Portrait of Leo Baekeland in 1916.
|Born||Leo Henricus Arthur Baekeland
November 14, 1863
|Died||February 23, 1944
Beacon, New York, USA
|Known for||plastics research, Bakelite, Novolac|
|Awards||John Scott Medal (1910)|
Leo Henricus Arthur Baekeland (November 14, 1863 – February 23, 1944) was a Belgian-born American chemist. He invented Velox photographic paper in 1893 and Bakelite in 1907. His invention of Bakelite, an inexpensive, nonflammable, versatile, and popular plastic, marked the beginning of the modern plastics industry.12
Leo Baekeland was born in Ghent, Belgium, Baekeland was the son of a cobbler and a house maid. He told The Literary Digest: "The name is a Dutch word meaning 'Land of Beacons.'"3 He graduated with honours from the Ghent Municipal Technical School and was awarded a scholarship by the City of Ghent to study chemistry at the University of Ghent, where he acquired a PhD maxima cum laude at the age of 21. He was subsequently appointed associate professor of chemistry in 1889, and married Céline Swarts, the daughter of his head of department.4
In 1889 Baekeland honeymooned in New York City, where he met Richard Anthony, of the E. and H.T. Anthony photographic company. Baekeland had already invented a process to develop photographic plates using water instead of other chemicals, and was interested in moving to America; Anthony saw potential in the young chemist and offered him a job.5 Baekeland became a naturalized American in 1897, and a professor by special appointment at Columbia University in 1917 6
Baekeland worked for the Anthony company for two years, and in 1891 set up in business for himself as a consulting chemist. However, a spell of illness and disappearing funds made him rethink his actions and he decided to return to his old interest of producing a photographic paper that would allow enlargements to be printed by artificial light.7 After two years of intensive effort he perfected the process to produce the paper, which he named Velox; it was the first commercially successful photographic paper. At the time the US was suffering a recession and there were no investors or buyers for his proposed new product, so Baekeland became partners with Leonardi Jacobi and established the Nepera Chemical Company in Nepera Park, Yonkers, New York.5
In 1899 Jacobi, Baekeland, and Albert Hahn, a further associate, sold Nepera to George Eastman of the Eastman Kodak Co. for $750,000. 89 Baekeland earned circa $215,000 net through the transaction. 10 With a portion of the money he purchased "Snug Rock", a house in Yonkers, New York, and set up his own well-equipped laboratory.
He patented more than 55 inventions, including processes for the separation of copper and cadmium, and for the impregnation of wood.
When asked why he entered the field of synthetic resins, Baekeland answered "to make money." His first objective was to find a replacement for shellac (made from the excretion of lac beetles).1 Chemists had begun to recognize that many of the natural resins and fibers were polymers.citation needed Baekeland began to investigate the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde. He first produced a soluble phenol-formaldehyde shellac called "Novolak" that never became a market success as a brand, but still exists as Novolac. He then turned to developing a binder for asbestos, which at that time was molded with rubber. By controlling the pressure and temperature applied to phenol and formaldehyde, he could produce his dreamed-of hard moldable plastic: Bakelite.1 The chemical name of Bakelite is polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride.2 Baekeland's process patent for making insoluble products of phenol and formaldehyde was filed in July 1907, and granted on December 7, 1909.
In 1922, after patent litigation favorable to Baekeland, the General Bakelite Co., which he had founded in 1910, along with the Condensite Co. founded by Aylesworth, and the Redmanol Chemical Products Co. founded by L.V. Redman, were merged into the Bakelite Corporation.11
The invention of Bakelite marks the beginning of the age of plastics.2 Bakelite was made from phenol, then known as carbolic acid, and formaldehyde. These can be mixed, heated, and then either molded or extruded.12
Bakelite was the first plastic invented that held its shape after being heated. Radios, telephones and electrical insulators were made of Bakelite because of its excellent electrical insulation and heat-resistance. Soon its applications spread to most branches of industry.2
At Baekeland's death in 1944, the world production of Bakelite was ca. 175000tons, and it was used in over 15000 different products.
Baekeland was awarded the Franklin Medal in 1940.
As Baekeland got older he became more eccentric, getting into fierce battles with his son and presumptive heir over salary and other issues. He sold the General Bakelite Company to Union Carbide in 1939 and, at his son's prompting, he retired. He became a recluse, eating all of his meals from cans and becoming obsessed with developing an immense tropical garden on his winter estate in Coconut Grove, Florida.12 He died of a cerebral hemorrhage in a sanatorium in Beacon, New York. Baekeland is buried in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in Sleepy Hollow, New York.13
- Leo Baekeland also had a famous baking company. "Chemical Achievers: Leo Hendrik Baekeland". Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Amato, Ivan (1999-03-29). "Time 100: Leo Baekeland". Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Funk & Wagnalls, 1936.
- Bijker, Wiebe E. (1997). Of Bicycles, Bakelites, and Bulbs: Toward a Theory of Sociotechnical Change. MIT Press. p. 102. ISBN 0-262-52227-6.
- Gehani, R. Ray (1998). Management of Technology and Operations. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 81–82. ISBN 0-471-17906-X.
- Haynes, Williams (1946). "XIX: Materials for To-morrow". This Chemical Age. London: Secker and Warburg. pp. 238–239.
- Jenkins, Reese V. (1975). Images and Enterprise: Technology and the American Photographic Industry, 1839 to 1925. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 191–201. ISBN 0801815886.
- Haynes7 quotes a surprising immediate offer of $1,000,000, when Baekeland had been hoping for $50,000 at most.
- Mercelis, Joris (2012). "Leo Baekeland's Transatlantic Struggle for Bakelite: Patenting Inside and Outside of America". Technology and Culture 53 (2): 372.
- American Institute of Chemical Engineers Staff (1977). Twenty-Five Years of Chemical Engineering Progress. Ayer Publishing. p. 216. ISBN 0-8369-0149-5.
- Fairchild, David (1948). The World Grows Round My Door. New York: Charles Scriber's Sons. p. 258.
- Find A Grave Memorial: L. Baekeland
- Further reading
- Craig, John A. (April 1916). "Leo Hendrik Baekeland: The Latest Winner Of The Perkin Medal". The World's Work: A History of Our Time XXXI: 651–655. Retrieved 2009-08-04.
- Farber, Eduard (1970). "Baekeland, Leo Hendrik". Dictionary of Scientific Biography 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 385. ISBN 0-684-10114-9.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Leo Hendrik Baekeland.|
- The Baekeland fund
- Leo Baekeland at Find a Grave
- A virtual Bakelite museum with a short biography of Leo Baekeland
- Chemical Achievers: Leo Hendrik Baekeland
- Virtual Bakelite Museum of Ghent 1907–2007
- The Baekeland programme
- Time, Mar. 29, 1999, Chemist LEO BAEKELAND
- National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
|Awards and achievements|
Seymour Parker Gilbert
|Cover of Time Magazine
22 September 1924