A basic income (also called basic income guarantee, unconditional basic income, universal basic income, universal demogrant,1 or citizen’s income) is a proposed system2 of social security in which citizens or residents of a country regularly receive a sum of money unconditionally from the government. This is distinct from guaranteed minimum income, which may be conditional upon participation in the labor force or other means testing. A basic income of any amount less than the social minimum is sometimes referred to as a 'partial basic income'.
- 1 Difference between basic income and guaranteed income
- 2 Proposed Benefits
- 3 Criticisms
- 4 Examples of implementation
- 5 Advocacy worldwide
- 5.1 Origins
- 5.2 In North America
- 5.3 Basic Income Movement in Europe
- 5.4 Basic Income in Developing countries
- 5.5 Elsewhere in the world
- 6 Funding
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Basic income and traditional welfare systems both share goals of achieving some level of economic equity. Guaranteed income typically operates by 'topping up' deficient wages - which itself typically relies on the assumption of some level of participation in the labour force - whereas basic income is paid to all irrespective of income or other eligibility criteria.
- Workers employed for part of the year would be uncompensated.
- Part-time work would be unlikely to be compensated.
- Those unemployed at the beginning of the year would be unlikely to find compensated work until the beginning of the following year.
- Strong incentives to form unofficial untaxed cash arrangements with employers, or pay someone in the family who is ineligible for minincome
- Business owners and others would prefer to be paid every 3 years instead of every year.
- Where the tax code allows losses, it may be abused to collect minincome grants.
- Because it is completely unpredictable what individual manipulations society's members might make to collect guaranteed income, its total cost is completely unpredictable compared to basic income.
- Having guaranteed income requires a staff of paid professional means testers, meaning that much of its budget actually goes to the employed.
Some speculate that misunderstanding basic income and guaranteed income as essentially similar concepts may be an intentional misunderstanding, defensively positing that if basic income can be misunderstood as something with major flaws, then it can be forever avoided.3
The Basic Income Earth Network (BIEN) describes one of the benefits of a basic income as having a lower overall cost than that of the current means-tested social welfare benefits.,4 and they have put forth proposals for implementation they claim to be financially viable.5
- Wealth redistribution is the best possible economic development program because the wealthy don't spend as great a portion of their income as the poor do.
- Wealth redistribution does not harm the wealthy, because all money is spent until it ends up with a saver. So, taxes paid eventually return to the tax payer.
- Basic income is the most efficient possible form of wealth redistribution because there is no bureaucratic overhead needed to filter recipients, or find and punish abusers.
- Basic income as an alternative to public retirement pensions (such as social security in the US) is the only possible prevention of generational theft that will occur if the funding sustainability of future retiree pensions and care is threatened
- Reduced crime as a result of lower levels of desperation. If crime is a consequence of loss of income, it may in turn create more crime.
- Balanced power in the labour market as a result of not needing work out of desperation, and better competitive position of workers if some people choose not to work.7
- Better work opportunities as a result of people better able to afford an education or business start up.
- Smaller government made possible and attractive by the alternative of increased basic income to offset any program cost reduction. Viewed this way, the cost of every government program is paid for equally by each citizen, even if the source of government revenue is progressive income taxation.
- Social justice is achieved efficiently and automatically, with less requirement on charity and welfare.
- It is easier for volunteer home owners to help the poor and secluded through group homes by being able to rely on their certain income. Its possible and easier for the disadvantaged to group up and help themselves in the same manner.
- Natural finance's definition of social dividends (variable basic income: tax revenue surplus over social program expenses) essentially allows the level of basic income paid to citizens to rise with economic, productivity, and automation growth. The affordability of basic income adjusts automatically to the performance of the economy.
One critical view of Basic Income theorizes that it would have a negative effect on work incentive89 and labor supply. Even when the benefits are not permanent, the hours worked—by the recipients of the benefit—are observed to decline by 5%, a decrease of 2 hours in a typical 40 hour work week, in one study:
While experiments have been conducted in the United States and Canada, those participating knew that their benefits were not permanent and, consequently, they were not likely to change their behaviour as much or in the same manner had the GAI been ongoing. As a result, total hours worked fell by about five percent on average. The work reduction was largest for second earners in two-earner households and weakest for the main earner. Further, the negative work effect was higher the more generous the benefit level.8
However, in studies of the Mincome experiment in rural Manitoba, the only two groups who worked less in a significant way were new mothers, and teenagers working to support their families. New mothers spent this time with their infant children, and working teenagers put significant additional time into their schooling.10 Under Mincome, "the reduction of work effort was modest: about one per cent for men, three per cent for wives, and five per cent for unmarried women."11
Another study that contradicted such decline in work incentive was the Namibian pilot project implemented in 2008 and 2009 in the Omitara village; the assessment of the project after its conclusion found that economic activity actually increased, particularly through the launch of small businesses, and reinforcement of the local market by increasing households' buying power.12
|This section requires expansion. (December 2013)|
A frequent objection to basic income is the lack of reciprocity due to the unconditionality of basic income.13
The U.S. has an earned income tax credit for low-income taxpayers. In 2006 a bill written by members of the advocacy organization USBIG14 to transform the credit into a partial basic income was introduced in the US Congress but did not pass.15
The U.S. State of Alaska has a system which provides each citizen with a share of the state's oil revenues,16 although this amount, $878.00 for the whole of 2012,17 is far from enough to live on. The Alaska basic income is subject to income tax on the federal level. That way the "basic income" works like a negative income tax but with a "prebate" instead of a "rebate" (as far as state finances are concerned).
Negative income tax is a form of guaranteed/minimum income, and not basic income. In a negative income tax system, people earning a certain income level would owe no taxes; those earning more than that would pay a proportion of their income above that level; and those below that level would receive a payment of a proportion of their shortfall, which is the amount their income falls below that level. Thus, those who earn less than the poverty line would be provided with a supplement, but still end up below the poverty line.
|This section requires expansion. (July 2013)|
From January 2008 to December 2009, a pilot project with a basic income grant was implemented in the Namibian village of Omitara (or Otjivero-Omitara) by the Namibian Basic Income Grant Coalition.1819 It was mainly funded by a German Protestant church, by individual contributions of German and Namibian citizens and by contributions of the German Ministry for Cooperation. The amount paid out per head was N$ 100 (around US$ 12).
Six months after the launch, the project has been found to significantly reduce child malnutrition and increase school attendance. It was also found to increase the community's income significantly above the actual amount from the grants as it allowed citizens to partake in more productive economic activities.2021 The project team states that this increase in economic activity contradicts critics' claims that a basic income would lead to laziness and dependency.12
After the conclusion of the pilot project phase, a monthly bridging-allowance of N$ 80 (around US$ 10) to all who participated in the pilot was paid regularly until March 2012.12 One of the conclusions of the project was that, even with the restriction that only residents of the village for over a year since the pilot's start could benefit from the grant, there was a significant migration towards Otjivero-Omitara, despite the fact that the migrants wouldn't receive the grant. The project concluded that this phenomenon reveals the need to introduce such basic income systems as a universal national grant, in order to avoid migration to particular regions, towns or households.12 Another finding of the project was that after the introduction of the pilot, overall crime rates fell by 42%, and specifically stock theft fell by 43% and other theft by nearly 20%.12
The above-mentioned conclusions about the effects of the project in Omitara have been derived from two empirical studies conducted by the Basic Income Grant Coalition: one study that covers the first 6 months of the project22 and a second study about the first 12 months of the project.23 No further empirical studies or project assessments have been published.
There is no public access to the project database. In a Namibian daily, the project representatives confirmed the lack of public access to their data and justified it.24
The design of the project and the conduct of the empirical studies have been criticized by some authors for intransparent procedure and inappropriate methods.25
The Government of the Republic of Namibia has repeatedly argued against the introduction of a Basic Income Grant and has not changed its mind during and after the pilot project.
In May 2012, the community leader of Otjivero-Omitara, Ernst Gariseb, told a journalist of a Namibian newspaper: "Since two decades we are sitting here without work, development and perspectives." The journalist concluded: "Despite the support of the BIG there is not any development to be seen in Otjivero."26
In 2011, Iran implemented a basic income grant in order to compensate risen prices of basic goods such as petrol and food.27 A first assessment of the experiences in Iran is provided by H. Talabani (2011).28
An independent and privately funded pilot project is currently in place in Brazil.29 It provides R$30 monthly which is 4.4% of the minimum salary in 2013 (as defined by the federal government) and is not enough to meet basic needs.
||It has been suggested that Basic income in India be merged into this section. (Discuss) Proposed since August 2013.|
Two basic income pilot projects have been underway in India since January 2011.30 According to the first communication of the pilot projects, positive results have been found.31 Villages spent more on food and healthcare, children's school performance improved in 68 percent of families, time spent in school nearly tripled, personal savings tripled, and new business startups doubled.32
In many countries, there are politicians, academists, philosophers advocating for a basic income. Several of the following advocates have actually proposed a negative income tax, which is means tested, rather than a basic income. Despite their differences in administration and effect,citation needed the two proposals are usually conflated.
One of the world's outspoken advocates of a basic income system is the Belgian philosopher and political economist Philippe van Parijs.35 Other advocates include sv:Gunnar Adler-Karlsson (Sweden), Götz Werner (Germany), Saar Boerlage (Netherlands),36 Herwig Büchele (Austria), fr:Yoland Bresson, André Gorz (France),37 Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri,38 Charles Murray39 (USA), Keith Rankin40 and Gareth Morgan41 (New Zealand), es:Daniel Raventós (Spain),42 Osmo Soininvaara (Finland),43 Guy Standing (UK),4445 Eduardo Suplicy (Brazil)46 and Walter van Trier (Belgium).47
Many socialists have advocated a form of basic income or a social dividend as a means for distributing the economic profits of publicly owned and state-owned enterprises. These include economists Oskar Langecitation needed, Abba Lernercitation needed, John Roemercitation needed, James Yunkercitation needed and James Meade.
In his final book Full employment regained? James Meade states that a return to full employment can be achieved only if, among other things, workers offer their services at a low enough price, that the required wage for unskilled labour would be too low to generate a socially desirable distribution of income, and that therefore a citizen's income would be necessary.49 James Meade advocated for a social dividend scheme funded on the returns of publicly owned productive assets.50
Basic income has been promoted by people associated with political views that are generally opposed to the public provision of welfare services, such as libertarianism, economic liberalism, and anarcho-capitalism. These people support basic income as a strategy to reduce the amount of bureaucratic administration that is prevalent in many contemporary welfare systems, as well as acting as a form of compensation for fiat currency inflation. Notable libertarian-capitalist proponents of basic income include Milton Friedman (in the form of negative income tax),52 Robert Anton Wilson,53 Gary Johnson (In the form of the fair tax "prebate") and Charles Murray.54
It is clear, however, that Friedrich Hayek did not advocate that any modern nation act to implement a minimum income. This was a concept that he attributed to his "Great Society," which was his Utopian liberal society, in the classical sense. Hayek emphasized a minimum income in the far future, and stated clearly that no wealthy countries such as the United States should guarantee any income not available to all around the world, as it would attract mass immigration and overwhelm the procedure:
- "It is obvious that for a long time to come it will be wholly impossible to secure an adequate and uniform minimum standard for all human beings everywhere, or at least that the wealthier countries would not be content to secure for their citizens no higher standards than can be secured for all men. But to confine to the citizens of particular countries provisions for a minimum standard higher than that universally applied makes it a privilege and necessitates certain limitations on the free movement of men across frontiers... we must face the fact that we here encounter a limit to the universal application of those liberal principles of policy which the existing facts of the present world make unavoidable."55
Many of the people mentioned above have united in the Basic Income Earth Network, which recognizes numerous national advocacy groups. Here is a breakdown of all partisans of basic income, listed by region or country.
Geolibertarians seek to synthesize propertarian libertarianism and a geoist (or Georgist) philosophy of land as commonly and equally owned by all people, citing the classical distinction between unimproved land and private property. The rental value of land is produced by the labors of the community and, as such, rightly belongs to the community at large and not solely to the landholder. A land value tax (LVT) is levied as an annual fee for exclusive access to a section of earth, which is collected and redistributed to the community either through public goods, such as public security or a court system, or in the form of a basic guaranteed income called a citizen's dividend. Geolibertarians view the LVT as a single tax to replace all other methods of taxation, which are deemed unjust violations of the non-aggression principle.
In 1968, James Tobin, Paul Samuelson, John Kenneth Galbraith and another 1,200 economists signed a document calling for the US Congress to introduce in that year a system of income guarantees and supplements.57
In the 1972 presidential campaign, Senator George McGovern called for a 'demogrant' that was very similar to a basic income. In 1973, Daniel Patrick Moynihan wrote The Politics of a Guaranteed Income (ISBN 978-0-394-46354-4) in which he advocated for the Basic Income and discussed Richard Nixon's GAI proposal.
Mike Gravel, a former US congressman and presidential candidate, advocates a tax rebate paid in a monthly check from the government to all citizens as part of a transition away from income taxes and toward a pre-bated national sales tax (the FairTax).5859
Richard Parncutt argues that income tax is effectively progressive when basic income is combined with flat income tax. The combination would simplify the tax-welfare system.65
Ben Wallace argues, in The Common Purpose Manifesto, that a shared base income, incorporating an unconditional basic income with a flat 50% tax rate, is necessary to correct the inevitable income inequalities that arise in free and open markets.66
In Oregon, Tax and Conversation67 is a member-owned organization working to end all tax exceptions via a ballot measure (the initiative process requires 50% of voters plus 1 person to vote yes for it to become law) for 2014.68 66% of all dollars from current tax expenditures go to only 20 out of every 100 people with the most money69 (paid tax on income after exceptions is regressive), and that money would instead be paid unconditionally: each full-year taxfiler will get $700 each month. The total expenditure amount would be slightly less than the current expenditure amount of $24 billion each year, because core government services will get more funding.70
The Green Party of the United States 2010 platform advocated for "a universal basic income (sometimes called a guaranteed income, negative income tax, citizen's income, or citizen dividend). This would go to every adult regardless of health, employment, or marital status, in order to minimize government bureaucracy and intrusiveness into people's lives."72
|This section is incomplete. (January 2013)|
The Basic Income Earth Network, first called "Basic income European Network" (BIEN) until 2004, was the first international organization trying to promote basic income internationally. It gathered essentially a group of researchers and economists working on the topic. BIEN recognizes numerous national advocacy groups, and coordinates international communication through its newsletter and a biannual congress.
Following a number of meetings in different cities in Europe (Vienna 2005, Basel 2007, Berlin 2008, Herzogenrath 2009, and Vienna 2011), several organizations such as the German Round-table for basic income have decided to work together for promoting basic income at the European level. In Vienna (2011) they agreed on the preparation of a European Citizens' Initiative.76
On 14 January 2013, the European citizens' initiative registration was accepted by the EU commission, thus triggering a 12 months aiming at collecting more than one million signatures in the European Union.77 On November 28, a group of 26 members of the European Parliament issued a joint call for support for this initiative.78
Historically in Belgium, the most active group promoting basic income is the movement Vivant and the philosopher Philippe Van Parijs - who founded the Basic Income European network (BIEN) in 1987. A Belgian basic income network affiliated to the BIEN was founded in 2012 in Brussels79
The first bigger discussion on universal basic income in the Czech Republic was iniciated by philosophers and social scientists cz:Marek Hrubec and Martin Brabec. Later, they published with Philippe Van Parijs a book "Všeobecný základní příjem. Právo na lenost, nebo na přežití?" ("Universal Basic Income. Right to Laziness, or Right to Survival?").80 In 2013, activists and social scientists joined the European Citizens' Initiative for Unconditional Basic Income,81 and have created a campaign to support unconditional basic income.82 In the Czech Republic, unconditional basic income is supported by many individuals, NGOs (Alternativa zdola, ProAlt, Levá perspektiva, for example), and political parties. It in the program of the Green Party, the Communist Party, the Pirate Party, and the Party of Democratic Socialism. It is supported also by many Social Democrats.
In France, the first prominent defender of basic income is Yoland Bresson. In 1985, he founded the "Association pour l'Instauration d'un revenu d'existence" with Henri Guitton (fr)84 for promoting basic income in France, and co-founded the BIEN the year after. Another prominent advocate of basic income is the philosopher André Gorz, who finally endorsed the idea85 after having been an opponent for years.86
On the political side, the Christian democrat Christine Boutin, the former prime-minister Dominique de Villepin, are the most well-known politicians claiming for basic income, along with some MPs like Karima Delli, Jean Desessard and Yves Cochet.
The very influential think tank fr:Centre des Jeunes Dirigeants (CJD) ("Young policymakers trust") also call for a basic income of 400 euros per citizen.89 The CJD's and Christine Boutin's basic income proposals are based on Marc de Basquiat financing model,90 which demonstrates a way of financing a basic income of 400 euros for every adult and 200 per child, while other advocates such as Baptiste Mylondo and Jacques Marseille promote a "high enough" basic income, around 750 euros. However, unlike Mylondo and Marseille, De Basquiat's model doesn't reduce any pension, housing or unemployment benefits.
In 2012 a group of citizens launched a transpartisan network in an attempt to join forces for raising awareness about basic income in France.91 This network aim at participating to the European citizens initiative that is set to be launched in 2013.92
One of the most prominent proponents of basic income in Germany is Götz Werner, the former CEO of the store brand DM Drogeriemarkt, and one of the richest men in Germany. He also teaches economics at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
The generalization of workfare policies known as "Hartz reforms" have encouraged a broader movement for basic income in Germany.93
In 2008, a petition launched by Susanne Wiest was supported by more than 52,973 citizens, thus offering the German activist a hearing at the Bundestag,94 which helped to enlarge the public debate on the idea.
The German Pirate Party has officially endorsed basic income95 since 2011. Inside the Christian Democratic Union, Dieter Althaus proposes a basic income model.96 A group led by Katja Kipping also promotes basic income inside the leftist party Die Linke.97 In addition, inside the Social Democratic Party of Germany, the Rhein-Erft-group favors basic income98 since 2010. Within The Greens there are also a large number of advocates.
Though the idea of basic income is not well known in Greece, several economists have worked on the topic. In 2010, the liberal party Drasi supported a proposal for a basic pension scheme, aiming at simplifying the hundreds of pension schemes in a country being hurt by the debt crisis and pressured by the troika to balance its public budget. Manos Matsaganis and Chrysa Leventi co-authored a study that demonstrate the feasibility of such a proposal.99
Other heterodox proposals suggest that a Greek exit from the eurozone could be an opportunity to implement a "monetary dividend" for every Greek citizen as a way to manage the financial collapse of the country.100
The issue of the basic income gained prominence on the political agenda in Netherlands between the mid-1970s and mid-1990s101102 but it has disappeared from the political agenda over the last fifteen years.
Since 2001, the es:Red Renta Básica is the national network affiliated to the BIEN. It gathers researchers and activists for basic income.103 From 2011 to 2012, the 15-M Movement also contributed a lot in spreading the idea among the Spanish society.104
The association BIEN-Switzerland105 (affiliated to the Basic Income Earth Network) promotes basic income in the francophone part of Switzerland. In the German-speaking part of Switzerland a group called "de:Initiative Grundeinkommen" is very active in promoting basic income.106
In 2008, Daniel Häni and Enno Schmidt produced The Basic income, a cultural impulse, a movie that explains and praises the idea of a basic income. With more than 400,000 views,108 the movie went viral and contributed a lot in spreading the idea among French and German speaking countries.
In September 2013, the initiative achieved the collection of about 126,000 signatures and handed them over to the government on October 4111112 thereby triggering a nationwide popular referendum, which would be the first of its kind on this issue, anywhere in the world.113114 The trade union de:Syna brought its support for this initiative.115
"The Citizen's Income Trust promotes debate on the desirability and feasibility of a Citizen's Income by publishing a newsletter and other publications, maintaining a library of resources, and responding to requests for information."116
Co-founder of the Basic Income Earth Network, the professor Guy Standing is a famous advocate of the unconditional basic income. In his book The Precariat - the new dangerous class, he blames globalization for having plunged more and more people into the precariat, which he analyses as a new emerging social class.117 He concludes on the necessity for "governments to provide basic security as a right"118 - through a basic income.119
Basic income - called Feltétel Nélküli Alapjövedelem (FNA) in Hungarian (unconditional basic income) is supported by the FNA Group, which held its first active-team-meeting was in Hungary/Budaörs, May 31. 2011.124 Basic income is also endorsed by the Hungarian Pirate Party.125
Affordability of a basic income proposal is a function of the social/government services it replaces, any tax increases, and the less tangible positive effects on spending and tax receipts associated with wealth redistribution towards the poor, and any social savings as a result of less crime, or fewer incarcerable offenses.
Specific, though informal, measurements were made by Pascal J. for Canada.127 A 2004 taxable basic income benefit of $7800 per adult could be afforded without any tax increases by replacing welfare, unemployment, and core Old age services. (Canada has supplemental poverty old age programs and pension system). The number excludes any intangible benefits of tax revenue increases due to higher spending and lower personal savings, and any expenditure savings on criminal enforcement.
To estimate affordability of basic income in the US, the starting point of 265M adult citizens and $6.3 Trillion in estimated federal, state, and local government spending means that replacing all US government spending can provide nearly $25k per citizen in basic income. Several people have used the simplicity of a flat tax to demonstrate affordability. Someone has even hosted a UBI calculator.
Naturalfinance.net estimates that by cutting the $1.85T spent on social security and welfare in the US, $9905 can be given to each adult American citizen as a taxable basic income benefit128 From the same paper, it is noted that basic income can also be funded through monetary policy. Instead of printing money for direct bank funding, money is printed to give directly to citizens who then spend it in the economy and fund banks indirectly through deposits. Monetary policy has never been used in this manner, but the paper claims there is no underlying economic reason it cannot be used as a partial or full basis for funding basic income.
Several sources of funding have been proposed for hypothetical socialist (public or common ownership of the means of production) economic systems:
- Collective resource ownership
- Universal stock ownership129
- Profits generated by publicly owned enterprises130
- A National Mutual Fund
Many different sources of funding have been suggested for a guaranteed minimum income for non-socialist economic structures:
- Negative income tax
- Income taxes
- Income tax threshold
- Sales taxes
- Capital gains taxes
- Fiat money
- Inheritance taxes
- Wealth taxes, e.g. property tax
- Luxury taxes
- Elimination of current income support programs and tax deductions
- Repayment of the grant at death or retirement
- Land and natural resource taxes
- Pollution taxes
- Fees from government-created monopolies (such as the broadcast spectrum and utilities)
- Money creation or seignorage
- Tariffs, the lottery, or sin taxes
- Technology taxes
- Tobin tax
- Value added tax or other Consumption taxes
- Asset-based egalitarianism (variant of basic income)
- Cash transfers
- Citizen's dividend
- FairTax: Monthly tax rebate
- Global basic income
- Libertarian socialism
- Market socialism
- Negative income tax
- Old Age Security
- Refusal of work
- Social credit
- Social welfare provision
- Speenhamland system
- Universal Credit
- Work–life balance
- Working time
- Human Resources Development Canada SOCIAL SECURITY REFORM (1994). "Improving Social Security in Canada Guaranteed Annual Income: A Supplementary Paper". Government of Canada. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- History of Basic Income, Basic Income Earth Network (BIEN)
- "Basic Income - Real definition, and leftist justification" (blog). Natural Finance - 21st century venture capital.
- "BIEN: frequently asked questions". Université catholique de Louvain. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "Basic Income Studies: Papers and Resources". Basic Income Earth Network. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- Pascal J. (2012-06-04). "21st century venture capital: The imperative need for social dividends". Natural Finance. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- Pascal J. (2013-02-28). "21st century venture capital: Most people support slavery". Natural Finance. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- Gilles Séguin. "''Improving Social Security in Canada – Guaranteed Annual Income: A Supplementary Paper'', Government of Canada, 1994". Canadiansocialresearch.net. Retrieved 2013-08-16.
- http://eis.bris.ac.uk/~plcdib/imprints/vanparijsinterview.html The Need for Basic Income: An Interview with Philippe Van Parijs, Imprints, Vol. 1, No. 3 (March 1997). The interview was conducted by Christopher Bertram.
- Belik, Vivian (2011-09-05). "A Town Without Poverty? Canada's only experiment in guaranteed income finally gets reckoning". Dominionpaper.ca. Retrieved 2013-08-16.
- A guaranteed annual income: From Mincome to the millennium (PDF)dead link Derek Hum and Wayne Simpson
- "Basic Income Grant Coalition: Pilot Project". BIG Coalition Namibia. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "USBIG". The U.S. Basic Income Guarantee Network. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "The Rise and Fall of a Basic Income Guarantee Bill in the United States Congress", Al Sheahen, The US Basic Income Guarantee Network (USBIG), 2008
- See Alaska Permanent Fund Dividend; the fund's revenues are no longer only from oil.
- "Annual Dividend Payouts". Alaska Permanent Fund Corporation. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
- "Namibian Basic Income Grant Coalition". Bignam.org. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "NewsFlash of the Basic Income Earth Network", BIEN nr. 49, 2008; BIG Coalition Namibia
- "Assessment report after 6 months of BIG pilot project" (PDF). BIG Coalition Namibia. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- How a Basic Income Program Saved a Namibian Village
- Haarmann, C., D. Haarmann, H. Jauch, H. Shindondola-Mote, N. Nattrass, M. Samson, G. Standing, Towards a Basic Income Grant for All, Assessment Report, September 2008, Windhoek: BIG Coalition
- Haarmann, C., D. Harrmann, H. Jauch, H. Shindondola-Mote, N. Nattrass, I. van Niekerk, M. Samson, Making the Difference! -- Assessment Report, April 2009, Windhoek: BIG Coalition
- "The Otjivero residents were promised confidentiality of their personal information.", New Era, 15 July 2011.
- For example: K. Shangula, The Proposed BIG: What are the Facts?, in: The Namibian, 5 February 2011; R. Osterkamp, BIG deserves a fair chance, yes: By doing serious research about it, in: New Era, 21 May 2010.
- Both quotations from Allgemeine Zeitung, 7 May 2012.
- "Iran's bold economic reform: Economic jihad". The Economist. June 23, 2011.
- The Basic Income Road to Reforming Iran's Price Subsidies, in: Basic Income Studies vol. 6, #1.
- "Instituto pela Revitalização da Cidadania". ReCivitas. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- India: Basic Income Pilot Projects are underway, Basic Income News, September 14th
- "INDIA: Basic Income Pilot Project Finds Positive Results," Basic Income News, BIEN (September 22, 2012).
- Fernandez, Benjamin (4 May 2013). "Rupees in your pocket". Le Monde diplomatique. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- "1970s' Manitoba poverty experiment called a success". CBC News. March 25, 2010.
- Vivian Belik (5 September 2011). A Town Without Poverty? The Dominion. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- Van Parijs, Philippe (ed.). "Arguing for Basic Income: Ethical Foundations for a Radical Reform", London: Verso, 1992
- (Dutch) Saar Boerlage: "Het basisinkomen stimuleert op een positieve manier de inzet van het individu in de samenleving" (Basic income stimulates in a positive way the input of the individual into the society), interview, Vereniging Basisinkomen: Nieuwsbrief Basisinkomen 48 (April 2007).
- "Critique of Economic Reason", André Gorz, in: Peter Waterman, Ronaldo Munck, "Labour Worldwide in the Era of Globalisation: Alternative Union Models in the New World Order", Macmillan, London, 1999
- page needed PDF Michael Hardt – Antonio Negri, "Empire", Harvard University Press, 2000
- "Book review: In our hands: A plan to replace the welfare state by Charles Murray" (PDF). Conallboyle.com. February 2007. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- dead link"Universal Basic Income: its Core and Essence"dead link, Keith Rankin, New Zealand, 1998
- "Turning tax and welfare in New Zealand on its head". Big Kahuna. 2011. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "Basic Income: The Material Conditions of Freedom", Daniel Raventós, Pluto Press, London, 2007
- Osmo Soininvaara, "Hyvinvointivaltion eloonjäämisoppi" (A survival doctrine for the welfare state), Juva, WSOY, 1994, 298 p, ISBN 951-0-20100-6
- Guy Standing and Michael Samson (eds.), "A Basic Income Grant for South Africa", University of Cape Town Press, Cape Town, 2003
- Standing, Guy (ed.). "Promoting Income Security as a Right: Europe and North America", Anthem Press, London, 2005
- "Citizen's Basic Income: The Answer is Blowing in Wind" DOC, Eduardo Matarazzo Suplicy, USBIG 5th Congress, 2006
- Van Trier, Walter. "Everyone a King. An Investigation into the Meaning and Significance of the Debate on Basic Incomes with Special Reference to Three Episodes from the British Inter-War Experience", Katholieke Universiteit Leuven: Fakulteit politieke en sociale wetenschappen, PhD thesis, 1995
- Wright, Erik Olin. "Basic Income as a Socialist Project," paper presented at the annual US-BIG Congress, March 4–6, 2005 (University of Wisconsin, March 2005).
- Meade, James Edward. Full Employment Regained?, Cambridge University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-521-55697-X
- "Basic Income". Media Hell. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- Russell, Bertrand. Roads to Freedom. Socialism, Anarchism and Syndicalism, London: Unwin Books (1918), pp. 80-81 and 127
- Frank, Robert H. "The Other Milton Friedman: A Conservative With a Social Welfare Program," The New York Times (November 23, 2006).
- Jackson, Tom (2011-08-09). "A basic income guarantee". RAWIllumination.net. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- dead link
- Hayek, Friedrich A. Von. The Political Order of a Free People. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1979. 56. Print.
- Where Do We Go From Here: Chaos or Community? (New York: Harper & Row, 1967)
- Steensland, Brian (2007). The failed welfare revolution. Princeton University Press. pp. 70–78. ISBN 978-0-691-12714-9.
- "How Mark stands on the issues" Gravel presidential campaign, 2008
- "Income". Passiveincome.asnsimplebusiness.info. Retrieved 2013-07-24.dead link
- Simon, Herbert A. "UBI and the Flat Tax. Also winner of Nobel Peace Prize, archbishop Desmond Tutu advocates basic income guarantee. A response to 'A Basic Income for All' by Philippe Van Parijs", Boston Review, 2000
- Hayek, Friedrich. The Road to Serfdom, Chapter 9, page 124, Routledge, London 1944
- Does he support a guaranteed minimum income? Hayek: "I have always said that I am in favor of a minimum income for every person in the country." from Hayek on Hayek: An Autobiographical Dialogue by F. A. Hayek, edited by Stephen Kresge and Leif Wenar (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994)
- Solow, Robert (1987). “An Economist’s View of the Income Maintenance Experiments,” in Lessons from the Income Maintenance Experiments, ed. Alicia H. Munnell, proceedings of a conference held in September 1986 (Boston, MA: Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, 1987). pp. 218–226.
- Friedman, Milton. "Capitalism and Freedom", University of Chicago Press, 1962
- Richard Parncutt, "Free enterprise without poverty"dead link
- "Home Of The Common Purpose Manifesto". The Common Purpose. 2004-02-27. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "Tax and Conversation". Tax and Conversation. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- List of Oregon ballot measures
- "Table T11-0322, Eliminate All Individual Income Tax Expenditures. Baseline: Current Law. Distribution of Federal Tax Change by Cash Income Percentile, 2011" (PDF). Tax Policy Center. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- ""Amendment Draft", Chart: "$billions per year"". Tax and Conversation. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- Rifkin, Jeremy (1995). The End of Work – The Decline of the Global Labor Force and the Dawn of the Post-Market Era (1st ed.). New York: Tarcher/Putnam. ISBN 978-0874777796.
- 2010 Platform: Economic Justice & Sustainability. Green Party of the United States
- "Guaranteed Livable Allowance". The Canadian Progressive.
- (French) "Québec solidaire présente des propositions audacieuses pour combattre les inégalités," Québec solidaire (14 aout 2012).
- Senator Hugh Segal on basic income, Basic Income News
- Blaschke, Ronald (2012). From the Idea of a basic income to the political movement in Europe
- European Citizens initiative: A historical campaign has born, Basic Income News, 21 January 2013
- "Basic Income - Who Are We?". Belgian Network for Basic Income. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- Philippe Van Parijs, Marek Hrubec, Martin Brabec, et al., Všeobecný základní příjem. Právo na lenost, nebo na přežití? Praha, Filosofia 2007.
- European Citizens' Iniciative for Unconditional Basic Income
- Všeobecný základní příjem
- "BIEN Finland – Suomen perustuloverkosto" (in Finnish). Perustulo.org. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "Histoire". Association pour l'Instauration du Revenu d'Existence. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "Hommage à André Gorz". Revenu de Base. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- Perrotin, Damien (2012-07-05). "Campagning with the Greens: the basic income delusion". Energybulletin.net. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- Jourdan, Stanislas. The collaborative economy is destroying jobs. So what's next?, OuiShare.net, October 2012
- "L’allocation universelle : une voie libérale vers le communisme, par Jacques Marseille". Mouvement des Libéraux de Gauche. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- Michel Meunier: « La France a les moyens d’avoir un vrai système de solidarité », revenudebase.info, December 2012
- Marc de Basquiat, Modeling basic income in France: from incentive effects to amount of payment – on the factual issues of the basic income
- "À propos". Revenu de Base. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "L'initiative européenne pour le revenu de base est relancée". Revenu de Base. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- 'Hartz reforms': how a benefits shakeup changed Germany, The Guardian
- "Susanne Wiest am 08.11.2010 vor dem Petitionsausschuss des dt. Bundestages". Vimeo. 2010-11-09. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "GERMANY: Pirate Party endorses Basic Income in its national campaign". Basic Income News. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "Main German Government Party considers Basic Income as alternative to social welfare". Socialjustice.ie. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- Kipping, Katja (2009-08-05). "A basic income as an allowance for democracy". ZNet. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "GRUNDEINKOMMEN - SPD-Kreisverband Rhein-Erft: Das wirklich Wichtige tun". Rhein-erft-spd.de. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- Manos Matsaganis & Chrysa Leventi (2010)Pathways to a universal basic pension in Greece
- Stanislas Jourdan, "A monetary approach towards an unconditional basic income in Greece," 14th BIEN Congress (Munchen 2012).
- Vanderborght, Yannick (2005). "The Basic Income Guarantee in Europe: The Belgian and Dutch Back Door Strategies". The Ethics and Economics of the Basic Income Guarantee (Ashgate): 257–81. ISBN 978-0-7546-4188-9. "In no other advanced European welfare state has the BIG [i.e., Basic Income Guarantee] debate been so broad and lively as in the Netherlands. Since 1975, the idea of a basisinkomen has been discussed within many Dutch political parties, trade unions, social organizations, and even at the governmental level."
- Pels, Dick; Robert J. van der Veen (1995). Het Basisinkomen: Sluitstuk van de Verzorgingsstaat. Amsterdam: Van Gennep. p. 7. ISBN 90-5515-031-2. "Het heeft twintig jaar geduurd, twintig jaar van vallen en opstaan, maar anno 1995 is het basisinkomen--een onvoorwaardelijke, niet aan arbeidsprestatie gebonden inkomensgarantie voor iedere burger--een volwassen politiek ideaal geworden. [Trans: It has taken twenty years, twenty years of ups and downs, but in the year 1995 the basic income--an unconditional guaranteed income for every citizen which is not linked to work--has become a mature political ideal.]"
- "Red Renta Basica". Red Renta Basica. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "Taking It to the Streets in Spain". CounterPunch. 2012-05-14. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- News, Generation Grundeinkommen. Retrieved 2013-09-06.
- Interview with Jean Ziegler, October, 2006
- "Making-of zum Film Grundeinkommen – ein Kulturimpuls". Grundeinkommen.tv. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "Grundeinkommen: Start (f=French, d=German, i=Italien)". Inconditionnel.ch. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- An Initiative to Establish Basic Income for All, Global Voices
- Straub & Müller, Daniel & Christian. "Nationaler Feiertag". Initiative für Bedingungsloses Grundeinkommen. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- Marty, S (26 July 2013). "130'000 Schweizer wollen das Grundeinkommen". 20 Minuten. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- Kother, Harald (March 22, 2011). "Basic Income: The Way out of a Sick Society". Los Angeles Indymedia. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "Citizen's Income Homepage". Citizensincome.org. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- Britain's labour figures hide the real hours we work every day, The Guardian, Aout 2012
- Jourdan, Stanislas (2012-11-08). "Guy Standing: the precariat is growing Angry". Boilingfrogs.info. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- Why the precariat requires a basic income, Conference at Ljubljana
- Sandbu, Martin (May 19, 2012). "Not for sale". Financial Times.
- Rollins, Kevin. "Green Party calls for Basic Income". Freeliberal.com. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
- "Citizen'S Income Key To Beating The Poverty Trap • Scottish Green Party". Scottishgreens.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-16.
- Carina Charlotte Carlsen Tips meg. "Vil gi alle nordmenn 158.432 kroner NA24". Na24.no. Retrieved 2013-08-16.
- "FNA-Hungary". Alapjovedelem.org. Retrieved 2013-08-16.
- "Kaloz-party". Kalozpart.org. Retrieved 2013-08-16.
- (French) Kaori Katada, "Le revenu de base doit être promu par les citoyens ordinaires".
- "Canadian basic income vs guaranteed income," naturalgovernance.blogspot.ca (Friday, January 14, 2011).
- Pascal J. - Democratic monetary policy - Naturalfinance.net
- A Future for Socialism, by Roemer, John. 1994. Harvard University Press: "Stock prices are quoted not in currency but in coupons, issued to citizens on attaining their majority, not convertible to cash, and reverting to the treasury at death."
- On the Economic Theory of Socialism, by Lange, Oskar. 1936. The Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1: "It seems, therefore, convenient to regard the income of consumers as being composed of two parts: one part being the receipts for the labour services performed and the other part being a social dividend constituting the individual's share in the income derived from the capital and the natural resources owned by society."
- Raventós, Daniel; Wark, Julie. "Indignation, Basic Income and the First Social Law. Taking It to the Streets in Spain" Counterpunch, 14 May 2012.
- Raventós, Daniel; Wark, Julie. "General Strike in the Kingdom of Spain: the Political Economy and Basic Income" "Opendemocracy", 30 March 2012.
- Lo Vuolo, Rubén M.; Raventós, Daniel; Yanes, Pablo. "Basic Income in Times of Economic Crisis: The War Social and Working Rights," Counterpunch (Weekend Edition, November 5–7, 2010).
- Raventós, Daniel; Lo Vuolo, Rubén (16 July 2009). "Basic Income: good in the boom, essential in the crisis". On Line Opinion (Australia’s e-journal of social and political debate). Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- "History of Basic Income," BIEN (Basic Income Earth Network).
- Social Contract Revisited publications: Basic Income and Income Support in the Modern Welfare Statedead link, The Foundation for Law, Justice and Society (Contributors: Amir Paz-Fuchs, Peter Edelman, Amitai Etzioni, Charles Murray, Michael Opielka, Dalmer Hoskins, Avia Spivak, Frank Bloch). [ Retrieved 17-02-2011 ].
- Lord, Clive; Kennet, Miriam (2012). Green Economics and The Citizens Income, published by The Green Economics Institute
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Basic income guarantee.|
- The Basic income, a cultural impulse, German movie (available in more than 20 languages)
- Center for Economic and Social Justice
- Guaranteed Basic Income Studies: How it could be organised, Different Suggestions
- Basic Income Earth Network (BIEN)
- Basic Income Studies: An International Journal of Basic Income Research
- US Basic Income Guarantee Network
- Citizen's Income
- smi2le, a multilingual journal about the basic income guarantee
- Lectures on basic income
- French network for unconditional basic income