Bareilly

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Bareilly
बरेली
بریلی
Metropolitan City
Bareilly
Bareilly is located in Uttar Pradesh
Bareilly
Bareilly
Location within India
Coordinates: 28°21′50″N 79°24′54″E / 28.364°N 79.415°E / 28.364; 79.415Coordinates: 28°21′50″N 79°24′54″E / 28.364°N 79.415°E / 28.364; 79.415
State India
District Bareilly
Government
 • MP Mr. Praveen Singh Aron
 • Member of Legislative Assembly Dr. Arun Kumar
 • Mayor Dr.I.S Tomar
Area
 • Total 235 km2 (91 sq mi)
Elevation 268 m (879 ft)
Population (Census 2011)
 • Total 898,167
 • Density 1,084/km2 (2,810/sq mi)
Demonym Bareilite (Barelvi)
Time zone IST
PIN codes 2430xx
Vehicle registration UP-25
Website www.bareilly.nic.in

Bareilly (Listeni/bəˈrɛli/; Hindi: बरेली, Urdu: بریلی‎) is a prominent city in Bareilly district in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh . Standing on the Ramganga river, it is the capital of the Bareilly division and the geographical region Rohilkhand. It is located 252 kilometres (157 mi) north of the state capital, Lucknow and 250 kilometres (155 mi) east of the national capital New Delhi. Bareilly is the 4th city of Uttar Pradesh which has CNG fuel stations, after Lucknow, Kanpur, and Agra. Bareilly is the 7th largest metropolitan city of Uttar Pradesh and 50th largest metropolitan city of India.

Bareilly, also known as Nath nagari, meaning Land of Lord Shiva and Zari nagari, is a centre for the manufacturing of furniture and for trade in cotton, cereal and sugar. The status of the city grew when its name was included in the "Counter Magnets" of the National Capital Region (NCR), a list that also includes Hissar, Patiala, Kota, and Gwalior.1 Bareilly historically was also called Sanjashya, where the Buddha descended from Tushita (heaven) onto the earth.2

This fast-growing city is also known as Bans-Bareilly. Although Bareilly is a production center for cane (bans) furniture, the name Bans Bareilly is not derived from its big bans market. It is named after two princes, Bansaldev and Baraldev, sons of Jagat Singh Katehriya who founded the city in 1537.3

In 2011, the city's population was 898,167.4

History

Foundation

The city of Bareilly was founded in 1537 by Basdeo, a Katehriya Rajput. The city is mentioned in the histories for the first time by Budayuni who writes that one Husain Quli Khan was appointed the governor of 'Bareilly and Sambhal' in 1568. The divisions and revenue of the district "being fixed by Todar Mal" were recorded by Abul Fazl in 1596. The foundation of the 'modern' City of Bareilly was laid by Mukrand Rai in 1657. In 1658, Bareilly was made the headquarters of the province of Budaun.5

The Mughal policy of encouraging Afghan settlements for keeping the Katehriyas in check worked only as long as the central government was strong. After Aurangzeb's death, the Afghans, having themselves become local potentates, began to seize and occupy neighbouring villages.

Regions of Uttar Pradesh including Rohilkhand(with Bareilly as its capital)

In 1623 two Afghan brothers of the Barech tribe, Shah Alam and Husain Khan, settled in the region, bringing with them many other Pashtun settlers. With the immigration of Daud Khan, an Afghan slave (who originally hailed from Roh in Afghanistan), the Afghan Rohillas came into prominence. His adopted son Ali Muhammad Khan succeeded in carving out an estate for himself in the district with his headquarters in the region. He was ultimately made the lawful governor of Kateher by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir (ruled 1658–1707) and the region was henceforth called "the land of the Ruhelas." After the end of the Mughal Empire many Pathans migrated from Rohilkhand.

Bareilly was a ruined city and became crowded with unemployed, restless Rohilla Pathans. Many urban cities in Uttar Pradesh were experiencing economic stagnation and poverty. This led to heavy migration overseas by Rohilla Muslim Pathans to Suriname and Guyana.6

Ali Muhammad Khan

Meanwhile, Ali Muhammad Khan (1737–1749), grandson of Shah Alam, captured the city of Bareilly and made it his capital, later uniting the Rohillas to form the "State of Rohilkhand", between 1707 and 1720. He rapidly rose to power and got confirmed in possession of the lands he had seized. The Emperor created him a Nawab in 1737 and he was recognised as the governor of Rohilkhand in 1740.

Hafiz Rahmat Khan, standing right to Ahmad Shah Durrani, who is shown on a brown horse.(during The 'Third battle of Panipat') 14 January 1761

Ali Muhammad was succeeded by Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech (1749–1774), whom he appointed hafiz or regent of Rohilkhand on his deathbed. Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech extended the power of Rohilkhand from Almora in the North to Etawah in the South-West.

Under Rahmat Ali Khan, Rohilla power continued to rise, though the area was torn by strife among the rival chieftains and continuous struggles with the neighbouring powers, particularly the Nawab Vazirs of Awadh, the Bangash Nawabs and the Marathas.

British East India Company

Rohilkhand (under Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech) was on the winning side at the Third Battle of Panipat of 1761 and successfully blocked the expansion of the Maratha Empire into north India. In 1772 Rohilkhand was invaded by the Marathas; however the Nawabs of Awadh came to the aid of the Rohillas in repulsing the invasion. After the war Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula demanded payment for their help from the Rohilla chief, Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech. When the demand was refused the Nawab joined with the British under Governor Warren Hastings and his Commander-in-Chief, Alexander Champion, to invade Rohilkhand. The combined forces of Shuja-ud Daulah, the Nawab of Awadh and the Company's forces led by Colonel Champion defeated Hafiz Rahmat Ali Khan in 1774. Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech was killed in the ensuing battle at Miranpur Katra in 1774. His death ended the period of Rohilla rule.

Rohilkhand was handed over to the Nawab Vazir of Awadh. From 1774 to 1800, the province was ruled by the Nawabs of Awadh. By 1801, the subsidies due under the various treaties for support of a British force had fallen into hopeless arrears. To defray the debt, Nawab Saadat Ali Khan surrendered Rohilkhand to the East India Company by the treaty of 10 November 1801. 7

During the time of Shah Alam II, Bareilly was the headquarters of Rohilla Sardar Hafiz Rehmat Khan and many more coins were issued. After that, the city was in possession of Awadh Nawab Asaf-ud-Daulah. The coins that he issued had Bareilly, Bareilly Aasfabad and Bareilly kite and fish as identification marks. After that, the minting of coins passed to the East India Company.8

The Rohillas, after fifty years' precarious independence, were subjugated in 1774 by the confederacy of British troops with the nawab of Oudh's army, which formed a charge against Governor-general Warren Hastings. Their territory was in that year annexed to Oudh. In 1801 the nawab of Oudh ceded it to the Company in commutation of the debt.9

Modern period

A 1912 map of 'Northern India The Revolt of 1857–59' showing the centres of rebellion including the principal ones: Meerut, Delhi, Bareilly, (Kanpur), Lucknow, Jhansi and Gwalior

After the Rohilla War, the change of the power structure did little to soothe the strife torn area; rather the change aggravated a precarious state of affairs. There was a general spirit of discontent throughout the district. In 1812, an inordinate enhancement in the revenue demand10 and then in 1814 the imposition of a new house tax caused further resentment against the British. "Business stood still, shops were shut and multitudes assembled near the courthouse to petition for the abolition of the tax." The Magistrate, Dembleton, already unpopular, made things worse by ordering the assessment to be made by a Kotwal. A skirmish took place between the rebel masses and the sepoys under Captain Cunningham, costing three or four hundred lives. In 1818, Glyn was posted as Acting Judge and the Magistrate of Bareilly and the Joint Magistrate of Bulundshahr.

In research ordered by Glyn asking Ghulam Yahya to write an account about 'craftsmen, the names of tools of manufacture and production and their dress and manners', eleven trades found out to be most popular means of livelihood in and around Bareilly in the 1820s were glass manufacture, manufacture of glass bangles, manufacture of lac bangles, crimping, gram parching, wire drawing, charpoy weaving, manufacture of gold and silver thread, keeping a grocer's shop, making jewellery and selling kababs.5

Indian Rebellion of 1857

Bareilly was a major centre during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The rebellion began as a mutiny of native soldiers (sepoys) employed by the British East India Company's army against race- and religion-based injustices and inequities, on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut. It soon erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions mainly in north-central India along the major river valleys but with local episodes extending both northwest to Peshawar on the north-west frontier with Afghanistan and southeast beyond Delhi. Communal hatred led to ugly riots in many parts of Uttar Pradesh. The green flag was hoisted and Muslims in Bareilly, Bijnor, Moradabad and other places shouted for the revival of a Muslim kingdom.11

Bareilly was made the part of United Provinces of Agra and Oudh

The Rohillas took an active part in opposition to the British but were disarmed.9 Khan Badur Khan Rohilla, the grandson of Hafiz Rahmat Khan formed his own government in Bareilly in 1857. A widespread popular revolt in areas such as Awadh, Bundelkhand and Rohilkhand took place.

In 1857, Khan Bhadur Khan issued silver coins from Bareilly as an independent ruler.12

When the rebellion failed, Bareilly was subjugated. Khan Bahadur Khan was sentenced to death and hanged in the Kotwali on 24 February 1860. Many urban cities in Uttar Pradesh were experiencing economic stagnation and poverty. After the failure of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 many Rohilla Muslim Pathans from Bareilly and surrounding cities migrated to Dutch South American Colonies, now Surinam and Guyana, as indentured labour.13

Independence of India

Bareilly Central Jail housed various political prisoners during the British Raj era, including Yashpal, whose marriage on 7 August 1936 while imprisoned there was the first such ceremony in an Indian jail. The perceived humanising touch to the strictures of imprisonment led to a change in prison manuals, effectively preventing any further such events.14

Before independence, Muslims constituted nearly half the population of Bareilly. After the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, nearly one fifth of the Muslim population of the city migrated and settled in Pakistan, mainly in Karachi. Some Hindu and Sikh that migrated from Pakistan, settled down in Bareilly.citation needed

Geography

Bareilly is located at 28°10′N 78°23′E / 28.167°N 78.383°E / 28.167; 78.383 and lies in northern India. On its eastern border are Pilibhit and Shahjahanpur and Rampur on the west, Udham Singh Nagar (Uttarakhand) in North and Badaun in South. It is level terrain, watered by many streams and generally slopes towards the south. The soil is fertile and highly cultivated, groves of trees abound and the villages are neat and prosperous. A tract of forest jungle, called the tarai, stretches along the extreme north of the district and hosts large game, such as tiger, bear, deer and wild pig. The river Sarda or Gogra forms the eastern boundary and is the principal stream. Next in importance is the Ramganga, which receives as its tributaries most of the hill torrents of the Kumaon mountains. The Deoha is another drainage artery and receives many minor streams. The Gomati or Gumti passes through the district.9

Climate

Climate data for Bareilly
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 21.9
(71.4)
25.2
(77.4)
31.2
(88.2)
37.5
(99.5)
40.5
(104.9)
38.7
(101.7)
34.0
(93.2)
32.8
(91)
33.3
(91.9)
32.4
(90.3)
28.5
(83.3)
23.6
(74.5)
31.6
(88.9)
Average low °C (°F) 8.5
(47.3)
10.9
(51.6)
15.6
(60.1)
21.4
(70.5)
25.1
(77.2)
27.0
(80.6)
25.9
(78.6)
25.7
(78.3)
24.4
(75.9)
19.7
(67.5)
13.2
(55.8)
9.1
(48.4)
18.9
(66)
Precipitation mm (inches) 22.1
(0.87)
20.3
(0.799)
17.6
(0.693)
6.2
(0.244)
18.2
(0.717)
111.8
(4.402)
299.7
(11.799)
317.0
(12.48)
166.0
(6.535)
85.8
(3.378)
3.1
(0.122)
4.1
(0.161)
1,071.9
(42.201)
Source: IMD

Environment

Bareilly is known to have moderate climate. The city lies entirely in the Ganges plains. The low-lying Ganges plains provide fertile alluvial soil suitable for agriculture. However, these some lower part of plains are prone to recurrent floods. Bareilly lies on the bank of river Ramganga and there are seven rivers passing through this district. The lower Himalayan range is just 40 km from the river and it lies in north of it.

Demographics

In 2011, Bareilly had population of 898,167 of which male and female were 477,438 and 420,729 respectively. In the 2001 census, Bareilly District recorded a 27.66 percent increase compared to 1991.

Provisional 2011 data suggest a density of 1,084 compared to 879 of 2001. Total area under Bareilly district is about 4,120 square kilometres (1,590 sq mi).

15

Religions in Bareilly
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
51.81%
Muslims
  
47.00%
Jains
  
1.4%
Others†
  
1.6%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.2%), Buddhists (<0.2%).

The literacy rate in 2011 was 84% compared to 81% in 2001. Male and female literacy were 69.47 and 50.35 respectively, up from 58.73 and 35.22 in 2001.

There were 669,681 children under age of 0–6 in 2011, a decline of 6.9% compared to the 719,217 of 2001 census. Of total 669,681 male and female were 352,479 and 317,202, respectively. Males represented 52.6%. In 2011, Children under 0–6 formed 15 percent of the population, down from 19.88 percent in 2001.

Bareilly District is home to 2.24 percent of total Uttar Pradesh population, unchanged from 2001.16

The city covers 123.46 square kilometres (47.67 sq mi). The density of the population is among the highest in the country, touching 5000 per km².

In 2001, Hindus formed 51.81% of population.15 Other prominent groups include Baniya, Punjabi, Kayasth, Kurmi, jatav and deval PatwaThakurs. The district population has a major part of Gangwar's falls under the caste Kurmi. It is around 14% of the district population.

Muslims constitute 47.89% of the population. They follow different fiqhs (schools of jurisprudence or sects). More than ninety percent follow Sunni Hanafi while ten percent follow Shia Ithnā‘ashariyyah. The Sunni Hanafi are subdivided into 75% Barelvi and 25% Deobandi fiqhs.

Sikhs form 0.80% of population, Christians – 0.26%, Buddhists – 0.20%, Jains – 0.02% and others – 0.02%.15

Bareilly has an average literacy rate of 84%, higher than the national average of 74%, with 90% of the males and 77% of females literate, making it one of the three most literate districts in Uttar Pradesh. The main languages spoken are Hindi, English, Urdu, Punjabi and Kumaoni.

For administrative convenience, the district of Bareilly has been divided into six tehsils: Bareilly (Main), Aonla, Faridpur, Mirganj, Nawabganj and Baheri and 14 blocks.

Culture

Priyanka Chopra

Entertainment and performing arts

The city has many arts and cultural organisations, with art galleries and theatres all around the city. The 'Craft Fair' organised each year at YugVeena Library helps artists get recognition. Strongly influenced by the city's immigrants from nearby regions, Bareilly has a mix of different cultures including Brij culture (of Mathura), Awadhi culture (of Lucknow), Pahaari culture of Kumaun region (Uttrakhand) and Harayanvi Culture (of North-West Uttar Pradesh). Bareilly also hosts Fashion Shows to demonstrate the area's unique style.17

Many Bollywood movies including 'Woh 5 Din', a suspense thriller, were shot in Bareilly.18 The 2005 movie Main, Meri Patni Aur Woh describes Rajpal Yadav (Mitlesh)'s wife Veena (Rituparna Sengupta) coming from Bareilly.

Famous Bollywood actress and former Miss World Priyanka Chopra hails from the city.

Cuisine

With a large food-loving population, Bareilly has many strange-sounding, well-known eateries, which follow the tradition of naming the cuisine after the creator.

Bareilly is known for its unique Seekh Kabaabs, which are sold across the old city by numerous small eateries. Minced meat (mostly beef) mixed with spices and aromatic herbs are grilled on skewers over charcoal of 'Imli (Tamarind)'.

Sports

Bareilly lacks modern sports infrastructure. The city houses two sports stadiums and one cricket academy namely:

  • Dori Lal Agarawal Sports Stadium, City Area, Bareilly
  • Major Dhyan Chand Sports Stadium, Cantonment Area, Bareilly
  • Cricket Academy of Bareilly (CAB) Near MB Inter College Bareilly
  • subhash nagar stadium

The city is represented in sports tournaments by local club teams and teams representing schools and colleges. Most colleges have home grounds in their respective colleges.

Recreation

Bareilly has an Amusement park and a water park, Fun City Boond Amusement and Water Park, located inside a single facility. The two parks attract tourists and visitors. They located on University Road within the main city.

Phool Bagh Fountain.

Other Bareilly parks include:

  • Children's Park, Cantonment
  • Phool Bagh, Cantonment
  • Company Garden, Civil Lines
  • C L Park, Prem Nagar
  • Mayur Van Chetna Kendra, University Road
  • Maharaja Agrasen Park, Rampur Garden
  • Akshar Vihar19
  • Lichi bagh, Qila
  • vatika (park)Rampur Bagh
  • Mega Rolling Park, Super City
  • Gandhi Garden Civil Lines

References in music

Several Bollywood songs have references to Bareilly and its musical genres such as jhumka and kajra.

  • "Surma bareilly waala ankhiyon mein aisa daala", a song from the movie Kismat and sung by Asha Bhosle and Shamshad Begum refer to Bareilly in the line – "Jhumka Bareilly waala kaanon mein aisa daala. Jhumke ne le li meri jaan, haai re main tere qurbaan."20
  • The "Barra Bazaar" (Market) of Bareilly was widely praised during the Mughal Period. Owing to the popularity of the Market (Bazar) the song "Jhumka Gira Re, Bareilly ke Bazar mein" (from the movie "Mera Saaya" and sung by Asha Bhosle, written by Shakeel Badauni) recalls the name of this market.
  • The recent song "Aaja Nachle" (from the movie Aaja Nach Le – featuring Madhuri Dixit) also uses the connection of Jhumka with Bareilly.
  • In the movie U Me Aur Hum – "New Delhi mein Bareilly Jaisa Saiyaan" (featuring Kajol and Ajay Devgan).
  • In the movie Jail – "Bareilly Ke bazaar mein" (featuring Neil Nitin Mukesh directed by Madhur BHandarkar).

People from Bareilly

Politics

The 15th Lok Sabha Election for the MP from Bareilly was won by Mr. Praveen Singh Aron (former UP state health minister) of the Indian National Congress. Bareilly always has been a battle ground for the INC and the Saffron Parties. Regional parties such as Samajwadi Party (leadership – Veerpal Singh Yadav) and Bahujan Samaj Party have limited influence.

Bareilly was a stronghold of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) for 20 years (1989–2009). During this period both the Member of Parliament (MP) and Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) was from BJP. Bareilly witnessed a strong emergence of Hindu nationalism during the last two decades accompanied by the growth of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, Vishva Hindu Parishad and Bajrang Dal in the region.

Santosh Gangwar is a prominent leader and former Member of Parliament from the city of Bareilly, who was the MP for 20 years (1989–2009). He was a former minister of state in Government of India, holding the portfolio of Minister of State for Petroleum & Natural Gas with additional charge of Parliament Affairs in 13th Lok Sabha minister of state in Government of India. Prior to this, Shri Gangwar was Minister of State of Science & Technology with additional charge of Parliamentary Affairs from October 1999 to November 1999. He was chief whip of the of BJP in 14th Lok Sabha. He faced defeat in the 15th Lok Sabha Elections, 2009 by a very narrow margin.

Economy

Since India began liberalising its economy, Bareilly has been one of the fastest growing cities in the region. Trade and commerce have flourished in urban areas and followed diversification, though the rural economy of the district is largely agrarian.

Bareilly is equidistant from New Delhi, the capital of India and Lucknow, the capital of Uttar Pradesh, creating potential for industries and settlers. Bareilly will soon to become the Mall city of Uttar Pradesh as there have been already so many malls in Bareilly like Phoenix Mall,JJ Mall Amrapali Mall & list goes.Big companies like Wave,Sahara & Horizon have started the construction of their malls in the city and many more are in the pipeline for the approval from the development authority.

http://malls.thewavegroup.com/wave-mall-bareilly.php

List of Large Scale Enterprises / PSU

  • Rama Shyama Paper Ltd. Vill Rajau Paraspur,

Faridpur, Bareilly

  • Posters Papers

Campher and Allied Products Ltd. C.B. Ganj, Bareilly Campher and other allied product

  • Distellery of Keser

Entreprises Ltd. Baheri, Bareilly Undinechered ethanol alcohol and alcoholic

  • Keser Enterprises Baheri, Bareilly Sugar

Virndavan babrage Ltd. B-54-55 Industrial Area, Parsakhera, Bareilly. Mineral Water

  • J.K. Sugar Ltd Meerganj, Bareilly Refining of Sugar
  • Dwarikesh Sugar Industries

Ltd. Bhagwanpur Phulwa, Bakarganj, Faridpur, Bareilly White Crystal Sugar

  • Oswal Overseas Ltd. Sugar

Division Nawabganj, Bareilly Sugar molasses

  • Bharat Petroleum &

Bottling Plants Parsakhera, Bareilly Cooking Gas Bottling L.P.G.

  • N.E. Railway Workshop Izzat Nagar, Bareilly Repairing of

Wagons

  • IFFCO Aonla Bareilly Amonia, Urea
  • Wimco l.t.d. C.B. Ganj, Bareilly Safety Matches
  • Kissan Sahakari Chini

MillsL.t.d Semikhera Sugar

  • U.P.sahakari Katai Mills

L.t.d Baheri, Bareilly Cotton yarn 31.80 1036

  • Superior Industries L.t.d C.B. Ganj, Bareilly Alcohol

Agriculture

Bareilly is, traditionally, a wheat growing belt of Rohilkhand.21 Corporate giant Hindustan Unilever has undertaken contract farming of rice in Bareilly and Punjab and its success has ensured low-cost, better-quality produce for its customers. The company has expressed interest in extending the experiment, but feels an enabling environment in terms of agriculture laws and infrastructure facilities is required.22

Electricity

In 2009, Uttar Pradesh Power Corporation Limited (UPPCL) allowed private players to be awarded contracts to supply power in nine cities. The same companies will be the outsource points for collecting revenue on behalf of the state government. The system will be implemented in nine cities of the state on a pilot basis. Bareilly, Agra, Kanpur, Moradabad and Gorakhpur will be covered in the first phase.23

Fuel

The Indian government initiated a ten per cent ethanol-blending programme on a pilot basis in Bareilly in Uttar Pradesh and Belgaum in Karnataka. Bareilly also has compressed natural gas CNG and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) outlets . Bareilly became the first district in India to implement India's bio-fuel standard.24

Travel and transport

Road

National Highway 24.
National Highway 74 (Pilibhit By-pass Road).

The street system in Bareilly is laid out in a traditional unplanned system, with most roads oriented towards different cities. The zero point is the intersection of Nainital Road and Bada Bazaar – Shyamganj Road at a crossroad called "Kutubkhana". Kutubkhana is a congested street and the entry of cars or heavy vehicles is barred in the daytime. The Patel Chowk – Chaupla Road or the Chowki Chauraha – Chaupla Road goes from Lucknow Road to Delhi Road National Highway 24.

Nainital Road (including the Pilibhit By-pass Road) and Badaun Road also starts from Kutubkhana. Heavy traffic is allowed on these roads only from 'Koharapeer Sabji-Mandi' and 'Chaupla Crossroads'.

Major arterial streets include:

  • Stadium Road (connecting Pilibhit Road (D.D. Puram) to ShyamGanj crossroad),
  • Macnair Road (connecting Nainital Road to Stadium Road),
  • Pilibhit By-pass Road connecting Pilibhit Road to Lucknow Road National Highway 24,
  • Sh-33 Bareilly to Mathura via Subhash Nagar, Budaun, Kasganj
  • Mini By-Pass (connecting Delhi Road National Highway 24 to Nanital Road)
  • Shyam Ganj – Patel Chowk – Chaupla – Quila – C.B. Ganj Road (National Highway 24)
  • Shyam Ganj – Bareilly Cantt. – Chowki Chauraha – Chaupla Road
  • I.V.R.I. Road (connecting Nainital Road to Pilibhit Road)
  • Civil Lines Road

The main "Inter-city Satellite Bus Stand" is located just outside the city on the intersection of National Highway 24 and Pilibhit By-pass Road. The Old bus stand in Civil Lines still serves many travellers and state-owned buses travelling from the city towards Delhi.

An excellent truck stationing and repair facility known as "Transport Nagar" has also been developed on the Pilibhit By-pass Road (National Highway 74), serving lorries and hauliers.

Road improvements – "four-laning"

As a part of the four-laning of National Highway 24, the highway that connects Uttar Pradesh's capital Lucknow to New Delhi via Shahjahanpur, Bareilly, Rampur, Moradabad and Ghaziabad, two corporations were awarded separate projects to execute on a Design, Build, Finance, Operate and Transfer (DBFOT) toll basis for the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI).

Railway

Indian Railways Network in 1909.

Bareilly is well-connected with the rest of the country through railways from the 19th century. An official map of 1909 shows that Bareilly was a prominent railway junction during the 20th century. Six railway tracks intersect in the city. In 1890, the Bengal and North Western Railway took over management of the Tirhoot State Railway (under a lease) in an effort to increase the latter's profitability. The Lucknow-Sitapur-Seramow Provincial State Railway merged with the Bareilly-Pilibheet Provincial State Railway to form the Lucknow-Bareilly Railway on 1 January 1891. The Lucknow-Bareilly Railway was owned by the Government of India and worked by the Rohilkund and Kumaon Railway.

The Oudh and Tirhut Railway company operated the railway line until 1943 and managed a number of lines until 1943, when it was amalgamated with the Rohilkund and Kumaon Railway and the Lucknow Bareilly Railway. It became the Oudh-Tirhut Railway. All existing contracts were terminated and it became an entirely state-owned enterprise.

The Oudh and Tirhut Railway was formed on 1 January 1943 by the amalgamation of the Bengal and North Western Railway, the Tirhut Railway (BNW worked), the Mashrak-Thawe Extension Railway,(BNW worked), the Rohilkund and Kumaon Railway and the Lucknow-Bareilly Railway (R&K worked). The Oudh and Tirhut Railway was later renamed the Oudh Tirhut Railway and merged with the Assam Railway to form the North Eastern Railway on 14 April 1952.252627

Its headquarters was at Gorakhpur. On 14 April 1952, the Oudh and Tirhut Railway was amalgamated with the Assam Railway and the Kanpur-Achnera section of the Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway to form North Eastern Railway, one of the 16 zones of the Indian Railways.2728

Bareilly Railway Station (Junction).

Izzat Nagar is Divisional Headquarters of North Eastern Railways. Currently, six railway stations serve the city –

  • Bareilly Junction (serving both the Broad and Standard gauge),
  • C.B. Ganj Station (serving the Broad gauge),
  • Chenheti Station (serving the Broad gauge),
  • City Station (serving the Metre gauge),
  • Izzatnagar Station (serving the Meter Gauge & Broad gauge-recently introduced).
  • Bhojipura Station (serving the Meter Gauge & Broad gauge-recently introduced)

Bareilly lies on Moradabad-Lucknow route. Trains from the north (Jammu Tawi, Amritsar, etc.) and Delhi towards the east and northeast (Gorakhpur, Barauni, Howrah, Guwahati, Dibrugarh, etc.) pass through Bareilly railway station. Bareilly also lies on the route from Uttarakhand to Kasganj and Mathura. Many trains to railway stations in Uttarakhand pass through it.

Air

Indian Air Force has a base (called Trishul Air-base) at Izzatnagar on the outskirts of Bareilly. It is not open to civilians and does not permit civilian flights except for some high government officials.

There are plans to construct a terminal right next to the runway to start civilian operation.29

Education

Bareilly College, one of the oldest educational institution in India underlines Bareilly's educational front. It even has historical importance.

Bareilly is an educational hub of western Uttar Pradesh, with multiple universities and research institutes. Bareilly is a seat of M. J. P. Rohilkhand University and hosts Indian Veterinary Research Institute and Central Avian Research Institute. (in Izzatnagar). The city hosts numerous Engineering Colleges (Institute of Engineering & Technology, A Govt Engineering College at M. J. P. Rohilkhand University Campus), Management Colleges, Law Colleges, Medical Colleges and other colleges run general courses. Bareilly College, located in the heart of city, is among the oldest educational institutions in India, built prior to the Revolt of 1857.

The M. J. P. Rohilkhand University (1975) and Bareilly College (1837), together with many private colleges and universities, underpin Bareilly's higher education system. The Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) and Central Avian Research Institute (CARI) are located in the suburb of Izzatnagar.

Established in 1889, the Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) is one of the premier research institutions dedicated to livestock research and development of the region. The institute has 275 faculty and has a major mandate of research, teaching, consultancy and technology transfer activities. The institute imparts quality post-graduate education to students from across India and from overseas.30

Health care

Traditional

The city serves as a gateway to the patients of the Kumaun, Rohilkhand and West Nepal region. In the vedic period Bareilly was famous for Ayurvedic treatment. The practitioners of that period promoted the cultivation of Aonla, popularly known as Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica, syn. Emblica officinalis) at the outskirts of Bareilly, leading the entire area to be named Aonla.citation needed

Western medicine

During the British period nothing was done until the mutiny started. The city remained under revolutionary siege for almost a year. Afterwards hundreds of revolutionaries faced summary trials and were executed. Later they were medically examined before and after execution. A makeshift medical examination facility was erected near Kotwali area in the city, with almost half a dozen sweepers to assist the medical examination process of the injured and the dead. This facility grew into the city's major health care facility.

For another fifty years this facility grew very slowly. The spread of some infectious and contagious diseases later led to growth. It later served wounded British officers and Sepoys during the World War II, then it had an emergency operation theatre equipped with a portable X-ray machine to investigate fractures. This costly X-ray diagnosis was available to only white officers and soldiers.

Nothing much is known about the present District/Civil Hospital and its growth later. There is no recorded evidence available so far. Right now the city has two medical colleges, one dental college, one ayurvedic college. One More Medical college also shortly expected in association with "Clara Swain" or popularly known as mission hospital.

Defence installations

Bareilly is the regimental centre and a major settlement of the Jat Regiment, which is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army. It is one of the longest serving and most decorated regiments of the Indian Army.31 The regiment won 19 battle honours between 1839 to 194732 and post-independence five battle honours, eight Mahavir Chakra, eight Kirti Chakra, 32 Shaurya Chakras, 39 Vir Chakras and 170 Sena Medals.31

Bareilly has regional Headquarters of Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP). BSF centre is located 15 km from the City Centre on Delhi Road.

Hindu temples

Bareilly is home to many Hindu temples. Four Nath (Shiva) temples are situated on the city's four corners: the Alakha Nath, Trivati Nath, Madhi Nath and Dhopeshwar Nath temples. So Bareilly are called Nath Nagri.clarification needed

References

Notes
  1. ^ "Bulandshahr roads lead to Delhi". The Times of India. 7 February 2010. 
  2. ^ Shailvee Sharda, TNN 21 Nov 2012, 10.49AM IST (21 November 2012). "Maitreya project: UP's loss is advantage Bihar". The Times of India. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  3. ^ MSKathayat (10 February 2011). "Mahesh Singh Kathayat: Katheria Rajput and Kathayat's History". Mskathayat.blogspot.com. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  4. ^ Uttar Pradesh. Population, Population in the age group 0–6 and literates by sex – Urban Agglomeration /Town : 2001. Census 1 March 2001
  5. ^ a b "Introduction". Library.upenn.edu. Retrieved 9 January 2011. 
  6. ^ "The Afghan Muslims of Guyana and Suriname". Guyana.org. Retrieved 9 January 2011. 
  7. ^ "Collect Britain has moved". Collectbritain.co.uk. 30 November 2003. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  8. ^ "When Bareilly was in currency". The Times of India. 22 June 2003. 
  9. ^ a b c "Bareilly – LoveToKnow 1911". 1911encyclopedia.org. 1 September 2006. Retrieved 9 January 2011. 
  10. ^ Conybeare, p. 677
  11. ^ R.C. Majumdar: Sepoy Mutiny and Revolt of 1857, Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay, 1963, pp. 2303–31
  12. ^ "When Bareilly was in currency". The Times of India. 22 June 2003. 
  13. ^ HISTORY OF MY PEOPLE: The Afghan Muslims of Guyana
  14. ^ Friend, Corinne (Fall 1977). "Yashpal: Fighter for Freedom -- Writer for Justice". Journal of South Asian Literature 13 (1): 65–90. JSTOR 40873491.  (subscription required)
  15. ^ a b c [1]. Retrieved on 23 August 2012.
  16. ^ Bareilly Population Census 2011, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh literacy sex ratio and density. Census2011.co.in. Retrieved on 17 June 2012.
  17. ^ Wills Lifestyle India Fashion Week begins. Hindustan Times (5 April 2011). Retrieved on 17 June 2012.
  18. ^ "From Kanglish to Hindi". The Times of India. 10 December 2009. 
  19. ^ "Bareilly – Bareilly is a small city of Uttar Pradesh". Infoofindia.com. Retrieved 9 January 2011. 
  20. ^ "Lyrics of hindi song Kajra Mohabbat Waala". Hindilyrix.com. Retrieved 9 January 2011. 
  21. ^ "Traders may not benefit from wheat export". The Times of India. 18 July 2011. 
  22. ^ "HLL initiates contract farming for basmati rice". The Times of India. 17 December 2002. 
  23. ^ "UPPCL invites bids for franchisee system". The Times of India. 4 February 2009. 
  24. ^ "Govt launches ethanol blending on pilot basis". Business-standard.com. 5 February 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2011. 
  25. ^ Northeastern Railway
  26. ^ Rao 1988, p. 37
  27. ^ a b "Chapter 1 – Evolution of Indian Railways-Historical Background". Ministry of Railways website. 
  28. ^ Rao 1988, pp. 42–3
  29. ^ http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-12-22/lucknow/35968410_1_jhansi-airport-civil-schedule-operations-civil-enclave
  30. ^ "Preface – IVRI Izzatnagar". Ivri.nic.in. Retrieved 9 January 2011. 
  31. ^ a b Army's Jat Regiment Best Marching Contingent in Republic Day 2007 Parade. India Defence. Retrieved on 17 June 2012.
  32. ^ "BHARAT RAKSHAK MONITOR: Volume 3(4)". Bharat-rakshak.com. Retrieved 9 January 2011. 
Works
  • Husain, Iqbal (1994). The Rise and Decline of the Ruhela Chieftaincies in 18th Century India. Delhi: Oxford University Press. 
  • Rao, M.A. (1988). Indian Railways. New Delhi: National Book Trust. ISBN 8123725892. 

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