Preußisch Eylau (German)
|- Town -|
Location of Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia
|Federal subject||Kaliningrad Oblast|
|Administrative district||Bagrationovsky Districtcitation needed|
|Population (2010 Census)||6,400 inhabitants1|
|Time zone||USZ1 (UTC+03:00)2|
|Previous names||Preußisch Eylau (until 1945)3|
Bagrationovsk (Russian: Багратио́новск; German: Preußisch Eylau; Lithuanian: Ylava or Prūsų Ylava; Polish: Pruska Iława or Iławka) is a town and the administrative center of Bagrationovsky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located 37 kilometers (23 mi) south of Kaliningrad. Population: 6,400 (2010 Census);1 7,216 (2002 Census);5 6,728 (1989 Census).6
In 1325, the Teutonic Knights built a castle called "Yladia"7 or "Ilaw", later known as "Preussisch Eylau", in the center of the Old Prussian region Natangia. Ylow is the Old Prussian term for mud or swamp. The settlement nearby developed slowly, but in 1348 the Teutonic Order gave the privilege to establish twelve pubs at the surrounding area of the castle. Even though the village had only a few inhabitants, due to its central position it was often used as meeting place for different officials of the Order. In 1427 e.g. the Eylau County Law (Eylauer Landesordnung) was published by the Order. Throughout the Thirteen Years' War the castle was besieged on May 24, 1455 by troops of the Prussian Confederation under the command of Remschel von Krixen, but the garrison defeated these troops. Also throughout the Horsemen's War in 1520 the castle was unsuccessfully besieged by troops of the Polish Kingdom, which caused a devastation of the village itself.
The bloody Battle of Eylau (February 7–8, 1807) during the Napoleonic Wars involved the French troops of Napoleon Bonaparte, the Russian troops of General Bennigsen and Prussian troops of General Anton Wilhelm von L'Estocq.
While only three inhabitants of Eylau died throughout the battle, 605 persons died due to hunger and diseases in the year 1807 (average death rate in "normal" years: 80-90). Napoleon used the local courthouse as his headquarters in Eylau on February 7-17, 1807.
On April 1, 1819 the town became capital of the administrative district Preußisch Eylau (Kreis Pr. Eylau). In 1834, a Teachers' Seminary was founded, educating every East Prussian teacher until it was closed down in 1924. The town was connected to the railway on September 2, 1866. The town was occupied without a struggle by Russian troops on August 27, 1914, but these troops left again on September 3, 1914.
On February 9, 1945, during the Soviet Red Army's East Prussian Offensive, the town was occupied by troops of the 55th Guards "Irkutsk-Pinsk" Division commanded by Major General Turtchinski. The German population that had not already fled during the evacuation of East Prussia was subsequently expelled, the last transport leaving on November 23, 1947. Soviet NKVD established a prison camp for German civilians inside the former Wehrmacht barracks in 1945-49. It held an estimated 13,000 inmates, of whom some 6,000 people died.7
In early August 1945, Polish officials took over the administrative power in the town, but left again on January 1, 1946, as the new borderline between the Soviet Union and Poland was set just at the southern outskirts of the town. The Polish administrative area south of the border was called "Powiat Ilawka" until 1958.
In January 1946, the town became part of the Russian Kaliningrad Oblast and the town's name was changed to Bagrationovsk, honouring General Pyotr Bagration, who was one of the senior Russian leaders in the Napoleonic Wars.
Today the main border crossing point between Russia and Poland (Bezledy/Bagrationowsk) is located 2 kilometres (1.2 miles) south of the town. Since April 2007, government restrictions on visits to border areas have been tightened and travel to the Sovetsk and Bagrationovsk areas is only allowed with special permission, unless in transit.8
- 1782: 1,453
- 1804: 1,816
- 1820: 1,631
- 1846: 2,630
- 1852: 2,988
- 1871: 3,719
- 1885: 3,547
- 1890: 3.446 (including 42 Catholics, 42 Jews)
- 1900: 3,248
- 1910: 3,270
- 1925: 3,787
- 1933: 4,123
- 1939: 7,485 (including 1,185 military personnel)
- 1946: 2,275 (including 1,339 Germans )
- 1968: 4,300
- 1989 Census: 6,7286
- 2002 Census: 7,2165
- 2010 Census: 6,3991
- Konrad Theodor Preuss (1869–1938), ethnologist
- Hugo Falkenheim (1856–1945), medical doctor and last Chairman of the Jewish parish of Königsberg
Bagrationovsk is twinned with:
- Verden an der Aller, Lower Saxony, Germany
- Górowo Iławeckie, Poland
- Bartoszyce, Poland
- Jonava, Lithuania
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 32. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Horst Schulz, Preußisch Eylau — eine Kreisstadt in Ostpreußen, Lübeck 1998 (German)
- Horst Schulz, Preußisch Eylau — eine Kreisstadt in Ostpreußen, Lübeck,1998
- Horst Schulz, Der Kreis Preußisch Eylau, Verden, 1983
- Wolf, Dr. Horst, Ich sage die Wahrheit oder ich schweige, Leer, 1983