Battle of Aleppo (2012–13)
||This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
|Battle of Aleppo
|Part of the Syrian civil war|
Situation in Aleppo in April 2013
Syrian Army control Opposition control PYD control Ongoing confrontation or unclear situation
|Syrian National Coalition||Syrian government||PYD|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Abdul Jabbar al-Oqaidi25
Yusef al-Jader †
Ebu Mohammed Suleiman
(Sultan Abdulhamid Han Brigade)29
Qatibat Al Kurdi Abou Amar †33
(Dera Salah Dine Brigade Commander)
|Ali Abdullah Ayyoub
(Chief of the General Staff)
(Governor of Aleppo)34
(Republican Guard Commander)35
Suheil Salman Hassan
(5th Division Commander)35
Zaino Berri †
(al-Berri Shabiha leader)21
|18 battalions36||3rd Army Corps (Aleppo)46
5th Armoured Division47
6th Armoured Division47
46th Army Regiment48
80th Army Brigade49
|15,000 fighters||20,000 troops mobilised55
|Casualties and losses|
120 captured by FSA (later released)65
The Battle of Aleppo (Arabic: معركة حلب) is an ongoing military confrontation in Aleppo, Syria between the Free Syrian Army and its allies and the Syrian military. The battle began on 19 July 2012 as a part of the Syrian civil war. Clashes escalated in late July as the Syrian Army and opposition fighters fought in the city, which is the largest in Syria and holds great strategic and economic importance.68 The scale and importance of the combat has led to combatants calling it "the mother of all battles".6970
The uprising against the Syrian government began on 15 March 2011, with nationwide demonstrations. However, the inhabitants of Syria's two largest cities, Damascus and Aleppo, remained largely uninvolved in the anti-government protests. In fact, the two cities have seen rallies in the tens of thousands in support of Assad and his government.71
As the government launched crackdowns and military sieges into restive towns and cities, the protests evolved into an armed rebellion. Opposition forces composed of military defectors and civilian volunteers clashed with security forces across the country. However, Aleppo city remained relatively peaceful.
Fighting in Aleppo governorate began on 10 February 2012. Over the next five months, major clashes left large parts of the rural countryside under rebel control, with the capital of the province, Aleppo city, still being firmly under government control. However, on 19 July, rebel forces stormed the city and a battle for control of Syria's largest city and economic hub had begun.68
At the beginning of the Battle of Aleppo, rebels reported to have between 6,00072 and 7,00073 fighters within 18 battalions,36 the largest one being the al-Tawhid Brigade. The most prominent rebel group fighting in Aleppo is the Free Syrian Army, an organisation largely composed of army defectors. Most of those rebels that are from Syria hail from the Aleppo countryside, such as the towns of Al-Bab, Marea, Azaz, Tel Rifaat and Manjib. A rebel commander has noted that exchanges between locals and the FSA were civil.74 However, in a report, a resident accused the rebels of using the civilians as human shields by using civilian homes as shelter.75 On 19 November, the Islamist fighters in Aleppo rejected the newly-formed Syrian National Coalition. Most notable of those are the largest FSA al-Tawhid Brigade and the al-Nusra Front.76 The next day, however, the rebels retracted their rejection.77
Looting for supplies became a common occurrence among the rebel fighters by December, switching their loyalties between groups who had more to share. This new approach led to incidents such to the killing of at least one rebel commander following a dispute, the loss of one frontline position due to fighters retreating with their loots and the failure of an attack on a Kurdish neighbourhood. One rebel commander told that the situation was getting worse and that others commanders were thieves The loss of popular support for the rebels was another effect of the widespread looting.78
Islamic extremists and foreign fighters have joined the fighting in Aleppo. Many of them are highly experienced and come from neighboring Iraq, a country with an ongoing insurgency.18 Jihadists have been reported to also come from several countries across the Muslim World.17 Jacques Bérès, a French surgeon, who treated wounded fighters in Aleppo reported that he noticed a significant number of foreign fighters, most of whom had Islamist goals and were not directly interested for the fall of Bashar al-Assad. Some of the fighters included Libyans, Chechens and some Frenchmen. He said this was in stark contrast to Idlib and Homs, where foreign forces were not common.79 Some FSA brigades have cooperated with Mujahideen fighters.18
The Syrian government has support in Aleppo, as rebel commander stated that "around 70% of Aleppo city is with the regime". However, during the course of the battle, Assad lost a significant amount of support from Aleppo's wealthy class.80 CBS News learned that 48 elite businessmen who were the primary financiers for the Syrian government decided to switch sides to the rebels.81 For the first time, the Syrian Army engaged in an urban warfare. Their forces are divided into small groups each consisting out of 40 soldiers. The soldiers are mostly armed with automatic rifles and anti-tank rockets. The artillery, tanks and helicopters are used only as a support. In August the Army deployed its elite units.82 Eventually, after the rebels executed Shabiha and tribal leader of the al-Berri tribe, Zeino al-Berri, the tribe joined the fight against the rebels.83 Also, as Christians in the city feared the possible oppression and expulsion under Islamists, some supported the Army and formed their own militias to fight the rebels after the capture of their quarters by the special forces of the Syrian Army.2223 The Armenians, who are also Christians, also supported the Syrian Army. Aleppo's Armenians claim that Turkey supports the FSA in order to attack Armenians. Arab Christian and Armenian militia has around 150 fighters.24
At the beginning of the Battle, Aleppo's Kurds also formed armed groups of which the most notable was the Kurdish Salahaddin Brigade. The Kurdish Salahaddin Brigade works together with the opposition, while the Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD) has cold relations with both sides. The PYD's Popular Protection Committees stay out of the Arab areas and at the same time insist that the FSA stays out of the Kurdish area, moreover, they don't confront the Syrian Army unless they are attacked.84 The Kurdish areas in Aleppo are mainly under the control of the PYD.26 Syria's Turkmens also joined the battle and their Turkmen Sultan Abdulhamid Han Brigade has 400 fighters.29
Gunfire between rebels and security forces broke out on the night of 19 July in Salaheddine, a district in the southwest portion of the city, and its surrounding neighborhoods.85 It is unclear whether the district already had a strong rebel presence before the battle began, or it was captured by opposition fighters coming from the outskirts of the city. Meanwhile, thousands of rebel soldiers from Aleppo’s northern and eastern countryside began to move towards the city.
Fighting in Salaheddine continued into the next day, as the Syrian Army began shelling rebel controlled districts with artillery and attack helicopters. By the early afternoon of 21 July, rebel forces from the outskirts of the city had penetrated into Aleppo’s northeastern neighborhoods of Haydariya and Sakhour, where they clashed with the Syrian Army. Activists reported that the fighting caused many residents to flee to safer areas.86
On 22 July, fighting had spread from Salaheddine and neighboring Saif al-Dawla to al-Jameeliya and its surrounding neighborhoods near the city center,87 leading to a battle for the city’s main intelligence headquarters.88 By the next day, rebels on the eastern front captured Helweniyeh, and according to a rebel commander, Hanano and the industrial area of Sheikh Najjar as well.89 Meanwhile, continuing clashes near the city center included a rebel attack on the city’s state TV station and the central prison, where according to activists a massacre conducted by security forces had taken place.90 Throughout the day, power was out in much of the city.91
On 24 July, the FSA launched an offensive to take the city center, leading to heavy fighting near the gates of the Old City, a UN World heritage site known for its ancient structures. Meanwhile, rebel forces on the eastern front continued to push westwards. The FSA set up checkpoints in the eastern al-Sahkour district.92 Later that day, the Syrian Army used, along with artillery and attack helicopters, fighter jets for the first time since the conflict began to bombard rebel-held districts.93
During the next two days, the government sent thousands of Army reinforcements from surrounding regions to Aleppo. The troops were sent mostly via the M5 highway connecting Damascus and Aleppo from the city’s south, and the main Aleppo-Latakia road from the city’s west, with rebels conducting several deadly attacks on arriving troops. Among the government troop reinforcements that were massing on the outskirts of Aleppo were also special forces units. The Syrian Army had reportedly amassed 10,000 soldiers around Aleppo and its countryside.94 Meanwhile, 1500 to 2000 rebel fighters from around northern Syria arrived to assist the 2,000 already in Aleppo.95 Along with the Old City, fighting raged in the central districts of Jamaliya and Kalasseh, and Bustan al-Qasr.96
On 27 July, skirmishes occurred out on the outskirts of the city as both Army and FSA reinforcements continued to arrive. Rebel forces advanced to the central district of Fardous, despite continued bombardment.94 Kurdish fighters, who had gained control over most of the northern districts of Sheikh Maqsud and Al-Ashrafiya, clashed with Syrian troops around the neighborhoods in retaliation after government troops attacked their convoy on the airport road the previous day.64
On the morning of 28 July, the Syrian Army started an attack against Salaheddin district, which held the largest concentration of rebels.97 The assault commenced with an eight-hour artillery bombardment, which started at four in the morning, after which tanks and ground troops moved in.98 During the clashes, rebels, providing unverified video footage, claimed to have shot down a government helicopter gunship, a rare feat. Rebels also claimed that 8–10 tanks and armored vehicles were destroyed.99100 Meanwhile, rebel forces continued to attack a strategic police station in the city center for the third day, in an attempt to link up with opposition forces in the northeastern Sakhour district on the eastern front.101102 By the end of the day, the rebels had repelled the assault with government troops pulling back, but the bombardment continued.103 Among the FSA fighters killed that day was a battalion commander.101 On the next day, fighting continued in Salaheddin, with reports of Syrian Army soldiers defecting with tanks occurring in the city.104 In the evening, the state media reported that Salaheddin was recaptured by the Army, a claim rejected by the opposition, who claimed to be in control of 35 to 40 percent of Aleppo.105
In late July and early August, the FSA continued its offensive in Aleppo, with both sides of the conflict suffering high casualties and losses. Rebel commanders said their main aim was to capture the city center.106 Rebels seized a strategic checkpoint in the town of Anadan north of Aleppo, gaining a direct route between the city and the Turkish border, an important rebel supply base.107 They also captured Al-Bab, a town with an army base northeast of the city.108 Later, rebels attacked the Minakh military air base, 30 kilometres northwest of Aleppo, with arms and tanks they captured at the Anadan checkpoint.109 Opposition forces continued to make territorial gains in the city, controlling most of eastern and southwestern Aleppo, including Salaheddine and parts of Hamdaniyeh.110 They continued to target security centers and police stations, as clashes erupted near the Air Force intelligence headquarters in Aleppo's northwestern Zahraa district.111 Rebels overran several police stations and posts in the central and southern districts of Bab al-Nerab, Al-Miersa, and Salhain, seizing significant amounts of arms and ammunitions.110
During this time, the Syrian military continued its attempt to capture Salaheddine, while bombarding rebel-held territories throughout the city with artillery, helicopters and airstrikes.106 Ambushes and executions continued as well. However, the Army appeared to have made little effort in sending ground forces to recapture the central and southern districts.110 Also, a militia from the loyalist Al-Barre tribe began to clash with rebel forces in southern Aleppo and near the city's southeastern international airport. Clashes between the tribesmen and the rebels escalated after rebel fighters executed the tribe's militia leader, Zino Berri.112
From 3 to 5 August, the rebel offensive began to stall as fighting and shelling continued in several districts across Aleppo. The Syrian Army finished its deployment of reinforcements to the city, with 20,000 troops mobilized.113 Meanwhile, rebels retreated after attempts to capture the Minagh airbase 30 miles outside the city114 and the state TV station in Izaa district, a few blocks northeast of Salahaddine.115
On 6 August, a rebel commander was killed in Salahaddine as fighting continued in the district.116 The media center of the Taweed brigade, located in the Sakhour district, was destroyed by an airstrike, while rebels attacked a checkpoint near the Aleppo University dormitories.117 Fighting erupted near the Aleppo presidential palace,118 and government forces shelled rebel positions at the Palace of Justice and in the Marjeh and Sha'ar (Terbet Lala) districts.
On 7 August, the ancient citadel in the center of the city, manned by government troops, was under siege, with rebels controlling the ground on at least two sides of the citadel.119 The FSA had reportedly advanced to the Bab Jnēn and Sabaa Bahrat districts of Aleppo where, along with al-Asilah district,120 there were fierce clashes.121 In the north of the city, rebels made an attempt to advance into a Kurdish district, clashing with Kurdish fighters. Fighting ceased after military jets bombed the area, forcing rebel forces to retreat.122 At this point, opposition activists confirmed that Aleppo had been completely surrounded by government troops.
The Syrian Army encircled rebels fighters in Salahaddine from two sides, as military armored units inched forward through Salahaddine from the southwest. Military snipers deployed in areas of the district on rooftops and tanks were stationed in the streets. Snipers were also positioned in the local roundabout where they were stopping rebel reinforcements and supplies to enter the district.123
On the morning of 8 August, the Syrian military launched an offensive to retake Salaheddine, a rebel stronghold that was blocking an important supply route for government soldiers coming from the south.124 The military hoped to be able to advance far enough to link up with troops at the Aleppo Citadel. By this time, many rebel fighters in the district were reported to be low on ammunition, and exhausted. After intense fighting and shelling in the district throughout the day, half a dozen Syrian Army tanks managed to breach into the center of Salaheddine. In the early morning of the next day, artillery shelling intensified as more tanks moved into the district. Unable to halt the armor units, many FSA units began to depart. By mid-morning, hundreds of rebel fighters were pulling out of the district, with some leaving the city.124 Fearing a continued Syrian Army advance, some rebel units in nearby Saif al-Dawla and Bustan al-Qasar, districts east of Salaheddine, began to evacuate as well. The withdrawal occurred while the city remained relatively quiet, as government forces made little attempts to advance forward.124 During the evening of 9 August, Syrian Army troops and armored vehicles, accompanied by the Mukhabarat and the Shabiha, moved into the neighborhood, searching house to house for remaining rebels, as snipers began setting up positions.125 Although FSA commanders acknowledged the withdrawal, they said they planned to regroup and later retake Salaheddine.124
Elsewhere in the city, clashes and bombardments continued. Fighting continued in the central district of Bab al-Hadid and the southeast district of Bab al-Nairab.126 Rebel fighters made attempts to recapture Salaheddine, but were held back by snipers and mortar fire. To avoid them, fighters sometimes traveled through holes in deserted buildings.125
On 12 August, Syrian Army tanks advanced to the roundabout in Salaheddin which was defended by 150 rebels. During the day, the rebels attacked petrol station in Salaheddine, which was being used as a military base, and killed the base's commander. During the action they also captured a lot of badly needed ammunition and weapons.127
On 13 August, following the capture of the Salaheddine district several days before, the Syrian Army launched an attack and advanced into the western portion of the Saif al-Dawla district.128129 Security sources in Damascus also stated that the Syrian Army was advancing on the rebel-held district of Sukari. The Observatory meanwhile said opposition fighters attacked a key air force intelligence branch in the western Zahraa district.130 At the same time, rebels made another attempt to attack the radio and television station in Aleppo.131
Video footage emerged of rebels shooting down a MiG-23BN fighter jet, and of several executions of prisoners in and around Aleppo by rebel forces.132 Opposition activists claimed that rebels had nothing to do with the killings.129
On 15 August, rebels reported that they captured Bab al-Nasr and surrounding area, forcing soldiers to retreat to the city centre.133
On 17 August, SANA said that a number of the rebel's leaders were killed in an operation near the Cultural Center in Hanano in the al-Klasah area. An ammunition warehouse was also destroyed near Adham Mustafa highschool in the Saif Addolah neighborhood and clashes were reported in half a dozen other areas.134
On 18 August, Army cleaning operations were reported in the areas of al-Andalus school, al-Hayat Hospital, Rahmo Khatab school, al-Hamiyat Hospital and Ahmad Saeed school. The Syrian army also claimed to have taken the area of Maysaloun Hospital from the rebels.138 On 20 August, the Japanese TV reporter Mika Yamamoto was killed, the first foreign journalist to be killed in Aleppo since the beginning of the battle.139 On 21 August, both the rebels and the military made competing claims of advances in the city, neither of which could be independently verified.140
On 22 August, rebels tried to make an advance in Saif al-Dawla, but their attack was repelled by heavy mortar and RPG fire. At one point, their retreat was cut-off.141 Syrian forces shelled Aleppo and two neighbouring towns. The army bombarded rebel weapons stocks in the Aleppo region to prevent the arms from reaching the rebels in the city, according to a security official. He also said reinforcements for both sides were heading to Aleppo.142
On 23 August, the military reportedly recaptured three Christian neighborhoods in the Old City from the rebels, according to several residents contacted by AFP. The districts of Jdeide, Tela and Sulaimaniyeh were captured by opposition forces five days before. One resident claimed the takeover by the Syrian Army was celebrated by hundreds of residents, who begun to set up popular committees to avoid a potential return of the rebels.143 The main rebel commander had, earlier in the day, claimed that rebel fighters were near the districts.144 The military recapture was later confirmed by AFP.145146 However, it was disclosed that the re-capture of the Jdeide quarter from Islamist rebels was initially started by the Christian residents, who took up arms after the rebels had set up checkpoints and fired on the churches and residents. They stormed the square where most rebels were positioned and took control of it. The Syrian army later joined the Christian militia to expel the rebels from the quarter.147
CBS News learned that at least 48 of Aleppo's elite businessmen, calling themselves the "Front of Aleppo Islamic Scholars" (FAIS), hand-picked a provisional city council to take over as Aleppo's new local government. The 48 businessmen were financiers for the Syrian government, who decided to switch sides to the rebels.81
Rebels in Mashad neighbourhood tried to stop the government tanks, located in Saif al-Dawla, from advancing. The Syrian Army was also moving in the Sukari district and rebel fighters complained that they were having shortages of RPGs to face the armored vehicles.150
On 26 August, SANA reported clashes in more than a dozen areas in the city, significantly at the Cultural Center in Hanano, the Industrial School in al-Saliheen, the al-Tananir Square and the Scientific Institute of Aleppo.
The oppositon group Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) reported that the Syrian Army was trying to take control of the Isaa district while state TV claimed the district was captured from rebels.151
On 28 August, SANA claimed that the Army had seized a large amount of weapons in a number of neighbourhoods. The clashes were reported in Saif al-Dawla, Sha'ar, Sakhour, Suweiqa, Sayyed Ali districts in Aleppo and al-Eis and Bayanoun villages. As SANA reported, the Children Hospital was also cleared by the Army.152153
On 29 August, SANA claimed that the Army had clashed with rebels near the Mahmoud Saif School in al-Sakhour, the Central Prison road, al-Sukari, al-Kallaseh, the Cement Factory in al-Maslamiyeh area, the village of Qabtan al-Jabal and al-Bab in Aleppo countryside and al-Leirmoun. SANA also reported that the Army had clashed with rebels coming from Andan, Hayan and Bab Qara in the northern countryside of the province. In Hayyan in Aleppo's northern countryside the authorities had arrested a rebel leader.153154
An increasing number of reports indicated that the Syrian government is attacking civilians at bread bakeries with artillery rounds and rockets in opposition-controlled cities and districts in Aleppo province and Aleppo city, with the reports indicating that the bakeries were shelled indiscriminately.155156 HRW said these are war crimes, as the only military targets in the areas were rebels manning the bakeries and that dozens of civilians were killed.157
On 30 August, SANA reported clashes in the al-Khandaq Street and the village of Rasm al-Abboud in the eastern countryside of Aleppo, and that the Army had killed a rebel leader named Mohammad Issa Moussa and called 'al-Qatteh'.154
On 31 August, rebel fighters claimed to have launched a major offensive, attacking "several" security compounds and bases.158159 Activists claimed that three warplanes were destroyed when rebels attacked Kwers military airport in Aleppo.160 The warplanes and artillery continued to fire on rebel positions. The rebel group Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) reported that the fighting happened in the Sukari, Hanano and Bustan Al Qasr.161
On 3 September, a Syrian general said that the Army was in control of the upper area of Saif al-Dawla and that they were trying to expand their control over the whole district. AFP reporters visited Salaheddine and confirmed that it was under effective control of the Syrian Army.56 AFP also confirmed that the Army captured, two days before, two 10-storey malls on either side of the main street in Saif al-Dawla, which were being used by rebel snipers.162
On 6 September, Kurdish activists reported that 21 civilians were killed in the Kurdish neighborhood of Sheikh Maksud when Syrian army shelled the local mosque and nearby areas. Despite not directly witnessing any clashes between government forces and FSA units, residents believed that district was shelled as retaliation for locals sheltering anti-government civilians from other districts. In a statement released shortly after the attack, the Kurdish Supreme Committee and Popular Protection Units vowed retaliation.163
On 7 September, rebels attacked the Hanano military base.164 The FSA managed to free 350 detainees from the camp when they overran one of the main security buildings.165 Those wishing to defect were sent to various fighter positions in the region, while common law prisoners remain in detention.166 The offensive had been in the planning for some time and "several brigades" were assigned to the attack. Abu Omar, a rebel commander, claimed that their main motive for the offensive was because "there are a lot of army soldiers, snipers and shabiha mercenaries there". The rebels tried to cut strategic supply lines and stop the army's shelling of their positions.167 However, the Army pushed the rebels out of the base the next day, after a 20-hour battle with heavy casualties on both sides. "The rebels had thrown themselves full whole-heartedly into this offensive because they desperately need weapons," the army source said on condition of anonymity. The Hanano base serves as a weapons storage depot, a conscript recruitment centre and also houses the headquarters of the local branch of the military police and anti-riot police. According to the activist group SOHR, rebels stormed the area reserved for conscript recruitment the previous day.3168
On 8 September, SOHR reported that the Syrian Army advanced in the Sa'ad al-Ansari (Iza'a), Saif al-Dawla and Salaheddine neighborhoods following the withdrawal of rebel forces after heavy shelling.168 21 Kurdish civilians were killed in the Aleppo neighbourhood of Sheikh Maksud when Syrian forces shelled an area near the Marouf mosque, according to Kurdish activists.169
Aleppo's main water pump was also destroyed during the day. The Syrian government and opposition accused each-other over the damage to the water pipeline in the central neighborhood of Midan, but it said it was not immediately clear what the exact source of the damage was.168
On 9 September, a car bomb exploded in Aleppo killing at least 30 civilians170 and wounding more than 64.171 Governor of Aleppo said that the bombing took place near al-Hayat Hospital and the Central Hospital. The bombing caused significant material damage to the two hospitals, al-Nusour al-Zahabiya elementary school, and nearby buildings.172 The next day the FSA admitted that they have carried out the attack as they claimed that the facilities were used by the government troops. The attack was executed after Syrian Air Force dropped bombs on rebel targets in the Hanano killing dozens.173174
SANA reported clashes between the Army and the rebels near al-Ansari Mosque in Maysaloun, near Arqoub in Maysaloun area, near al-Furkan Mosque in al-Arqoub area and al-Suliemaniya area.172
On 10 September, at least 20 Syrian soldiers were executed by the rebels177 after they had been captured at the Hanano barracks.178 The executors were members of the Hawks of Syria, one of the FSA's brigades.177
The SOHR reported shelling attacks on the Aleppo neighbourhoods of Haidariyeh, Hanano, Meyseer and Sha'ar overnight. During the night, a three-day rebel assault on the Midan district, in the center of the city, was repelled and government forces pushed the rebels back toward Bostan Pasha, said one resident who spoke to AFP.179
On 11 September, SANA reported clashes in more than half a dozen areas in the city. The Army confiscated 38,000 litres of oil that was supposed to be smuggled out near al-Barkoum Bridge.180
Over the night of 11/12 September, the Army pounded rebel positions across Aleppo focusing on the southern districts of Bustan al-Qasr, Sukari and Kellaseh and the northeastern districts of Sakhour, Sha'ar and Hanano. One resident said that helicopter gunships also strafed the rebel district of Bostan Pasha. Fighting took place at dawn of 12 September in Al-Nayrab area, five kilometres north from the city's airport due to a rebel effort to capture the airport; the airport however remained fully operational.181
On 13 September, SANA reported a number of rebels were killed or injured in several areas and explosives, PK machine guns, pistols, communication devices, computers, documents including information on rebel groups were seized.182 SOHR reported that 11 people were killed in an airstrike by Syrian warplanes in the Helweniyeh neighbourhood. The LCC reported that the Syrian army also used a heavy barrage of artillery against the Fardos district of the city.183
Rebel fighters were also reported to have advanced into the key contested central Midan district, a highly strategic area as it opens the way into the main square of Aleppo.184 One resident said that "They were at Bostan Pasha (district) and had already advanced up to Suleyman al-Halabi Street. Now they have entered a street in Midan," after heavy clashes were reported.185
The fighting in Midan continued into the next day, with clashes raging around two police stations. The rebels managed to capture the stations, but were driven out by the military, only to return later in a counter-attack, reigniting Army attempts to dislodge them.186 SANA claimed that the Syrian Army had cleared areas around the Hreitani building, Sports Institute and the Maternity Hospital in the district. Fighting was also reported elsewhere in the city.187 The rebels turned the St Gregory Church into a battlefield when they tried to progress in the Midan quarter, before being forced back when they met the heavy army resistance.188
Late during the night, it was reported that the Army conducted air-strikes on the two police stations, forcing the rebels to retreat, and, at one point, nobody controlled the two posts. An air-strike was also conducted against a rebel-held police station in Hanano.189190 A unit of the Republican guard seized the Ansar Mosque in the rebel controlled Arqoub district, which was strategically positioned in front of the Hanano military base.188
The next morning, on 15 September, after one week of fighting, the Army had control of most of the Midan area and set up checkpoints for the first time. Rebels still held some positions on the border between Midan and the rebel-held Bostan Pasha and Arqoub districts. Clashes were continuing at the entrance of Bostan Pasha4 and another air-strike hit the police post in Hanano.191 Beside fightings in al-Midan neighbourhood, SANA reported that the Army had clashed with rebels in al-Firdous192 and Midan districts.193
On 16 September, rebel fighters made another attempt to push back into Midan. They fired rocket-propelled grenades, through a wall encircling an Armenian Orthodox church, from their stronghold in the Suleiman al-Halabi Street. They then rushed into the courtyard of the church but were met with resistance from Army troops. Soon, the rebels were forced back into a back street through the damaged wall and their attack was repelled.194 Later, the military announced that the armed forces had completely cleared the al-Midan area195 and taken control of the district. This was confirmed by an AFP correspondent on the ground, although he said that there were a few areas where snipers were still active.196 At the same time as the fighting in Midan occurred, the military made an advance into the rebel-held Arkoub district. Members of the Republican Guards attacked and captured the Ansar mosque, after they received fire from it earlier during the day. The mosque had strategic importance, due to it being positioned right in front of the Hanano military base.194
On 18 September, clashes and shelling were reported in the rebel-held Bustan al-Qasr district, where SANA claimed rebels had "heavy losses", and that two soldiers died.197 Clashes also occurred in Iza'a198 and the government held western Zahra district.199 SANA also reported that during the day the Syrian army had destroyed a lorry loaded with ammunition and two techinals. In the al-Mansoura neighborhood SANA claimed that the Syrian army killed several rebels as well.197
The rebels in Aleppo, due to a lack of foreign supplies, were resorting to manufacturing their own weapons.200 The rebels also deny receiving any foreign support in the form of weapons. A rebel commander named Abdelkader el-Hadji stated "The weapons we have now we captured from Assad's army. We now have a few tanks. Where do you think we got them? We took them from Assad."201
On 20 September, the Syrian Army launched an operation to recapture the Bustan al-Qasr neighborhood.202 The killings occurred near al-Fidaa al-Arabi school.203 SANA also said that other clashes occurred in the Hanano area, al-Fatayes quarter in al-Jadideh and al-Arqoub area, and Qadi Askar roundabout. SANA said "heavy losses" were inflicted upon the rebels and among the dead was a sniper.204 Also, government troops were engaged in street battles in the rebel-held Suleiman al-Halabi district, which is adjacent to Midan.205
Meanwhile, opposition forces made attempts in uniting the two largest rebel groups in Aleppo and the surrounding countryside under one command, so they could launch better coordinated attacks against government troops. Analysts claimed that the reason for the stalemate between the military and the rebels in the city was due to the low morale of the Syrian Army and an inability to reinforce and resupply the troops from Damascus via the highway.206 The government has discussed the use of chemical weapons on Aleppo as a last resort if they lose complete control of it to the rebels,207 and reports came to light via Der Spiegel that the Syrian government had restarted chemical weapons tests in nearby Safira at the end of August.208 Aleppo activists reported 37 civilians killed within Aleppo city from the Syrian Army's bombardment over night.
Over night of 20/21 September the fighting erupted near the Hanano military base, SOHR said. Bustan al-Qasr neighborhood was still under attack after the Syrian army launched an attacks to try to recapture the neighbourhood. The Army also started an attack on Shakour neighbourhood during the day.209 The clashes have been also reported in Shakour rondabout where dozens of rebels have been killed, SANA said.210
On 22 September, SANA said that the Army had recaptured the Third Industrial Institute in Suleiman al-Halabi neighbourhood and destroyed several rebels' centres.211 The fighting for Suleimal al-Halabi started two days ago.212
On 23 September, the Syrian army had recaptured the Qasr al-Wali restaurant in al-Sayyid Ali which was used as a rebel centre of operation, SANA said.213 Yousef Deya, a rebel sniper was killed and two technicals destroyed.214
On 24 September, SANA said the Syrian Army took the Agricultural Institute in al-Arqoub area in Aleppo city and areas of al-Quran Mosque and Ali Nasser Agha School in Suleiman al-Halabi district. Sana claimed the Syrian army also recaptured the Christian al-Jdeideh neighbourhood. SANA reported clasehs in Karm al-Jabal and al-Isharat neighbourhoods, al-Jandoul, Bab al-Hadid and Qadi Askar roundabouts, al-Mahaba Hall in Sukari neighbourhood and near the retirement home in Bustan al-Basha where rebels suffered "heavy losses."215 SOHR said that the Syrian army's artillery shelling on Aleppo destroyed a residential building, killing three Children. The LCC also reported artillery strike on the Maadi neighborhood.216
On 25 September, a Syrian Army source told AFP that Army's operations in Arkoub are finished and that Army was involved in door-to-door activity in search for the rebels. However, the SOHR said that clashes were stil ongoing in Arkoub.217 SANA also reported continuing clashes in Suleiman al-Halabi neighbourhood and that clashes occurred in the Western al-Sakhour area and near al-Hakim Hospital in al-Shaar area.218
AFP reported on a meeting of all rebel brigade commanders, at which the overall assessment of the situation in the city, according to them, was that they were in a stalemate with the military due to a lack of ammunition. Even though they reportedly captured 5,000 assault rifles and 2,500 rocket launchers during the earlier raid on the Hanano military base.219
According to multiple sources, a new opposition offensive began on 27 September, which promised to be "zero hour" in the start of a "decisive battle" to capture the city.220 A rebel commander said they wanted to surprise the Syrian army, which had started to creep forward towards the southern neighborhoods. He claimed the Tawhid brigade was enticing the Syrian army forward to face all the fighting brigades in the city. According to him, the plan to launch the battle was top secret and a week in the making. The operation included 6,000 fighters of the Tawhid brigade, in addition to a few other brigades like al-Fatah and Ahfad al-Fatiheen for the Turkmen. Weapons and ammunition captured during the attack on the Hananou base were being used. He denied that the FSA had proclaimed "decisive" battles for Aleppo before.221
The government sent a text message to most of the mobile/cellphones in the Aleppo area that read in part: "You have two choices; either be killed facing the State or the State will kill you to get rid of you, you decide...the game is over...the countdown has begun to expel all militants from neighboring countries..."222 The message was sent to all Syrians with subscriptions to the country’s two cellphone service providers in the Aleppo area. Those with pre-paid phones did not receive the message.223
On the second day of the offensive, there was a growing threat of clashes between the rebels and a Kurdish militia believed to be linked to the PKK in Aleppo. The rebels, who grew suspicious over some Kurdish militants' ties with the government, also threatened to confront groups they said were linked to the militant Kurdish Worker's Party (PKK) in neighboring Turkey. One rebel leader, Abdelqadir al-Saleh, commander of the Tawhid Brigade, requested that the Kurdish militia surrender their weapons and "not drag themselves into a losing battle that is not their fight." Shortly thereafter, rebels attempted to advance into the Kurdish-held Sheikh Maqsoud district in the north of the city, where they reported capturing eight Shabbiha militiamen.224 Opposition activists and rebels reported that the Kurdish militia engaged the rebels and fought alongside government troops against the rebel forces in Sheikh Maqsoud.225 SANA said that the Syrian army inflicted "heavy losses" upon the rebels in the Sheikh Maqsoud district, while fighting alongside the districts residents. SANA also said the Syrian army clashed with "terrorists" in al-Taqadum Kindergartner, al-Milh Square and Forensic Medicine Center in the area of old Aleppo, with "losses" upon the rebels.226
Meanwhile, fighting was reported in other central and southern parts of the city. The main points of the rebel attack close to the center were towards the government-held Hamidiya and Midan districts.220 Residents in neighborhoods that previously did not have fighting told the AFP news agency that the violence was "unprecedented", saying "The sound from the fighting has been non-stop," "Everyone is terrified. I have never heard anything like this before." said one local.227 At the same time, in the south, rebels advanced through the Izaa, Saif al-Dawla and Sukari districts. Rebel commander Abu Furat said that during the fighting a regular army base was taken in Salaheddine and 25 soldiers were killed. However, later rebel commanders said they were forced to retreat from Salaheddine. According to one rebel, 20 of their fighters were killed and 60 wounded during the fighting.228229 FSA forces also reportedly suffered heavy losses in the Bdama neighborhood, where a rebel battalion’s first lieutenant was killed.230 Rebels reported one of their units was surrounded during the clashes, while some other battalions pulled out of the frontline or had never joined the battle.224
Another rebel commander, the leader of the Sham Falcon's brigade, claimed the rebel fighters were able to progress in al-Arqoub, Maysaloon, Abdulla al-Jaberi square, Hamdaniya and Jamiliya. He said that the Syrian army was using planes and barrels of explosives to strike all the districts in Aleppo. He went on to say "there were ferocious battles in Salehaden and al-Ameriya and al-Sukari. It is a guerrilla war. The Syrian army would come forward 10 metres, we would move forward 50 metres and then if we need to pull back, we pull back.231 SOHR's Abdel Rahman said the fighting was not yielding major gains for either side. "Neither the regime nor the rebels are able to gain a decisive advantage," he said.229
Rebels claimed to had stormed a government radio station, while government war planes bombed the city's outskirts. A major fire also engulfed Aleppo's medieval markets, destroying an estimated 700 to 1,000 shops. A major tourist attraction, the covered markets were among the largest in the Middle East. The rebels blamed the fire on army shelling.232233 According to SANA, clashes took place in al Kalisah, al Firdous, Bab al-Nairab, Bab al-Hadid and Bustan al-Qasr.234 According to the Irish Times, the rebel offensive had dissolved in a street fight after the Syrian army heavily defended their positions. Irish Times and Reuters also reported that some rebels units were surrounded and others retreated even before entering the city.235 According to SANA, the Syrian army is in full control of al-Amiriyah and most of Tal az-Zarazir streets in Aleppo.234 SOHR said the Sakhour and Bab Hadid neighbourhoods were bombarded by Syrian army artillery and that clashes were taking place in the al-Arqoub and Aziziya neighborhoods.,236 they also stated that Salaheddine had once again become the focal point for fighting between rebels and soldiers.237
On the third day of the offensive, an activist claimed to CNN that rebels had taken control of at least four neighbourhoods and rebels were reported to have fired mortars at al-Nayrab Military Airport, damaging two helicopters and a main runway.238 The Syrian government denied that helicopters were destroyed in the al-Nayrab airport, claiming that those news from some media outlets is an attempt to raise the morale of rebels.239 According to Sana, the Syrian army targeted positions and inflicted losses in rebels near the Infirmary and the Sport Institute in Bustan al-Basha and near the Cotton Gins area, east and north of al-Jandoul. Another operation is mentioned near the crossroads of Baleh town, west of Aleppo, with casualties of rebels reported.238240 SANA also said clashes, leading to rebel casualties, occurred in Qastal Harami, al-Sayyed Ali and Maysaloun Hospital areas. A Turkish fighter, who led an armed rebel unit and its members was also reported dead in clashes with the army in al-Tananeer Square.240
Opposition fighters from the Tawhid brigade and other northern brigades announced that they had partially taken over the Jandoul roundabout in Aleppo. Fighters also said 15 government soldiers were killed and three tanks were destroyed.232
However, overall, the rebel offensive had by this point been described as stalled5 and the opposition fighters were reportedly struggling to hold on to their positions under heavy artillery fire.241 One rebel described the current situation as 'boring' with the battle becoming yet another stalemate.242 Rebels blamed the stalemate on their low ammunition and inferior firepower.243
On 1 October, SOHR said that more than 40 were either killed or injured by bombardment on the Karm al-Jabal neighborhood in the al-Sha'ar area of Aleppo city. Several neighborhoods of the city were bombarded including Shakur and Salaheddine. The next day, rebels claimed to have repulsed attacks in the neighborhood of Hanano,244 and that they were in control of most of the Old City in the face of heavy artillery fire.245 The rebels appeared to be moving towards the city center.246
The pro-government Lebanese Al-Diyar newspaper announced that President Assad had flown into Aleppo by helicopter at dawn and had ordered 30,000 additional government troops and 2000 personnel carriers to come to the city from Hama province (army units 5 and 6).247248 The report also appeared in the pro-government daily Al-Watan249 as well as the Chinese Xinhua News Agency.250 SANA however made no mention of any visit.251
On 3 October, three suicide car bombs exploded at the eastern corner of the central Saadallah Al-Jabiri Square killing 34 people, as it was announced by the Ministry of interior. More than 122 people were reported to be heavily injured.252 The Islamist militant Jabhat Al-Nusra group claimed responsibility for the attack.253 The bombs targeted the Officers' club and the nearby buildings of the Touristic Hotel and the historic "Jouha Café". The hotel received major damage while the café was entirely destroyed. A small building within the Officers' club was ruined as well.254
Government troops had killed two more would-be suicide bombers before they could detonate their explosives. Syrian state TV showed the bodies of three men wearing army uniforms at the site of the explosions. One of them appeared to be wearing an explosive belt with a timer tied to his wrist.255 Later, the al-Qaeda-linked extremist militant group the Al-Nusra Front,256 claimed responsibility for the attack. The group stated that it was carried out by suicide car bombers, followed by attackers disguised as Syrian Army soldiers.257 In a rare move the UN Security Council unanimously condemned the bombings as a "terrorist attack".258
Elsewhere, rebel fighters attacked a political intelligence branch in Aleppo as well as an old vegetable market where a large number of troops were posted, said the Observatory. Overnight, rebels also reportedly destroyed two tanks in the city.259 The Syrian army fought battles with rebels in several neighbourhoods of Aleppo, including Saif al-Dawla and Sakhur. It also shelled the Bab al-Nayrab, Salaheddin, Mashhad, Bab al-Nasr and Sakhur districts. The fighting led to the destruction of an army tank and the killing of several army troops.232
On 5 October, state-run Syrian TV said that government forces "cleansed Sakhour of terrorists and mercenaries." 260 After days of fighting, an AP correspondent said that the rebels lost control of several buildings in Saif al-Dawla, after close-quarter combat.261
Meanwhile rebel fighters claimed to have made advances in the strategic district of Salaheddine, claiming that they had taken the square, lost it to the Syrian Army, and then managed to retake the square after a lengthly battle with Syrian troops.262
An AFP correspondent reported intense street battles in Arkoub district. The insurgents have occupied health facilities and schools as makeshift bases, the journalist said, adding they move around the area through holes in the walls of buildings. There also were signs of strain from troops in the city, with one officer admitting "the battle for Arkoub is as tough as the struggle for Hanano" last month. One soldier said he had not returned home once, to Homs, in three months of fighting.263 The neighborhoods of Bustan al-Qasr, al-Helk and al-Haydariya in the city of Aleppo were bombarded by Syrian army forces.
On 6 October, Syrian state television said that four Turks were among a group of foreign fighters that the army had killed in the battleground city of Aleppo.264 Iranian Press TV claimed that the Syrian army captured the Shakour district, but the Free Syrian army said they repulsed the assault after heavy clashes.265
An AFP correspondent in the city said that the Syrian Air Force was continuously bombing the Bab al-Hadid, Arkub and Shaar neighborhoods. These neighbourhoods surround the besieged Hanano barracks as government forces try to push the rebels back from the barracks located there. Locals have called it the worst fighting since the battle of Aleppo began.266 The BBC found a cache of ammunition manufactured in Ukraine and addressed to the Saudi Arabian Army in Aleppo. The ammunition was stored in a mosque used by the rebels as a base of operations. Saudi and Qatari have been suspected of supplying ammunition to the rebels but have withheld from supplying heavier weapons, like anti-aircraft missiles, due American concerns about extremists obtaining such equipment.267268
On 9 October, rebels claimed control of the highly strategic town of Maarrat al-Nu'man, a town on the Aleppo - Damascus highway where many of the Syrian Army's reinforcements were joining the Battle of Aleppo. The seizing of the town was believed to be part of a campaign to isolate the Syrian Army fighting in Aleppo.269
On 10 October, rebels launched an attack against the historic Umayyad Mosque (or the Great Mosque of Aleppo) where government forces are based. During four hours of fighting rebels tried to blast holes in the walls of the mosque with RPGs before storming the UNESCO listed site before they were repelled. Leaving rebel snipers to attack the government forces.270 They had launched an earlier attack against the Mosque on 8 October but government forces in the Citadel spotted them.271
The government has bombarded the districts of Haidariyeh, Sukari and Fardoss at dawn, as fierce fighting has broken out in Sakhur, Suleiman al-Halabi and Sheikh Khodr.272 One hospital in a rebel area of Aleppo admits 100 patients a day with less than 10 doctors. Veterinarians are used in some cases as there are not enough "human doctors".273
On 12 October, rebel forces seized an air defense base east of the city, near al-Tana village and the Koris military airport.274 After the capture, government air-strikes destroyed most of the rockets and radars at the base.275 By the end of the day, the rebels were preparing to withdraw from the base, fearing more strikes.276
On 13 October, a large explosion struck the Air Force Intelligence Directorate office in Aleppo followed by heavy clashes.277 The Directorate is considered important given Hafez al-Assad's role as commander of the Syrian Air Force in the 1960s.278 Rebels also broke in the Umayyad Mosque by using an explosive charge to attack government forces stationed there.279
On 14 October, the UNSECO listed Great Umayyad Mosque of Aleppo is also reported to have been set on fire after Syrian Army forces withdrew from it the previous day. Rebels have destroyed the southern entrance of the mosque to get a direct access into the internal yard.280 Later, it was confirmed that the military had recaptured the mosque following a counter-attack.281 The mosque has sustained the most damage since an earthquake struck in 1822.282
A MiG fighter, believed to be a MiG-23, was shot down over Aleppo on 15 October. The pilot was able to eject and was subsequently taken prisoner by rebel forces.283
On 21 October, "a suicide car bomber" caused a blast in the New Syriac quarter wounding several people and leaving material damage on the Syrian-French hospital and al-Kalima school.284 SOHR reported fierce fighting around the ancient Citadel.285 SANA said clashes occurred in a number of Aleppo's neighbourhoods and it said that the Syrian army inflicted "heavy human and material losses" upon the rebels, specially in Bustan al-Basha area.284
SANA reported clashes in several neighbourhoods on October 22, including the Bustan al-Qasser. Syrian Army inflicted "heavy losses" upon the rebels. The Army had also killed Adnan Farroukh, one of the rebels' commanders in Aleppo, SANA said.286 SOHR said violent clashes were taking place between the Syrian army and rebel fighters in the neighborhoods of al-Itha'a and al-Zabdiya.
On 25 October, some 200 rebels moved into the district of Ashrafiyeh in the Kurdish-controlled area of Sheikh Maqsud. It was the first time that government or rebel forces moved in a substantial way into the Kurdish areas. Previously the area had been regarded as neutral with Kurdish militia clashing with both rebel and army units. The rebel unit responsible is allegedly the Liwa al-Tawhid brigade who reportedly told the locals that We are here to spend Eid with you. Ashrafiyeh is important as a part of the city heights and controls routes between the north and south of Aleppo.287288 Previous rebel attempts to move into the district had been repelled.224 Rebels were reported to have taken control of the Syriac quarter.289
Joshua Landis, a political analyst, said that according to reports he received from Aleppo, the Syrian army had retreated from the Aleppo center, allowing the FSA to take control of the central Christian neighborhoods of Jedida and Qadime. The claims were yet to be verified due to the lack of reporters on the ground.290 Locals from the Armenian district of Al-Zukur said that the FSA had entered their district leading to clashes with government troops.291
An Aide to colonel Riad al-Asaad confirmed the reports of the FSA's recent advances and also claimed the rebels captured the Salaheddine district.292 The spokesman of the Liwaa al Shabhah brigade said that the FSA had limited the Syrian army to 5 districts.293
It was unclear if the rebels had the forces to hold the new areas294 and there were early indications that the rebels had been forced back out of some areas by late afternoon, with one resident saying that the government forces were fighting fiercely to take the districts back.295
One FSA fighter told the Guardian that their main focus was on security branches the Syrian army uses as bases. He said that rebels were in the process of besieging the Midan security branch and stopped Army reinforcements from getting to the police school in the Khan al-Assal district which had been under FSA siege for 10 days.293 The fighter also said that the Ashrafiya take-over by the rebels was the result of a deal with the PKK.293
SANA said that the Army had recaptured the Syrian-French Hospital and reported several clashes stating that the Army had inflicted "heavy losses" upon the rebels.296 Some rebels believe that the increased talk of a truce from the Syrian government is an effort to stop rebel gains in Aleppo. Specifically using the four days of Eid to reinforce their forces with ammunition and food.297
Later, a rebel commander claimed that the FSA were fighting in Arqoub, Siryan, Zahra and Firqan districts and had secured Suleiman al Halabi. Local activists claimed fierce clashes were occurring around the Airport, and that rebels were trying to besiege the Nairab base just south of Aleppo.298 The center of Aleppo is reported to be in rebel hands with snipers in positions to block any attempt at counter-attacks. The retreat from the city center was seen as either a government trap or signs that the rebel tactic of attacking the government's supply lines was working. Another question was whether the government was prepared to bombard Christian and Kurdish areas, like other rebel-held areas in the past, and risk dragging them into the rebel camp.299 Rebels who have taken the predominately Christian areas and Jdeidah, where Lawrence of Arabia once stayed, are reporting intimidation by the rebels who fear retaliation from both sides in the conflict. The rebels also claimed to have had encircled the Citadel of Aleppo.300
Rebel activists have claimed that Kurdish forces had either reached agreement with rebels to allow their rapid advance or assisted the rebels by simply leaving their checkpoints overnight.301 One rebel spokesman has even gone as far as to indicate that Kurdish forces may join the Free Syrian Army.302 "Violent clashes" took place at a checkpoint near al-Malhab military barracks.303
Later, it was reported that government tanks moved into Faisal street, the main thoroughfare running the length of the Christian districts of al-Jadide and Qadime, forcing the rebels to make a tactical retreat back into the Kurdish Ashrafiyya district. The tanks positioned themselves at Ashrafiyeh district the next day, leading some to fear the possibility of the district being shelled, although the tanks did not open fire.304 However, it was reported by Kurdish activists that army Howitzers shelled Ashrafiyya, leaving 15 people dead including 8 Kurds. Two journalists were among the 15 wounded in the attack. Kurdish activists also accused the Syrian Government of shelling Kurdish buses that were coming from Erfin to Aleppo earlier in the month, causing 15 deaths and 19 injuries.305
On 26 October, the Syrian authorities accused rebels of breaking the truce that was declared on the same day with beginning of the Eid al-Adha. SANA said that the rebels opened fire at the Army in several places while the Army responded with fire as well inflicting "heavy losses" upon the rebels.306 Mid-day, rebels tried to overrun a checkpoint near the Mohasab army base in the northeast Seryan district. Meanwhile, AFP reported that the Syrian army was guarding the entrance to the Old City.307 It was also reported that government troops had pushed back the rebels from the Armenian area of Al-Zukur.308
Rebels clashed with Kurdish militias that tried to stop them entering the Sheikh Maqsud neighourhood. 19 rebels and 5 Kurdish fighters were killed.865 One Kurdish leader said that they had "a gentlemen's agreement" with the rebels that they would not enter Kurdish areas and that the rebels had violated it when they entered Ashrafiyeh.309 According to another report, by activists who organised a Kurdish protest at a PYD militant checkpoint between the Kurdish areas of Ashrafiyeh and al-Sheikh Maqsoud, rebel fighters opened fire on the protesters, leaving eight dead and five wounded. Overall, the PYD stated that 10 Kurds were killed during the clashes, including the three fighters.8 SOHR put the Kurdish toll at 11, for a total of 30 dead, when including the 19 rebels. 200 people were kidnapped or captured as a result of the fighting. The PYD captured 20 rebel fighters, while the rebels detained 180 Kurds, civilians and fighters.310 SOHR said that the PYD was still in control of the Ashrafiyeh neighbourhood. A PYD statement published after the fighting blamed both the Syrian army and the FSA for the violence. "We have chosen to remain neutral, and we will not take sides in a war that will only bring suffering and destruction to our country," the statement said.311 The rebels said that the clashes started after their forces attacked a security compound in Ashrafieh, which was defended by both PKK fighters and government troops.312 A new report, several days later, put the combatant death toll from the clashes at 30 rebels and 15 PYD fighters.313
On 27 October, SANA said that the rebels attacked the water pumping station in Sleiman al-Halabi neighbourhood cutting water from the western part of the city.314 Rebels have also been accused of kidnapping Lebanese TV journalist Fidaa Itani because his coverage was considered "not suitable" for "the Syrian revolution and revolutionaries".315 SOHR said clashes are taking place between the Syrian army and rebel fighters that attacked the al-Leirmoun military checkpoint. Clashes are still ongoing in the al-Sayid A'li neighborhood. The neighborhoods of al-Sakhour and al-Sha'ar are subject to bombardment.58 Rebels released the 120 Kurds that had been kidnapped during recent fighting,58 although one died shortly after his release due to injuries sustained after being tortured by the rebels.316
On 30 October, SANA said that the Syrian army had repelled several rebels' attacks at the military checkpoints and in four neighbourhoods, including the Bustan al-Qasr.317 Rebels fanning out West of Aleppo were besiging the Zahra air intelligence base and came under fire from the Ramoussa artillery base which they assaulted from the south, a rebel spokesperson claimed the Zahra and Ramoussa bases are crucial for the regimes defenses in the city given their lack of manpower in Aleppo.318
In a new round of clashes in the Kurdish areas, rebels opened fire on Kurdish protesters killing three of them.319
Lebanese journalist Fidaa Itani has been freed by the rebels and is now in Turkey.320 The battle for the Zahra air intelligence base is complicated, for both sides, by the possible presence of civilian prisoners in the facility.321
On 1 November, al-Sukari was reported by SOHR as being shelled, with clashes reported between the two sides in Zahraa, Aziziye and Jmayle.322 A bakery was bombed in Aleppo's town of Atareb killing at least 12 people. It is important to Aleppo and its environs because this bakery delivers bread to not only Aleppo but also 40 towns near the city. The government has also bombed three other bakeries in and around Aleppo at Kafar Hamra, Ramoon, Qadi Askar. These bakeries combined were responsible for most of the bread distribution Aleppo city and its outskirts.323
On 2 November, SOHR reported the execution of Shah Ali Abdu, also known as Nujin Derik, the Kurdish militia leader for Aleppo, who they previously captured while she was on a mission to return the bodies of rebel fighters that were killed during the clashes between the FSA and the Kurdish militia.324 She was in command of a unit responsible for protecting the Kurdish districts of Ashrafiyeh and Sheikh Maqsud of Aleppo.325 The rumor later proved to be false326 SANA said that the Syrian army had killed number of rebels and carried out a series of operations in several neighbourhoods, including the Bab al-Hadid.327
On 5 November, clashes have occurred at a roundabout in Zahraa district, near the northwest entrance to the city, and on the road to the Aleppo airport, in the southeast of the city. In Zahraa a fire also started in a building close to air force intelligence branch.328 SANA said the Syrian army clashed with rebel fighters at the al-Lermon circle and near the Zaki al-Arsouzi school inflicting "heavy losses" upon the rebels.329 The Syrian Arab Red Crescent reported that a fire had burnt down its main warehouse in Aleppo destroying supplies such as blankets, medicine and food needed for the upcoming winter.330 Clashes have been reported near the Aleppo International Airport.331
On 11 November, clashes between rebel and government forces were reported in the neighborhoods of Zahraa, Liramun and the Old City involving government tanks firing at rebel positions. The rebel areas of Shaar, Sukari and Halab al-Jadida of the city were attacked by the government forces with mortar rounds according to the SOHR.332full citation needed SANA claimed that the Syrian army took Al-Sheikh Saeed Area from rebels.333 During the day, the Syiran Army had pounded rebel positions in the northern part of the city.334 The Kurdish militant leader Nujin Derik has been reported alive and well.335 Further clashes have been reported near the Air Force Intelligence HQ and the Bustan Al-Qasr district.336 Rebels began using 'barrel bombs' the same type as those dropped on rebel held areas by the Syrian Air Force in an attack on an army position in Karem Jabal district. They were rolled through the sewers underneath the guard post before being detonated.337
On 14 November, SANA said that clashes continued in al-Layramon where the Syrian Army killed "tens" of rebels. SANA said other clashes occurred in al-Sha'ar and al-Sukkari neighbourhoods.338
On 15 November, rebels captured the Avto-machine Building, fighting is also occurring around the perimeter of the Traffic Branch.339
On 16 November, fierce clashes and bombardments took place in the Liramun neighbourhood, with two rebels killed.340 Clashes have also occurred in the Itha’a district, near the Syrian French Hospital and the Military Hospital in Shahbaa neighborhood.341
On 17 November, a car bomb exploded in Liramun. The Syrian Army and the rebels continue to fight in the north-western part of the city.342 Rebels attacked the agricultural school in Aleppo that is used as an army barracks, and also clashed with the 46th Regiment of the 15th Division.343 A shell landed on a bus in Al-Haydariya neighbourhood.344
On 18 November, rebels stormed the home base of the 46th Regiment in nearby Urum al-Sughra, securing the base the following day in a key strategic victory following a two-month siege. The fall of Base 46 has further isolated government troops fighting in Aleppo as well as in Idlib Province while simultaneously providing the rebels with secure supply routes from the Turkish border and much-needed ammunition and heavy weaponry. The nearby army base at Sheikh Suleiman remained in government hands, though rebel forces had stepped up their attacks on it in the aftermath of Base 46's capture.
On 22 November, a building next to a major Aleppo hospital was targeted by an airstrike that killed at least 15 people according to the SOHR, including at least 11 rebels, a doctor and three children. The Dar al-Shifa hospital was a private clinic before it was turned into a field hospital by opposition forces. It has been targeted at least six times in recent months, mainly affecting the upper floors of the seven story high building. Only 400-500 yards from the front line it is in a heavily shelled area and one of the few remaining medical clinics for residents in Aleppo.345
On 24 November, SOHR said that clashes broke out between the rebels and the Syrian army at the Air Force Intelligence building near Shekhan square and Bani Zid neighbourhood.346 Clashes also took place near the army school of infantry.347
On 26 November, clashes were reported in the Suliman Halabi neighbour and the Sakhour Roundabout.348 Rebels also now claim to control most of the roads to Aleppo, leaving the Damascus-Aleppo highway as the only supply route to government forces in the city.349350
On 28 November, the situation in the city's centre was calm with shootings and explosions being heard in the Armenian New Village neighbourhood.353
On 29 November, the clashes between the Syrian Army and the rebels broke out in Bustan al-Basha neighbourhood.354
It was reported in December that the Bustan al-Basha neighbourhood had been shelled, while the clashes were ongoing on the road of Aleppo airport.355 On 3 December, clashes were also reported in Midan and the nearby Suleiman al-Halabi districts, while government forces shelled several villages near the Ground Forces Academy. Activists reported that five bodies had been found in al-Soufayra.356 However, fierce combat soon broke out within Bustan al-Basha district, held by the Islamist al-Nusra Front and Ahrar al-Sham groups, according to a military source. The Syrian Army advanced from Midan, taking control of the main avenue and reaching Zahi Hospital in Halak neighbourhood. Islamists continued to hold the side streets of the district, and fighting was ongoing.357
Sheikh Suleiman base was overrun by opposition forces on 10 December. A hundred Syrian Army soldiers who were left inside the base retreated to the scientific building wearing gas masks.359 Al-Nusra Front led the attack with only one FSA group taking part, one FSA commander said.360 Many of the fighters were from Central Asia with the rebel commander coming from Uzbekistan.361
On 10 December, the SOHR said that the rebel-held Sakhur district in the east came under shelling overnight.362
On 15 December, Colonel Yusef al-Jader, a defected army officer and top rebel commander for the Tawhid Brigade, was killed in action during an assault on the military academy located near Muslimiyeh, just north of Aleppo. Al-Jader, also known as Abu Furat, was said to be suspicious of the growing jihadist presence in the war and sought to "keep Jabhat al-Nusra at bay".363 SOHR reported that rebels had captured large parts of academy, while elite Republican Guard troops were deployed by helicopter into the base in an effort to counterattack.364 Opposition forces were reportedly able to eventually take control of the entire academy,365 a campus of around 3 square kilometres (1.2 sq mi).365 At least 24 rebels and 20 government soldiers were killed in the fighting.366 The remaining government troops withdrew from the base and regrouped near the prison at Muslimiyeh and the al-Kindi Hospital in the Palestinian refugee neighbourhood of Handarat, which had been recaptured from the rebels on 14 December. However, they remained encircled by opposition forces.367
Fighting in Aleppo has seen bread rise from $0.35 (USD) to $3 for a bag of 8 loaves.368 On 16 December, it was reported that al-Tawheed Brigade fighters took control of Hanano Barracks, which includes an army base, a recruiting center and a military school.369
Beginning in late 2012, fighting intensified around airports in and around Aleppo. The al-Nusra Front unilaterally declared a no-fly zone over Aleppo in December and threatened to shoot down commercial aircraft, alleging that the government was using civilian aircraft to transport loyalist troops and miltiary supplies.370 After multiple attacks on the Aleppo International Airport, all flights in and out were suspended on 1 January 2013.371372 Rebels attacked loyalist troops at the perimeter of Aleppo International Airport, besieging the nearby military Brigade 80 in an attempt to push through to the airport itself.373 By mid-February at least 150 people had died in fighting around Aleppo's airport.374
Rebel troops also attacked Menagh air base to the north of Aleppo. On 30 December government planes bombed rebel positions around it after the rebels entered the perimeter. It was confirmed on 14 January that rebels had totally surrounded the base.375 Rebel troops stormed the Menagh air base on 9 February, prompting retaliatory government airstrikes on rebels inside.376 On 11 February, rebels stormed and took control of the Jirah airbase, killing or capturing 40 soldiers. It was reported that rebels were in control of some operational Czech-built L-39 jets.377
The rebel offensive on the Old City of Aleppo continued in early 2013. On 12 January, SANA claimed that army units have secured the areas surrounding the historic Umayyad Mosque, the Citadel, and the Justice Palace near the Old City.378 However, by late February rebels had re-captured the mosque after days of heavy fighting, as government forces retreated to nearby buildings.379 Clashes continued afterward around the mosque.380
On 15 January twin blasts occurred in University of Aleppo during the first day of mid-term exams, killing at least 87 381382 and wounding more than 150 people, among them students and civilians. The University dormitories are used by people, who fled from combat neighbourhoods, as a shelter. Activists blamed government warplanes while the government blamed "terrorists".383384 The Syrian government representative to the UN stated that 162 had been wounded.385 In the wake of the bombing the Russian consulate in Aleppo has been temporary closed.386
Belgian-born French journalist Yves Debay was killed during fighting on 18 January.387 Syrian State Media reported that rebels fired rockets at a building in the government controlled Muhafaza Sakaniya neighbourhood, a claim which rebels denied.388
On 22 February rebels alleged that three "Scud-type missiles" landed in the Hamra, Tariq al Bab, and Hanano neighbourhoods of Aleppo with 29 confirmed dead and 150 wounded.389390 The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) later updated the toll, alleging that the Scud missile strikes left 58 dead, including 35 children.391
On 29 January, the bodies of approximately 110 men and boys, most with bound hands and shot in the head were found on the banks of the Queiq River in the western district of Bustan al-Qasr, controlled by rebels. The victims were believed to have been detained, executed, and dumped by government forces into the river over a period of several weeks. The bodies floated downstream from a government held portion of the river into a rebel held portion in the Bustan al-Qasr district. The bodies only became apparent when the winter high waters resided in late January. In February, a grate was placed over the river in rebel held territory to help catch other bodies floating down. Between February and mid-March, more than 80 additional bodies were dragged from the river. An average of several bodies every day.392 The continual appearance of these bodies has led the Queiq River to be referred to as "The River of Martyrs" by locals.393394
On 31 January, government warplanes bombed the Kurdish neighbourhood of Ashrafiyeh, controlled by the Popular Protection Units (YPG), killing at least twenty civilians and injuring 40.395 The neighbouring Kurdish neighbourhood of Sheikh Maqsoud was also reportedly shelled. Several days prior, on 28 January, a government tank reportedly fired a shell into the Kurdish sector of the city, killing one child and wounding two women.396
In early January, rebels begin to attack and place under siege the strategic Police Academy in Khan al-Assal on the Western outskirts of Aleppo, which was being used by the government to shell nearby areas.397 On February 24, rebels used captured tanks to breach the walls and storm the Police Academy. Rebel took control of several buildings within the academy, however fierce clashes reportedly continued after the academy was stormed.398 The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) stated on March 3 that 120 soldiers and 80 rebels were killed in the previous week of fighting for this location.399 On March 4, the rebels fully took over the police academy. It is reported by rebels and activists that about 45 of the government soldiers were killed, possibly executed, by rebels after they stormed the academy.400
On 2 February, residents of the Sheikh Saeed district confirmed that rebels had fully taken control of the district after the Syrian Army withdrew, allowing the rebels to secure a key route to Aleppo International Airport.401 Sheikh Said is the last land route between Aleppo and Nayrab airport.402 Many of the neighbourhood's residents, who were largely loyal to the government, fled when the army retreated.403
On 1 March, government forces retook the village of Tel Shghaib, located southeast of Aleppo. The following day, loyalist forces seized a road to the besieged airport, creating a new supply route for government forces advancing from Hama province.404
On 15 March, rebels seized control of an ammunition factory complex and munitions depots in the town of Khan Tuman, southwest of Aleppo. The complex had been used to supply the Syrian army with munitions to regularly shell rebel positions in the surrounding area.405
Rumors emerged that gas was fired into Khan al-Assal on 19 March, southwest of Aleppo, was a chemical weapon. If true, it would be the first use of chemical weapons in the Syrian Civil War. The gas used was described as having a chlorine-like smell. Both the government and rebels claim that a missile or rocket was used to deliver the agent. The Syrian Information Minister blamed the rebels for the attack, while the rebels blamed the government.406 British scientists at Porton Down later suggested that the gas was not a chemical weapon, but instead "super-strength tear gas".407
On the night of 29 March, the opposition Aleppo Media Center claimed that rebel forces had captured the whole Sheik Maqsoud district, in the north of the city, which was previously held by both government and Kurdish forces. However, SOHR stated that rebel forces in fact managed to advance into the district, capturing only the eastern part of the neighborhood. SOHR also reported that heavy fighting was still ongoing in Sheik Maqsoud. It was also confirmed that, during their advance, rebels captured the top pro-government Sunni cleric in the district, Hassan Seifeddine, and killed him. The Pro-government Al-Ikhbariya TV and SANA state news stated he was beheaded and his head was placed on the minaret of the Al-Hassan Mosque. However, the reports of his mutilation could not be confirmed,408 What was confirmed by SOHR is that his body had been dragged and paraded in the neighborhood.409
On 31 March, government troops started a counter-attack, in an attempt to re-take territory lost in Sheik Maqsoud during the previous two days. Fighting was concentrated by the Awarded bridge and in the area between eastern Sheikh Maqsoud and the Bustan al-Basha neighborhood.410 Since the rebel attack on the district started, 43 people had been killed, including 15 civilians, 19 government soldiers and militiamen and 9 rebels.411
It was claimed by YPG fighters in Sheik Maqsoud that following a long discussion within the group, the (mostly Kurdish) YPG decided to end their neutrality in Aleppo and switch to rebel forces, allowing and cooperating with the FSA in their advance through the district where several pro-government militias and intelligence officers were located.412 However, a day later, a YPG political representative denied the claim and stated that the Kurds had not aligned themselves with the Arab rebels, instead that Kurdish forces engaged in conflict with government troops after the Army attempted to reach Arab parts of the district, which had been captured by the opposition forces, via the Kurdish areas.413
According to the YPG, as a result of these clashes, which also included artillery shelling of the district, 15 Syrian soldiers and 1 YPG fighter, Zekeriya Xelîl, who was also member of the YPG military council, were killed.414
On 2 April, clashes erupted in the strategic village of Aziza, on the southern outskirts of Aleppo, from which rebels were launching attacks against the Aleppo international airport and the military air base next to it.415 By 6 April, the military had captured the village, pushing out the rebels to the outskirts where fighting continued. Around 35 people were killed in the fighting, including at least 18 civilians and 5 rebels.416417418 The capture of the village was seen as a strategic victory for the military because it would allow the Army to protect its supply convoys traveling the highway to its bases at the airport and have a strategic spot from which they could shell rebel positions in the surrounding area.14
On 8 April, SOHR reported rebel reinforcements arrived to Aziza and clashed with the Syrian army.419
The same day that the Army attack on Aziza started, rebels launched an assault on the al-Kindi hospital at the northern entrance to the city. The hospital had been under military control since December 2012. By mid-April, fighting for the hospital was still ongoing after the rebels repeatedly failed to capture it, with parts of the hospital destroyed in the clashes. 80 government soldiers and 65 rebels were killed by that point in the battle.420
On 13 April nerve gas was reported as being used in the majority Kurdish Sheikh Maqsood area of Aleppo. An anonymous doctor reported that the attack had the signs of nerve gas leaving three dead and a dozen wounded. 1,500 doses of atropine were used with a further 2,000 being sent in by aid agencies. Atropine is a recognised antidote to nerve gases.421
On 15 April, rebels had reportedly gained full control of the northern entrance to Aleppo, as well as a factory and a weapons storage facility.422
On 16 April the first truce in Aleppo was declared. The temporary truce allowed Red Crescent workers to remove 31 decomposing bodies killed during months of fighting in the poor al-Sakhour district located in northern Aleppo. Three of the dead were found with tied hands and four were badly burnt.423424
On 22 April two Syrian Christian Orthodox Bishops were kidnapped on their return to Aleppo after completing humanitarian work. State media is blaming the rebels while the rebels state that "all probabilities are open."425
On April 23, rebels took control of a key position in the strategic Mennagh Military airbase on the outskirts of Aleppo, allowing them to enter the airbase after months of besieging it.426
On April 24, the 11th century minaret of the rebel-held Great Mosque of Aleppo was destroyed during clashes between rebels and the Syrian Army.426427428429430431432 Rebels claim that the Syrian army destroyed the minaret with tank fire to prevent it becoming a sniper position, while the government claims that it was destroyed by the rebel Al-Nusra Front.433
On 4 May, the Siege of Menagh Air Base continued and there were reports that rebels had made further advances into the base. It was claimed that rebels had killed the base commander in clashes, and also seized the second military detachment of the base.434435 Rebels claimed that a group of pilots defected and assassinated the base's commanding officer. The defected pilots told rebels that around 200 soldiers remained in the base, garrisoned in the headquarters building supported by a handful of tanks. Many soldiers resorted to sleeping under tanks, fearing a rebel assault.436
On 9 May, it was reported that, although they managed to capture parts of the Mannagh Military airport, rebel forces were forced to retreat from the air base due to heavy air strikes.437 Clashes took place by the Malki village checkpoint, near the Aleppo civilian airport, reports of regime losses.438
On 10 May, SOHR reported that rebel fighters managed to cut off the strategic road to Halab al-Jadida, that was the main supply line for the Syrian army between Hama and Aleppo. This has yet to be confirmed by independent sources.439
On 15 May, rebel forces assaulted the main prison in central Aleppo where some 4,000 inmates are being held. These include both common and political prisoners. The attack was initiated by twin car bombs at the entrance to the prison. Rebels were able to secure one compound which housed government forces, however the attack became bogged down due to the intervention of Syrian tanks and Air Force. No prisoners were freed.440441
On 16 May, rebels were forced to retreat from the prison when soldiers began throwing inmates bodies out of the windows.442 It was reported that rebel fighters took control of a building inside the prison after blowing up the main gate.443 Rebel fighters continued to hit the facility with rockets late into the night.444
In early May clashes started between rebel groups Ghuraba al-Sham and groups operating under Judicial Committee alliance. The later accused Ghuraba al-Sham, which is in alliance with Jabhat al-Nusra, of going rogue and looting of factories. According to various rebel report Jabhat al-Nusra force in the Aleppo started weakening after its announcement in which Nusra leader al-Jolani pledged loyalty to Al-Queda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri. While before announcements rebel fighters of various brigades were leaving for Jabhat al-Nusra, after in one day about 120 defected back to al-Tawheed brigade among others. Several rebel officials also commented on their disappearance from much of Aleppo.445446
Rebel forces have expanded out to the country side south of Aleppo, and now control sections of the M4 and M5 highway, effectively blocking any new ground reinforcements for the Syrian Army. Before the end of 2012, the Syrian army in Aleppo was receiving sporadic supplies and ammo replenishment by Air or dangerous back roads.447 The fall of Base 46, a large complex in the area which reinforced and supplied regime troops has been seen by experts as “a tactical turning point that may lead to a strategic shift" in the battle for Aleppo.448 In a recent intelligence report, Stratfor described the strategic position of regime forces in Aleppo as "dire", with the Free Syrian Army having them "essentially surrounded".449
On 26 November 2012 rebels captured Tishrin Dam, further isolating regime forces in Aleppo with only one uncovered route into Aleppo remaining.450 By late January 2013 Deputy Prime Minister Qadri Jamil admitted that all supply routes to Aleppo had been cut off by opposition forces, comparing the situation to the Siege of Leningrad.12 By late February 2013, the Aleppo international airport was almost totally surrounded by rebel forces.451452453 Later, the Syrian army regained control of the strategic Tel Sheigeb town allowing them to approach the airport.454455
- Syria - President Bashar al-Assad said on the occasion of the 67th anniversary of the army in August that "the army is engaged in a crucial and heroic battle... on which the destiny of the nation and its people rests..."456
- Armenia - Armenia is sending humanitarian aid to Aleppo since mid-October.457 The aid is distributed by the Red Crescent of Aleppo, the Armenian National Prelacy in Aleppo, Aleppo Emergency unit and the Embassy of the Republic of Armenia to Syria. Governor of the Aleppo Governorate, Hilal Hial, said that "the Syrian people highly appreciate this humanitarian gesture of the Armenian people, underling the strong Syrian-Armenian cooperation."458
- France - The French Foreign Ministry said that "With the build-up of heavy weapons around Aleppo, Assad is preparing to carry out a fresh slaughter of his own people", while Italy and the UN peacekeeping chief also accused the government of preparing to massacre civilians.459
- Iran - As the battle of Aleppo started, Saeed Jalili, the head of Iran's Supreme National Security Council, met with Assad in Damascus and vowed that Iran would help Assad to confront "attempts at blatant foreign interference" in Syria's internal affairs, declaring that "Iran will not allow the axis of resistance, of which it considers Syria to be an essential part, to be broken in any way."460
- Russia -Russian Foreign Ministry issued an official statement condemning the bombing that occurred on 9 September 2012 in which more than 30 people were killed. "We firmly condemn the terrorist acts which claim the lives of innocent people", stated the Ministry on 11 September. The Foreign Ministry also called the foreign powers to pressure the armed opposition to halt launching "terrorist attacks".461 The Russian Consulate General in Aleppo "suspended operations" on January 16, 2013.462
- Turkey - Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan urged international action, saying it was not possible "to remain a spectator" to the government offensive on Aleppo.463 Reuters reported that Turkey had set up a base with allies Saudi Arabia and Qatar for the purpose of directing military and communications aid to the Free Syrian Army from the city of Adana. Reuters also quoted a Doha-based source which stated that Turkey, Qatar and Saudi Arabia were providing weapons and training to the rebel fighters.464
- United Kingdom - William Hague, the British Foreign Minister, also said that "the world must speak out to avert a massacre in Aleppo."465
- United States - The United States said it feared a new massacre in Aleppo by the government: "This is the concern: that we will see a massacre in Aleppo and that's what the regime appears to be lining up for."466 The United States condemned "in the strongest possible terms" the government SCUD missile strikes on Aleppo in late February, saying that they were "the latest demonstrations of the Syrian regime's ruthlessness and its lack of compassion for the Syrian people it claims to represent".467
- "Kurdish Militias Help Out Syrian Rebels in Aleppo". Rudaw.net. 2012-08-13. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Deadly Attack Claims Many Lives in Aleppo's Kurdish Sector". Rudaw.net. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Battle rages in Aleppo as Russia urges Syria unity". Daily Star. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Clashes, shelling in Aleppo and Damascus: activists". Daily Star. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Shells rock rebel bastions in Damascus". Herald Sun. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syrian rebels’ defeat in battle for Aleppo a ‘disaster’ for Turkey, Qatar," WorldTribune.com (2 November 2012). Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- Peel, Michael (2012-09-30). "Historic souk burns in battle for Aleppo". Ft.com. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syrian rebels and Kurdish militiamen clash in Aleppo". Guardian. 2012-10-27. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Surviving in Aleppo
- "Syria activists: Rebel advance near Aleppo airport". AFP. 2012-01-02. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
- "Syrian activists say rebels are advancing near Aleppo airport". Associated Press. 2012-01-02. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
- "Aleppo like Leningrad under siege - Syrian Dep. PM". RIA. 2012-01-29. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- Assad forces take Aleppo village, reopening supply
- Syrian Regime Launches Counteroffensive On Rebels
- Aleppo province
- "Rebels fighting against al-Assad rule fragmented, disorganized in Syria". Hürriyet Daily News. 2 September 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- "INSIGHT-Syria rebels see future fight with foreign radicals". Reuters. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Many sources are connecting them to al-Qaeda: Waver, Matthew; Whitaker, Brian (1 August 2012). "Syria crisis: rebels 'execute shabiha' in Aleppo". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 August 2012.; Bar'el, Zvi (5 August 2012). "The battle in Aleppo is the battle for Syria". Haaretz. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- Kat Iskander (1 August 2012). "Syria rebels to target intel, as Assad hails army". The Daily Star. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- Anita McNaught (1 August 2012). "Syrian MP killed publicly by FSA firing squad". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Militias form as Aleppo clashes stalemate". UPI. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- "Inside Syria: Aleppo's Christians arm against Islamists". GlobalPost. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Sherlock, Ruth; Malouf, Carol (13 September 2012). "Christians take up arms in Aleppo". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
- "Syrian forces 'step up attacks on Aleppo'". The Australian. Australian Associated Press. 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Van Wilgenburg, Wladimir (13 August 2012). "Kurdish Militias Help Out Syrian Rebels in Aleppo". Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Solomon, Erica; Karouny, Mariam; Heavens, Andrew (28 September 2012). "Syria rebels struggle to advance in Aleppo offensive". Reuters. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- AFP (15 December 2012). "Key rebel commander killed in Syria's Aleppo". Syria (NOW). Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- "Syrian Turkmen fighting for better future". TimeTurk. 24 August 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- Bedard, Marie-Eve (7 December 2012). "Free Syrian Army an uneasy mix of religious extremes". CBC News. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
- Spencer, Richard (16 August 2012). "British convert to Islam vows to fight to the death on Syrian rebel front line". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- Kim Sengupta (2012-07-31). "The people who live on Aleppo's fiercest frontline have fled. Only the fighters remain". Independent.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- الشهيد باذن الله البطل المجاهد قتيبة الكردي ابوعمار - الجيش السوري الحر Free Syrian Army
- http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2012/09/20129915724124835.html. Syrian strikes on Aleppo 'kill dozens'. Retireved 2013-01-03.
- http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/syria1211webwcover_0.pdf. HRW Report. Retrieved 2012-12-30.
- Ivan Watson (2012-07-26). "Battles for key cities of Aleppo, Damascus heat up in Syrian civil war". CNN. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Emboldened Syrian rebels push into Aleppo". USA Today.
- Clarissa Ward (26 July 2012). "Syria rebel leader says his men are ready to take on Assad's forces in fight for Aleppo". CBS News. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "The Battle for Aleppo: rebels, regime, refugees inside Syria". Alaska Dispatch. 28 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Battered Syrian Rebels Cede Aleppo's Salaheddin District to Assad Military". Thedailybeast.com. 2012-08-10. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syria rebels withdraw totally from Aleppo district". Arab News. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Syria crisis: Rebels lose key district of Aleppo". BBC. 2012-08-09. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Syrian rebels lose key Aleppo district". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Video shows 20 Syrian soldiers believed executed". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Outsiders Bogged Down in Protracted Battle for Aleppo
- http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/syria/army-orbat.htm. Global Firepower order of battle. Retrieved 2012-12-30.
- "Syria's Assad tours Aleppo, orders more troops into battle," Reuters (2 October 2012). Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- "Rebels hit army HQ in Aleppo". Reuters. 2012-09-08. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Syrian Airline Cancels Flight to Aleppo
- Martin Chulov. "Aleppo rebels wait anxiously for Bashar al-Assad's elite to attack". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Ignatius, David (30 November 2012). "Al-Qaeda affiliate playing larger role in Syria rebellion". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
- Spencer, Richard (16 August 2012). "British convert to Islam vows to fight to the death on Syrian rebel front line". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- "Clinton visits Turkey for Syria talks as army pounds rebels in Aleppo". Al Arabiya. 2012-08-05. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syrian army starts "purging" Aleppo from "Jihadists", minister pledges to eradicate terrorism". newstrackindia.com. Asian News International. 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Richard Galpin (2012-08-05). "Syria conflict: Troops 'mass for Aleppo assault'". BBC. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syria army to retake Aleppo within 10 days". HaaveruOnline. 4 September 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Syria: Battle for Aleppo - live updates". The Guardian. 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Syrian Observatory for Human Rights". Facebook. Retrieved 9 January 2013.
- Syrian Observatory for Human Rights
- 2,000 killed (19 July-2 September),dead link 100 killed (20 September), 20 killed (22 September), 10 killed (24 September), 100 killed (28 September), 22 killed (29 September), 100 killed (13 October), 230 killed (19 November), total of 2,580+ reported killed
- 100 kills (23 novembre-6january 2013) vdc-sy.org
- Ivan Waston and Raja Razek (1 August 2012). "Syrian rebels hold pro-government prisoners in former school". CNN. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Fighting intensifies in Syria's largest city". CNN. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Kurdish forces kill six Syrian soldiers in Aleppo". Kurdistan News Agency. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Syria rebels, Kurdish militia discuss cease-fire". CNN. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- 6249 Martyrs, may God's mercy be on them all
- "The extent of the suffering". Pomegranate (Economist). 2 April 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- Luke Harding and Martin Chulov (22 July 2012). "Syrian rebels fight Assad troops in Aleppo". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- McElroy, Damien (28 July 2012). "Badly armed rebels face tanks as Syria's mother of all battles begins". The Telegraph.
- Hermant, Norman (28 July 2012). "Fears about the 'mother of all battles' for Aleppo". ABC.
- "Syria: What motivates an Assad supporter?". Global Post. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
- Martin Chulov (2012-08-04). "War for Aleppo: battle rages in city that will determine fate of Syria". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Matthew Weaver and Brian Whitaker. "Syria crisis: Assad's new offensive in Aleppo - live updates". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Chulov, Martin (21 August 2012). "Syrian rebels fight on for Aleppo despite local wariness". Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- "Aleppo residents caught in crossfire losing faith in rebels". Daily Star. 2012-09-27. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Kennedy, Elizabeth (19 November 2012). "Syrian Islamists Reject Western-Backed Opposition". ABC News. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Atassi, Basma (20 November 2012). "Aleppo rebels retract rejection of coalition". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
- Syrian rebels sidetracked by scramble for spoils of war | World news | The Guardian
- "Jihadists join Aleppo fight, eye Islamic state, surgeon says". 8 September 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- "Bashar al-Assad Lost The Support of Aleppo’s Wealthy When the Shelling Started". The Daily Beast. 2012-09-01. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Assad's Aleppo backers abandon him, some shift support, cash to rebels in risky gamble". CBS News. 2012-08-23. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Assad's man directs battle for Aleppo". The Australian. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- Kat, Iskander (1 August 2012). "Syria rebels to target intel, as Assad hails army". Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Van Wilgenburg, Wladimir (8 August 2012). "Cold PKK-FSA Truce in Syria". Rudaw. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- "Fierce fighting in Syria's Aleppo:activists". The Daily Star. 20 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- ""For the first time we feel Aleppo has turned into a battle zone," a housewife in Aleppo says.". Al Jazeera. 21 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Zaid Sabah and Glen Carey (22 July 2012). "Syrian Rebels Battle for Aleppo After Seizing Border Posts". Bloomberg. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Rebels reportedly battle government forces near intelligence headquarters in Aleppo". Al Jazeera. 22 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "FSA says several districts of Aleppo "liberated"". Al Jazeera. 23 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Eight people killed in a prison mutiny in Syria's second city of Aleppo during the night, opposition says.". Al Jazeera. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Battle for Aleppo: Syrians react". BBC News. 23 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Syrian activist Tweets warning on what he says are FSA roadblocks". Al Jazeera. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Khaled Yacoub Oweis and Erika Solomon (24 July 2012). "Syria sends armored column to Aleppo, strikes from air". Reuters. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Syria crisis: US fears Aleppo 'massacre'". The Guardian. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Luke Harding and Ian Black (26 July 2012). "Syrian forces gather for Aleppo assault". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Aleppo in for major battle". The Himalayan Times. Agence France-Presse. 25 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Syrian army launches Aleppo counter-offensive, activists say". Now Lebanon. 28 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Syria rebels fend off Aleppo assault". Sky News. 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Kareem Fahim (27 July 2012). "Syrian forces reportedly kill 12 in Aleppo". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "'Tragedy brewing' as Syria launches Aleppo assault". News Limited. 29 July 2012.
- "'Tragedy brewing' as Syria launches Aleppo assault". news.com.au. 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Syrian troops bombard rebels in Aleppo". The Australian. Agence France-Presse. 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Paul Schemm (28 July 2012). "Syrian rebels survive regime onslaught in Aleppo". Yahoo. Associated Press. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Syria: Battle for Aleppo - live updates 15:21 BST". The Guardian. 29 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Syrian army overruns part of rebel bastion in Aleppo, source says". Nowlebanon. 30 July 2012. Retrieved 30 July 3012.
- Solomon, Erika. "Syrian army pounds Aleppo, rebels claim successes". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syrian rebels seize strategic checkpoint between Aleppo and Turkey, according to rebel officer". Al Jazeera. 30 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Rebels claim victory in Syria's al-Bab town". Al Jazeera. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Rebels use tanks to attack air base". The News. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Kim Sengupta (31 July 2012). "Ambushes and air strikes as Syrian regime fight rebels street-by-street to gain possession of Aleppo". The Independent. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Syrian forces blast rebel-held districts of Aleppo, according to activists". Al Jazeera. 30 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Matthew Weaver and Brian Whitaker. "Syria crisis: rebels 'execute shabiha' in Aleppo". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syria army reinforcements in place for Aleppo battle". NOWLebanon. 2012-08-05. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Matthew Weaver and Brian Whitaker. "Syria crisis: rows and more violence after Kofi Annan resigns - live updates". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "'Violence rages' in Syria after UN vote". Sbs.com.au. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Bomb hits Syria state TV building". Theaustralian.com.au. 2012-09-28. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Matthew Weaver. "Syria crisis: prime minister 'defects' - live updates". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Officials: Syria's prime minister leaves regime". CNN. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Matthew Weaver and Brian Whitaker (2012-08-07). "Syria crisis: Iranian hostages, Aleppo battle, and defections - live updates". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Terrorists Commit Massacre against Civilians in a Resort in Homs Countryside, Terrorists Killed in Several Areas". Syrian Arab News Agency. 7 August 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- "War spreads to new parts of Aleppo". Skynews.com.au. 2012-08-07. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Fighting Grows More Intense in Syria's Largest City". Post-gazette.com. 1969-12-31. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Shalchi, Hadeel Al. "Syrian forces encircle rebels in Aleppo stronghold". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Kim Sengupta (2012-08-10). "Special report: Hundreds of rebel fighters leave Aleppo after relentless shelling by regime forces". Independent. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Shalchi, Hadeel Al. "Syrian rebels carve paths through buildings to avoid snipers". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syrian army launches Aleppo ground offensive". English.al-akhbar.com. 2012-08-08. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syrian rebels need no-fly zone – opposition leader". Firstpost. 12 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syria army advances into rebel-held area". The News. 2012-08-13. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- Jonathan Marcus (2012-08-13). "Syria crisis: Rebels 'shoot down warplane'". BBC. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syrian forces pound Damascus, raid Old City". Ahram. 2012-08-13. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Aleppo rebels in counter-attack". Reuters. 2012-08-05. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Uproar as footage shows Syrian rebel atrocities". ABC. 2012-08-14. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Inside the Syrian Rebels' Fight For Aleppo". Spiegel. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Terrorists Killed in Aleppo, Damascus Countryside and Homs... Infiltration Attempt from Lebanon Foiled". Syran Arab News Agency. 17 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "Rebels struggle to break government siege of Homs". Al Jazeera. 2012-08-17. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Murphy, Brian (17 August 2012). "Syria: clashes near airport in contested Aleppo". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "Government, rebels battle near Aleppo airport: Syrian media". CBS News. 2012-08-17. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Terrorists Killed, Weapons Storehouses Destroyed...Border Infiltration Attemtps Foiled". Syrian Arab news agency. 2012-08-18. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- Hendawi, Hamza (21 August 2012). "Syria Crisis: Mika Yamamoto, Japanese Journalist, Killed In Aleppo, Regime Forces Kill Dozens Of Rebels". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Heavy fighting as rebels claim Aleppo gains". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Yacoub, Khaled (2012-08-22). "Syrian army batters parts of Damascus, 47 killed". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Assad's forces hammer Aleppo". The Age. 22 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- "Syria army recaptures Aleppo heart as fighting rages". Daily Star. 2012-08-23. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syria: Aleppo rebel chief says Christians will be protected". Ansamed.info. 2010-01-03. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Life on Syria's front line: taxi driving in Aleppo". Google. 2012-09-06. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "War of words on streets of Syria's Aleppo". Al Arabiya. 2012-09-08. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Sherlock, Ruth (2012-09-12). "Syria: Christians take up arms for first time". Telegraph. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Armed Forces Destroy 7 Cars Equipped with Machineguns, Kill Terrorists in Aleppo". SANA. 2012-08-25. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Large Number of Terrorists Killed in Aleppo, Damascus Countryside and Homs". Syrian Arab News Agency. 26 August 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- "Snipers versus tanks in Syria's Aleppo". Ahram. 2012-08-25. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syria forces open new front in Damascus to target key rebel areas: activists". Al Arabiya. 2012-08-27. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Terrorists Suffer Heavy Losses at the Hands of Armed Forces in Several Areas". Syrian Arab News Agency. 29 August 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- "Army Forces Carry Out Qualitative Operations against Terrorists in Several Areas". Syrian Arab News Agency. 30 August 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- "Terrorists Killed, DShK-equipped Cars Destroyed in Aleppo, Terrorists' Den Raided in Homs". Syrian Arab News Agency. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- "Syrian forces bombed people queuing for bread: HRW". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Human Rights Watch: Syria: Government Attacking Bread Lines". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Syrian fighters in Aleppo form ‘Revolutionary Transitional Council’". Al Arabiya. 2012-08-31. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Syrian Rebels Attack Aleppo Security Compounds". Voanews.com. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- John Irish. "Syrian rebels launch major assault in Aleppo region". The Star. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Carey, Glen. "Syrian Fighting Rages as Rebels Seek to Weaken Air Power". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Aleppo pounded from ground and air". Gulf Today. 2012-09-02. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Stench of death in Syria's second city". Kuwait Times. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Deadly Attack Claims Many Lives in Aleppo's Kurdish Sector
- "Killed in an instant: Moment a Syrian rebel checkpoint takes direct hit is captured in powerful photographs that show the cost of war". Daily Mail. 2012-09-09. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Kirkpatrick, David D. (2012-09-07). "Syrian Rebels Say They Freed 350 Prisoners, as Others Appeal for Unity". Damascus: Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Army deserters freed from underground cells". Oman Observer. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Rebel fighters prepare for battle in Aleppo". Khaleej Times. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
- "Fighting intensifies over Syria's largest city". Hosted2.ap.org. 2009-09-17. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Deadly Attack Claims Many Lives in Aleppo's Kurdish Sector
- Mroue, Bassem; Keller, Gereg (10 September 2012). "Syria Crisis: Aleppo Car Bomb Blast Kills At Least 30". Huffington Post. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Car bomb kills 27, wounds 64 in Aleppo". The Daily Star. 10 September 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- "Armed Forces Release 30 Kidnapped in Aleppo, Inflict Heavy Losses upon Terrorists in Several Provinces". 9 September 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- "Dozens of casualties in air raid on Aleppo - Syrian activists". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Syria conflict: Aleppo car bomb 'kills 17'". BBC. 10 September 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- "Syria: Blast Increases Death Toll in Aleppo". Prensa Latina. 10 September 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Scores reported dead in new Syria clashes". CNN. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Summary executions overshadow clashes in Aleppo". The Daily Star. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Defected Syrian general Tlass says French agents got him out". Al Arabiya. 2012-09-10. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syria's Aleppo pounded as civilian refuge 'targeted'". Ahram. 2012-09-11. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Armed Forces Inflict Heavy Losses upon Armed Terrorist Groups in Different Provinces". Syrian Arab News Agency. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Syria army, rebels clash near Aleppo airport". Bangkok Post. 12 September 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- "Terrorists Repelled and Killed, DShK-equipped Cars Destroyed in Several Areas, Yelda Citizens Return Home". Syrian Arab News Agency. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
- "Four killed in Aleppo as Syria fighting rages". Times of India. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
- "Jets pound Aleppo as fighters advance". Oman Observer. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Rebels advance in Aleppo". Middle East Online. 2012-09-13. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Fighting rages for control of Aleppo's Midan neighborhood". Daily Star. 2012-09-14. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Armed Forces Clear Areas in Aleppo City, Destroy DShK-equipped Cars, Kill Terrorists in Several Areas". Syrian Arab News Agency. 14 September 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- "Religious buildings in crossfire". Emirates 24/7. 2012-09-16. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Airstrikes target Aleppo ahead of Brahimi talks". Daily Star. 2012-09-15. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syrian Army Jets and Helicopters Batter Aleppo". Naharnet.com. 2012-09-14. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "37 killed in Syria clashes, shelling: NGO". Ahram. 2012-09-15. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Operations against Terrorists Continue, 26 DShK-Equipped Cars Destroyed, Tens of Terrorists Killed". Syrian Arab News Agency. 15 September 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- "Group of Most Wanted Terrorists Eliminated, Terrorists Killed, DShK Equipped Cars Destroyed, Infiltration Attempt Foiled". SANA. 2012-09-15. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Religious buildings caught in Aleppo crossfire". Al Arabiya. 2012-09-16. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Eight Civilians Martyred, 25 Others Injured in Explosive Device Blast in Daraa... Operations against Terrorists Continue". SANA. 2012-09-16. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Syrian army retakes flashpoint Aleppo district". NOWLebanon. 2012-09-17. Retrieved 2012-11-02.dead link
- "Terrorists Killed in Aleppo and Damascus Countryside...Infiltration Attempts Foiled in Homs". Syrian Arab News Agency. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Syria fighting rages". News.com.au. 2012-09-19. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Fresh clashes, shelling in Damascus and Aleppo: watchdog". ArabNews. 2012-09-16. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- C. J. Chivers (2012-09-19). "Syria's Dark Horses, With Lathes: Makeshift Arms Production in Aleppo Governorate, Part I". Aleppo: New York Times. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Abdelkader el-Hadji, Aleppo rebel leader: "We are stronger"". Euronews. 2012-09-19. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Syrian troops kill 100 "Afghani fighters" in Aleppo: SANA". Xinhua. 20 September 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "Regime says 100 Afghans killed in Aleppo". The Guardian. 20 September 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "100 Afghani Terrorists Killed in Aleppo, DShK-equipped Cars Destroyed in Aleppo and Homs". Syrian Arab News Agency. 20 September 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "Opposition: Dozens killed as Syrian warplanes hit gas station". CNN. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Paul Schemm (2012-09-20). "Rebels Unite in Fight for Syria's Largest City". Yahoo. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syria plans chemical war on own people". The Australian. 2012-09-28. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syria Tested Chemical Weapons Systems, Witnesses Say". Der Spiegel. 17 September 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- "Syria army, rebels clash in Aleppo". Khaleej Times. 21 September 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
- "Mass Grave of 25 Bodies for Kidnapped Citizens Found in al-Qadam Area in Damascus". Syrian Arab News Agency. 21 September 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
- "Forty-One DShK-equipped Cars, Terrorists' Hideouts and Centers Destroyed in Aleppo". Syrian Arab News Agency. 22 September 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- "Snipers sow panic in Aleppo as fighting rages". NOW Lebanon. 22 September 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2012.dead link
- "Syrian mortars fall across border in Turkish villages". CNN. 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- "Army Units Kill Large Number of Terrorists in Aleppo". Syrian Arab News Agency. 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- "Armed Forces Inflict Heavy Losses Upon Terrorists in Several Provinces". Syrian Arab News Agency. 24 September 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- "UN: 1.5 million Syrians in need of food aid". Boston Herald. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Syrian regime claims control of large Aleppo district". Khaleej Times. 25 September 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- "??". Syrian Arab News Agency. 25 September 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- "Rebels low on ammo debriefed at Aleppo HQ". France24.com. 2012-09-27. Retrieved 2012-11-02.dead link
- Karouny, Mariam. "Syria rebels say launch "decisive battle" in Aleppo". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Matthew Weaver and Brian Whitaker. "Syria crisis: rebels hail 'decisive' battle for Aleppo". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syrian army sends threat by text to mobile phones". Al Jazeera. 28 September 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
- Zeina Karam (2012-09-27). "Syria tells rebels on mobile phones: "Game over"". Yahoo. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Solomon, Erika. "Syria rebels struggle to advance in new Aleppo offensive". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Fierce clashes as Syrian rebels launch new offensive to take Aleppo". Fox News. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Terrorists Suffer Heavy Losses in Several Areas... Terrorists Fire RPGs on Two Mosques in Damascus Countryside". SANA. 2012-09-28. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "'All-out war' rages in Syria's Aleppo". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Death toll mounts as Syria rebels claim advances in Aleppo, but no breakthrough". Al Arabiya. 2012-09-28. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Fierce fighting reported in Syria's Aleppo". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Rebels struggle to wrest ground in Aleppo". Daily Star. 2012-09-29. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Matthew Weaver and Brian Whitaker (2012-09-28). "Syria crisis: fight for Aleppo". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Ancient souk burns as fighting rages in Syria". Al Jazeera. 29 September 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
- "Ancient souk burns as fighting rages in Syria's Aleppo". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Chasing Terrorist Groups Continues in Various Areas, Terrorists' Infiltration Attempt from Lebanon Thwarted". SANA. 2012-09-29. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- Solomon, Erika (2012-09-28). "Syria rebels struggle to advance in Aleppo offensive". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Syrian loyalists repel rebel attack on Aleppo". The Irish Times. 2012-09-29. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Syria conflict: Aleppo's souk burns as battles rage". BBC News. 2012-09-29. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Syrian army, rebels fight for control of Aleppo; marketplace burns". CNN. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Official Source: News about Destroying Helicopters at al-Nairab Airport Pitiful Attempt to Raise Terrorists' Morale". SANA. 2012-09-30. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Seventeen Citizens Martyred in Terrorists' Shelling on Village in Homs, Terrorists and Their Vehicles Targeted in Aleppo". SANA. 2012-09-30. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Al-Assad Visits Aleppo, Orders to ‘Crush’ Rebels". Turkish Weekly. 2012-10-03. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Solomon, Erika. "In Aleppo, Syrian rebels bogged down in sniper war". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- "Rebels low on ammo debriefed at Aleppo HQ 27 September 2012". Google. 2012-09-27. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Khoury, Jack (2012-10-02). "Syrian media raps Hamas leadership for abandoning Assad regime". Haaretz. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Militant group Al-Nusra claim suicide bombings in Aleppo". euronews. Retrieved 2012-10-08.dead link
- Barnard, Anne (2012-10-01). "Fighting and Chaos Spread Through Syrian City, as Services Vanish". Aleppo: New York Times. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Al-Assad visits Aleppo, orders to ‘crush’ rebels. Hurriyet Daily News. 3 October 2012.
- "Syria's Assad tours Aleppo, orders more troops into battle-paper". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Syria army steps up operations in Aleppo, Damascus". Hindu Businessline. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Syrian government troops appear to gain upper hand. China Daily USA. 3 October 2012.
- "Syria's Assad tours Aleppo, orders more troops into battle - paper". Reuters. 2012-10-02. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Sada el-Balad". El-balad.com. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Militant group Al-Nusra claim suicide bombings in Aleppo". Reuters. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
- "ABC News:Dozens killed in Aleppo bomb blasts". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syria 'suicide bombers' kill 34 and injure 120 in Aleppo". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Sources: Pro Al Qaeda Group Steps Up Suicide Bombings in Syria". CNN. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syria: Scores killed in suicide blasts in Aleppo". CNN. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Charbonneau, Louis (5 October 2012). "U.N. Security Council condemns "terrorist attacks" in Aleppo". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Car bombs kill 48 in Syria's Aleppo". Thenews.com. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- "Syrian forces pound Homs and Aleppo". Al Jazeera. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Laub, Karin (2012-10-05). "Syrian regime opens new urban warfare front". Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syrian rebels hold their position in Aleppo". YouTube. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Turkey returns fire 'after fresh Syria shelling'". BBC. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- "AFP: Fifty dead as Syria rebels take border town". Google. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- "Syrian rebels reportedly capture President Bashar Assad's cousin". Haaretz. 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Fierce clashes rage in Aleppo, Damascus". The News. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "'Saudi weapons' seen at Syria rebel base". BBC. 2012-10-08. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Worth, Robert F. (2012-10-06). "Citing U.S. Fears, Arab Allies Limit Syrian Rebel Aid". Syria, Saudi Arabia, Qatar: New York Times. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syrian rebels claim control of strategic town". Al Jazeera. 2012-10-04. Retrieved 2012-10-13.
- "Syria rejects truce as rebels intercept reinforcements". Google. 2012-10-10. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syria rebels braced for long haul in Aleppo". The News. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "106 soldiers killed in Syria as rebels go on attack". Times Live. 2012-10-12. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Aleppo: Treating trauma on the frontline". BBC. 2012-10-11. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syria rebels capture air defense base, fight to hold highway". Reuters. 12 October 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- "Syria: Rebels 'seize air defence base' near Aleppo". BBC. 2012-10-12. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Syria activists say rebels seize air defense base
- "Syria violence rocks Damascus and Aleppo". Al Jazeera. 13 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syria, Intelligence and Security". Espionageinfo.com. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
- "Syria warplane downed, clashes rage in mosque". Gulf Times. 2012-10-14. Retrieved 2012-11-02.dead link
- "Rebels claim downing of Syrian jet". CNN. 13 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syria conflict: Brahimi seeks Iran help to secure truce". BBC. 2012-10-15. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Historic mosque burned in ancient Syrian city". Yahoo. 2012-10-15. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Free Syrian Army Shoots Down MIG War Jet". Turkish Weekly. 2012-10-16. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Armed Forces Target Terrorists in Aleppo, Foil Terrorists' Infiltration Attempts from Lebanon". Syrian Arab News Agency. 21 October 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- "Car bombs kill 13 in Damascus' Old City and Aleppo". Herald Sun. 21 October 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- "Army Forces Kill Tens of terrorists, Confiscate Their Weapons and Destroy DSHK-Equipped Cars in Different Syrian areas". Syrian Arab News Agency. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- "Syria violence flares ahead of possible truce". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Russia says U.S. coordinates weapon deliveries to Syria rebels". Al Arabiya. 2012-10-25. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- Matthew Weaver and Brian Whitaker (2012-10-25). "Rebels said to make crucial gains in Aleppo". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Clashes continue in Armenian-populated district of Aleppo". News.am. 2009-06-13. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Surk, Barbara (2012-10-25). "Activists: Rebels make advances in Aleppo". Seattle Times. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Matthew Weaver and Brian Whitaker (2012-10-25). "Syria accepts ceasefire with conditions". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- "Syria regime agrees to holiday cease-fire amid fighting in Aleppo". Fox News. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Fielding, Abigail (2012-10-25). "Battle for Aleppo intensifies". Financial Times. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Terrorists Chased and Killed in different Syrian Provinces". Syrian Arab News Agency. 25 October 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- Macfarquhar, Neil (2012-10-25). "Syrian Military Declares Holiday Truce, but Will Respond to Rebel Attacks". Syria: The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syrian regime says it will honor 4-day holiday truce, as rebels gain ground in Aleppo". Fox News. Associated Press. 2012-10-26. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- Sebastian Usher (2012-10-25). "Syria army 'to observe ceasefire' over Eid al-Adha". BBC. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Spencer, Richard (2012-10-25). "Syria: Bashar al-Assad agrees to ceasefire, but rebels advance in Aleppo". Telegraph. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Skirmishes reported as holiday cease-fire begins in Syria". Washington Post. 26 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syria agrees to cease-fire, sort of". CNN. 26 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Hankir, Zahra (2012-10-26). "Syrian Troops Battle Insurgents as Cease-Fire Violated". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Matthew Weaver and Brian Whitaker (2012-10-26). "Syria conflict: Eid al-Adha ceasefire - live updates". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Thursday 25 October 2012 : Support Kurds in Syria". Supportkurds.org. 2012-10-26. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- Sabbagh, H. (26 October 2012). "Terrorist Set Off Two Car Bombs in Damascus and Daraa, Attack Citizens in Damascus Countryside, Violate Ceasefire in Aleppo". Syrian Arab News Agency. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- Kassargian, Sarkis (26 October 2012). "Eid brings little holiday joy to Aleppo". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
- "Syrian government army removes all rebels from Aleppo’s Armenian-populated district". News.am. 2009-06-13. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Syria activists report clashes despite cease-fire". Yahoo. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Fears of new front as Syria rebels clash with Kurds". Khaleejtimes.com. 2012-10-27. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Assir, Serene (27 October 2012). "Fears of new front as Syria rebels clash with Kurds". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
- Yacoub, Khaled (2012-10-28). "Syria airforce bombs cities, truce 'practically over'". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Fighting erupts between Syrian rebels and Kurds". Washington Post. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Said, H.; Sabbagh, H. (27 October 2012). "General Command of the Army and the Armed Forces: Terrorist Groups Continued Committing Breaches of Ceasefire on Saturday in Several Provinces". Syrian Arab News Agency. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
- "Syrian rebels ‘detain’ Lebanese reporter: TV". The Daily Star. 27 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Preliminary death toll for Monday 29/10/2012: More than 120 Syrians have been killed so far today". Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR). 2012-10-29. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
- "Terrorists Continue Attacks in Several Provinces, Violating Suspension of Military Operations for 4th Day". Syrian Arab News Agency. 30 October 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- Spencer, Richard. "Syria: rebels battle for control of regime military bases". Telegraph. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Preliminary death toll for Tuesday 30/10/2012: More than 120 Syrians have been killed so far today". Facebook. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Lebanese reporter Itani now in Turkey, minister says". The Daily Star. 2012-08-08. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "China urges 'political resolution' to Syria crisis". CNN. 31 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Reports of shelling in Aleppo, Idlib and Daraa". Al Jazeera. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
- "Syrian regime forces destroy bakery in Aleppo, killing 12 people". Al Jazeera. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- Report: PYD's Aleppo commander executed by FSA
- Syria rebels kill woman Kurd militia leader: NGO 2 November 2012
- Raslan, R.; Ghossoun; Said, H.; Sabbagh, H. (2 November 2012). "Sixteen Citizens Injured in Two Explosive Device Blasts near al-Zahera Park in Damascus". Syrian Arab News Agency. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
- Fresh clashes in Syrian capital and Aleppo: watchdog 5 November 2012
- "Armed Forces Continue Confronting Terrorists in Several Areas.". Syrian Arab News Agency. 5 November 2012. Retrieved 5November 2012.
- http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/world/heavy-clashes-in-syrian-cities-20121105-28ugk.html Heavy clashes in Syrian cities 5 November 2012
- Heavy clashes in south of Damascus 5 November 2012
- 11 November 2012
- Syrian Arab news agency
- "Syria troops pound rebel lines near Damascus, Aleppo". Khaleej Times. 11 November 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- Female Kurdish militia leader widely reported as killed by Syrian rebels turns up alive 11 November 2012
- 11 November 2012
- Syrian rebels are using barrel bombs to attack regime military positions. 11 November
- "The Army Targets Terrorist Gatherings, Kills Dangerous Terrorists in Several Areas". Syrian Arab News Agency. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- Local Coordination committees post 16 November 2012
- Syrian rebels and regime clash in Aleppo: activists 17 November 2012
- Local Coordination Committees 17 November 2012
- "Syrian rebels and regime clash in Aleppo". Khaleej Times. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Local Coordination Committees 17 November 2012
- Latest Syria developments 18 November 2012dead link
- Syrian warplanes flatten Aleppo hospital 10:45AM GMT 22 Nov 2012
- "Syria rebels attack in Aleppo, clash with Kurds near Turkey". NOW Lebanon. 24 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.dead link
- Syria Today 24-11-2012
- Syria Today 26-11-2012 Local Coordination Committees 27 November 2012
- Syria rebels close Aleppo ring as France finances opposition 27 November 2012
- Syrian rebels take dam, tighten hold on Aleppo 27 November 2012
- Fighters in Aleppo say they have shot down a helicopter that belongs to the military's air defence - Al Jazeera Blogs
- Syrian rebels 'shoot down army helicopter' - Middle East - Al Jazeera English
- "Shootings and explosions can be heard in the Armenian districts of Aleppo: Reisian". Armenpress. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- "Sniper wounded an Armenian woman in Aleppo". Armenpress. 29 November 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- "An Armenian woman killed in Aleppo". Armenpress. 3 December 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- "Latest Syria developments". NOW Lebanon. 3 December. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- "Syrian troops push into Islamist-held district of Aleppo". NOW Lebanon. 3 December 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012.dead link
- "Report: Morocco honorary consul in Syria killed". Associated Press. 5 December 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
- AFP: Syria Islamist rebels seize part of Aleppo base
- Syria: Islamist Rebels Seize Military Base Near Aleppo 10 December 2012
- Islamists seize key north Syria army base 11 December 2012
- Syria troops battle rebels around Damascus | AFP.com
- Chulov, Martin (19 December 2012). "Abu Furat (11.39am GMT)". Middle East Liveblog (The Guardian). Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Free Syrian Army top commander killed in Syria's Aleppo - Region - World - Ahram Online
- "Rebels 'seize Syrian army school' in Aleppo" Al Jazeera (16 December 2012). Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- Syria Live Blog 16 December 2012
- AFP (16 December 2012). "Syrian regime troops withdraw from Aleppo military school". Syria (NOW.). Retrieved 17 December 2012.
- A Bread Shortage Is the First Big Test of a Transitional Council in Aleppo 15 December 2012
- Syrian fighters capture Aleppo infantry base in latest blow to the Assad regime
- "Syria 'secures chemical weapons stockpile'," Al Jazeera (23 December 2012). Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- Ryan Lucas, "Syria: Fighting In Aleppo Continues Between Assad Forces And Rebels Near Supply Road, Historic Mosque," huffingtonpost.com (27 February 2013). Source AP. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- Syrian airline cancels flight to Aleppo
- Syria rebels launch assaults on northern airports - Telegraph
- http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-202_162-57569684/syria-clashes-over-aleppo-airport-leave-150-dead/ Syria: Clashes over Aleppo airport leave 150 dead February 15, 2013
- 6 Months Of Combat, And No Victor In Syria's Biggest City : NPR
- AFP. "Syria warplanes hit rebels inside airbase". NOW. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- Syrian Arab news agency - SANA - Syria : Syria news ::
- http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Middle-East/2013/Mar-02/208537-syria-risks-dissolution-un-chief-warns.ashx#axzz2MKeEKzwd Syria risks dissolution, U.N. chief warns 2 March 2013
- http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/scores-dead-as-twin-blasts-rip-through-syrias-aleppo-university/1/242433.html 87 dead as twin blasts rip through Syria's Aleppo University January 16, 2013
- http://www.skynews.com.au/world/article.aspx?id=836639 Syria rebels plan assault on Aleppo 17 January 2013
- Massacre of over 100 reported in Syria's Homs - Yahoo! New Zealand News
- Blasts hit Syrian university, killing dozens - World News
- http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/01/15/syria-crisis-un-idUSL2N0AKJIC20130115 UPDATE 1-Syria's UN envoy calls Aleppo attack 'a cowardly terrorist act' 15 January 2013
- http://blogs.aljazeera.com/liveblog/topic/syria-153 Syria Live Blog 16 January 2013
- http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2013/01/18/261072.html Belgian journalist Yves Debay killed in Syria: Aleppo Info. Center 18 January 2013
- http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/01/18/us-syria-crisis-blast-idUSBRE90H0KA20130118 Large blast hits Aleppo neighborhood in Syria: TV Jan 18, 2013
- http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/23/world/middleeast/scud-missile-aleppo.html?_r=0 Scud Missile Attack Reported in Aleppo February 22, 2013
- http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/02/22/us-syria-crisis-aleppo-idUSBRE91L17C20130222 Rockets hit Aleppo, killing at least 29: monitor 22 Feb 2013
- Syria missile strikes in Aleppo leave 58 dead NGO says
- ANF (2 February 2013). "Death toll in Esrefiye rose to 20". Aleppo: Firat News. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
- "Cannon ball kills one child, injures two women in Aleppo". Aleppo: Firat News. 29 January 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
- http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/syrian-state-media-says-troops-repulse-rebel-attack-in-aleppo/2013/01/07/4ab0d20a-58af-11e2-b8b2-0d18a64c8dfa_story.html Fighting in Syria as world slams Assad speech; Netherlands ships Patriots to Turkey 7 January 2013
- http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-21647196 Rebels 'seize most of Syria police academy' 3-March-13
- Nour Malas and Ali A. Nabhan, "Syrian Forces Hit Two Cities as Rebels Claim Advances," The Wall Street Journal (4 March 2013). Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/breaking-news/syria-rebels-seize-key-aleppo-district/story-e6frf7k6-1226567402889 Syria rebels seize key Aleppo district 2 February 2013
- Khodr, Zeina (9 February 2013). "Rebels make gains in Aleppo city". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2013/03/201332145439859542.html Syria army seizes key Aleppo airport road 2 March 2013
- William Branigin, Anne Gearan, Suzan Haidamous, "Syria, rebels accuse each other of firing a chemical weapon near Aleppo," The Washington Post (19 March 2013). Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- http://www.timesofisrael.com/aleppo-attack-likely-tear-gas-and-not-nerve-agent-analysts-say/ Aleppo attack likely tear gas and not nerve agent, analysts say 24 March 2013
- Syrian Rebels Enter Strategic Aleppo Neighborhood
- Preliminary death toll for 30/3/2013: More than 90 people killed so far today in Syria.
- Aleppo province
- Residents flee fierce Aleppo clashes: watchdog
- The Kurdish Factor
- PYDs representative to Europe Zuhat Kobani on the latest events in Şêxmeqsûd;
- Endamê Meclîsa Leşkerî ya YPG’ê jiyan xwe ji dest da - HATE NÛKIRIN
- Syria Army Oust Rebels From Airport Near Aleppo, Activists Say
- Final death toll for Thursday 4/4/2013: more than 150 people killed yesterday.
- Preliminary death toll for 6/4/2013: More than 120 people killed so far today in Syria
- More than 110 were killed yesterday
- Aleppo province
- http://abcnews.go.com/International/evidence-nerve-gas-aleppo-deaths/story?id=18977091#.UW_JHdVmmp0 Evidence of Nerve Gas in Aleppo Deaths April 17, 2013
- http://uk.reuters.com/article/2013/04/16/uk-syria-crisis-aleppo-idUKBRE93F16420130416 Syrian guns fall silent to allow Aleppo's dead to be collected Apr 17, 2013
- http://blogs.aljazeera.com/liveblog/topic/syria-153 17 April 2013 Syria Live Blog
- http://www.dw.de/aleppo-orthodox-bishops-kidnapped-in-syria/a-16763661 Aleppo Orthodox Bishops kidnapped in Syria 22 April 2013
- http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-04-25/ancient-minaret-destroyed-during-aleppo-battle/4650298 Ancient minaret destroyed during Aleppo battle April 25, 2013
- Syrian forces shell northern cities
- http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2013/05/15/syria-internet-down-second-time.html Syria internet restored, as fighting rages at Aleppo prison 15 May 2013
- http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2013/05/201351512384463740.html Fighting erupts at Syria's Aleppo prison 15 May 2013
- Syrian troops flush out rebels who stormed central prison in northern city of Aleppo
- Syria: Jabhat al-Nusra split after leader's pledge of support for al-Qaeda
- Rebel groups clash in Syria
- Dominic Evans (2 November 2012), Syrian army quits base on strategic Aleppo road, Reuters News Service
- dead link
- Stratfor (21 November 2012) Recent Rebel Gains in Syria
- Syrian Rebels Seize Major Dam in North « VOA Breaking News
- "Syria army in 'crucial and heroic battle', says Bashar al-Assad". The Daily Telegraph. 1 August 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- "Armenian Humanitarian Aircraft Lands in Aleppo". Turkish Weekly. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- "The Governor of Aleppo and al-Baath Arab Socialist Party expressed their gratitude to the Armenians for the humanitarian aid". Armenpress. 13 November 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- "Red Cross to pull some staff out of Syria as world powers fear Aleppo 'slaughter'". Al Arabiya. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Babak Dehghanpisheh and Liz Sly (2012-08-07). "Iran pledges support for Syria as battle rages for Aleppo". Washington Post. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
- "Russia Condemns Terrorist Acts in Aleppo, Calls for Immediate Halt of Violence". Syrian Arab News Agency. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- Moscow suspends consular operations in Aleppo
- "World cannot 'remain spectators' over Aleppo: Turkish PM". Al Jazeera. 28 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Regan Doherty and Amena Bakr (29 July 2012). "Secret Turkish nerve center leads aid to Syria rebels". Reuters. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- ""World must speak out to avert a massacre in Aleppo," says UK foreign minister.". Al Jazeera. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "US fears Syria planning massacre in Aleppo". Al Jazeera. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- US condemns Syria slaughter