Noua Dacia Duster: Legenda off-road continuă". Dacia. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- "New Photos of the Facelifted Dacia Duster Reveal Updated Interior, May Get 1.2L Turbo". Carscoops. 7 September 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- "New Dacia Duster. More Duster than ever". Renault.com. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "Uzina Vehicule" (in Romanian). Dacia. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- "Uzinele Dacia realizează 7,7% din exportul României" (in Romanian). Dacia. 10 July 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- "Direcţia Logistică Centrală Dacia" (in Romanian). Dacia. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- "The Logan Project". Dacia. 28 January 2010. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- "Dokker and Dokker Van the latest additions to the Dacia range". Dacia. 28 June 2012.
- "Dacia". daciagroup.com. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- "Dacia a înregistrat în 2012 un nou record de vânzări" (in Romanian). Dacia. 18 January 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- "2.500.000 autovehicule produse la uzina Dacia Pitesti". Dacia. 8 February 2005. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- "Sales". Best Selling Cars. 16 October 2004. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "Sales". Dacia. Archived from the original on 8 July 2010. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- "2010 Geneva Motor Show - Dacia Duster, the low-emission off-roader from 11,900 euros". Renault. 2 March 2010. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Dacia în 2011: Vânzările au scăzut cu 16%. Duster, cel mai vândut model". RTV.net. 17 January 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- "Monthly sales - December 2012". Renault. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
- "Monthly sales - December 2013". Renault. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- "Dacia 1100 / 1100S". Blog. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
- "Ultima Berlina - Masina nr 1,959,730". Blog. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
- "Dacia Lastun". Blog. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dacia vehicles.|
|Automobile Dacia, a subsidiary of Renault Group since 1999, car timeline, 1960s–present|
|City car||500 Lăstun|
|Supermini||Nova||SupeRNova||Solenza||Sandero I||Sandero II|
|Small family car||1100||1310||Logan I||Logan II|
|Large family car||1300|
|Compact MPV||Logan MCV||Lodgy|
|Pick-up||1302||1304/1305 Pick-Up||Logan Pick-Up|
|Van||Estafette||Logan Van||Dokker Van|