Bagrationovsk

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Bagrationovsk (English)
Багратионовск (Russian)
-  Town1  -
Map of Russia - Kaliningrad Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia
Bagrationovsk is located in Kaliningrad Oblast
Bagrationovsk
Bagrationovsk
Location of Bagrationovsk in Kaliningrad Oblast
Coordinates: 54°24′N 20°38′E / 54.400°N 20.633°E / 54.400; 20.633Coordinates: 54°24′N 20°38′E / 54.400°N 20.633°E / 54.400; 20.633
Coat of Arms of Bagrationovsk (Kaliningrad oblast).png
Coat of arms
Administrative status (as of November 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Kaliningrad Oblast1
Administrative district Bagrationovsky District1
Town of district significance Bagrationovsk1
Administrative center of Bagrationovsky District,1 town of district significance of Bagrationovsk1
Municipal status (as of April 2010)
Municipal district Bagrationovsky Municipal District2
Urban settlement Bagrationovskoye Urban Settlement2
Administrative center of Bagrationovsky Municipal District,2 Bagrationovskoye Urban Settlement2
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 6,400 inhabitants3
Time zone USZ1 (UTC+03:00)4
Founded 13365
Town status since 1585citation needed
Previous names Preußisch Eylau (until 1945),5
Preysish Eylau (until 1946)5
Postal code(s)6 238420
Official website
Bagrationovsk on WikiCommons

Bagrationovsk (Russian: Багратио́новск), prior to 1946 known by its German name Preußisch Eylau (Lithuanian: Ylava or Prūsų Ylava; Polish: Pruska Iława or Iławka) is a town and the administrative center of Bagrationovsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located 37 kilometers (23 mi) south of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 6,400 (2010 Census).3

History

Remains of the Preußisch Eylau Castle

In 1325, the Teutonic Knights built a castle called "Yladia"7 or "Ilaw", later known as "Preussisch Eylau", in the center of the Old Prussian region Natangia. Ylow is the Old Prussian term for mud or swamp. The settlement nearby developed in 1336,5 but in 1348 the Teutonic Order gave the privilege to establish twelve pubs at the surrounding area of the castle. Even though the settlement had only a few inhabitants, due to its central position it was often used as meeting place for different officials of the Order. During the Thirteen Years' War, the castle was besieged on May 24, 1455 by troops of the Prussian Confederation under the command of Remschel von Krixen, but the garrison defeated these troops. Also, during the Horsemen's War in 1520, the castle was unsuccessfully besieged by troops of the Polish Kingdom, which caused a devastation of the settlement itself.

Preußisch Eylau received its civic charter in 1585.citation needed In 1709–1711, the bubonic plague caused the death of 2,212 inhabitants of the Eylau area.

The bloody Battle of Eylau (February 7–8, 1807) during the Napoleonic Wars involved the French troops of Napoleon Bonaparte, the Russian troops of General Bennigsen, and Prussian troops of General Anton Wilhelm von L'Estocq. While only 3 inhabitants of Eylau died throughout the battle, 605 persons died due to hunger and diseases in 1807 (with the average death rate in "normal" years being around 80-90). Napoleon used the local courthouse as his headquarters in Eylau on February 7-17, 1807.

On April 1, 1819, the town became the seat of the administrative district Preußisch Eylau (Kreis Pr. Eylau). In 1834, a Teachers' Seminary was founded, educating every East Prussian teacher until it was closed down in 1924. The town was connected to the railway on September 2, 1866. The town was occupied without a struggle by Russian troops on August 27, 1914, but these troops left on September 3, 1914.

After 1933, large barracks were built by the Wehrmacht and in 1935 Infantry and Artillery units were stationed there.

On February 10, 1945,5 during the Soviet Red Army's East Prussian Offensive, the town was occupied by troops of the 55th Guards "Irkutsk-Pinsk" Division commanded by Major General Adam Turchinsky. The German population that had not already fled during the evacuation of East Prussia was subsequently expelled, with the last transport leaving on November 23, 1947. Soviet NKVD established a prison camp for German civilians inside the former Wehrmacht barracks in 1945-1949. It held an estimated 13,000 inmates, of whom some 6,000 people died.7

In early August 1945, Polish officials took over the administrative power in the town, but left again on January 1, 1946, as the new borderline between the Soviet Union and Poland was set just at the southern outskirts of the town. The Polish administrative area south of the border was called "Powiat Ilawka" until 1958.

In January 1946, the town became a part of the newly established Kaliningrad Oblast within the Russian SFSR and the town was given its present name, honoring General Pyotr Bagration, who was one of the senior Russian leaders in the Napoleonic Wars.

Checkpoint at the frontier with Poland (Bezledy)

Today the main border crossing point between Russia and Poland (Bezledy/Bagrationovsk) is located 2 kilometers (1.2 mi) south of the town. Since April 2007, government restrictions on visits to border areas have been tightened and travel to Sovetsk and Bagrationovsk is only allowed with special permission, unless in transit.8

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Bagrationovsk serves as the administrative center of Bagrationovsky District.1 As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Bagrationovsky District as the town of district significance of Bagrationovsk.1 As a municipal division, the town of district significance of Bagrationovsk is incorporated within Bagrationovsky Municipal District as Bagrationovskoye Urban Settlement.2

Population

  • 1782: 1,453
  • 1804: 1,816
  • 1820: 1,631
  • 1846: 2,630
  • 1852: 2,988
  • 1871: 3,719
  • 1885: 3,547
  • 1890: 3,446 (including 42 Catholics, 42 Jews)
  • 1900: 3,248
  • 1910: 3,270
  • 1925: 3,787
  • 1933: 4,123
  • 1939: 7,485 (including 1,185 military personnel)
  • 1946: 2,275 (including 1,339 Germans )
  • 1968: 4,300
  • 1989 Census: 6,7289
  • 2002 Census: 7,21610
  • 2010 Census: 6,4003

Notable people

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Bagrationovsk is twinned with:

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Resolution #640
  2. ^ a b c d e Law #253
  3. ^ a b c "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ a b c d e Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 32. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  6. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  7. ^ a b Schulz 1998
  8. ^ http://www.gwu.edu/~ieresgwu/assets/docs/pepm_016.pdf
  9. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  10. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 

Sources

  • Правительство Калининградской области. Постановление №640 от 30 августа 2011 г. «Об утверждении реестра объектов административно-территориального деления Калининградской области», в ред. Постановления №877 от 21 ноября 2011 г «О внесении изменения в Постановление Правительства Калининградской области от 30 августа 2011 г. №640». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда" (вкладыш "Официально"), №170, 15 сентября 2011 г. (Government of Kaliningrad Oblast. Resolution #640 of August 30, 2011 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Objects of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of Kaliningrad Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #877 of November 21, 2011 On Amending the Resolution of the Government of Kaliningrad Oblast #640 of August 30, 2011. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Калининградская областная Дума. Закон №253 от 30 июня 2008 г. «Об организации местного самоуправления на территории муниципального образования "Багратионовский городской округ"», в ред. Закона №428 от 12 апреля 2010 г «Об изменении границ муниципальных образований». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда", №124, 11 июля 2008 г. (Kaliningrad Oblast Duma. Law #253 of June 30, 2008 On the Organization of the Local Self-Government on the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Bagrationovsky Urban Okrug", as amended by the Law #428 of April 12, 2010 On Changing the Borders of the Municipal Formations. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Horst Schulz. Preußisch Eylau — eine Kreisstadt in Ostpreußen. Lübeck, 1998
  • Horst Schulz. Der Kreis Preußisch Eylau. Verden, 1983
  • Wolf, Dr. Horst. Ich sage die Wahrheit oder ich schweige. Leer, 1983







Creative Commons License