|The CS100 prototype at Mirabel on its first flight|
|Role||Narrow-body jet airliner|
|First flight||16 September 20131|
|Introduction||Planned: second half 2015 (CS100)2
Planned: beginning of 2016 (CS300)
|Status||CS100: early production/test phase
CS300: in development
|Number built||3 prototypes3|
|Program cost||US$ 4.4 billion (Feb. 2014)4|
CS100: US$ 62 million
CS300: US$ 71 million5
The Bombardier CSeries is a family of narrow-body, twin-engine, medium-range jet airliners currently under development by Canadian manufacturer Bombardier Aerospace. The CSeries models are the 110-seat CS100 and the 135-seat CS300. These were initially named C110 and C130, respectively. In certification documentation, the CSeries family is designated Bombardier BD-500, with suffix -1A10 for the CS100 and -1A11 for the CS300.6
The CSeries is to compete with the Boeing 737 series and the Airbus A320 family, as well as the Embraer 195 regional jet. Bombardier expects the CSeries to burn 20% less fuel per trip than these competitors.7
The CS100 took its first flight on 16 September 2013. Bombardier announced in January 2014 that entry into service of the CS100 would be delayed until the second half of 2015.2 The longer CS300 is to follow six months later.
During the demise of Fokker, Bombardier considered purchasing that company in order to gain access to the Fokker 100 100-seat short-haul aircraft. Citing an irreconcilable "clash of corporate cultures", Bombardier's Executives and Board eventually decided against the purchase and ended discussions in February 1996.89
The Bombardier BRJX, or "Bombardier Regional Jet eXpansion", was a project for a larger regional jet than the Canadair Regional Jet. Instead of 2–2 seating, the BRJX was to have a wider fuselage with 2–3 seating, and underwing engine pods. It was projected to seat 80 to 120 passengers, abutting the smallest narrow-body jetliners, like the 2–3 DC-9/MD-80/Boeing 717 or the 3–3 A318/737-500/737-600. The project was shelved by Bombardier in favour of stretching the CRJ700 into the CRJ900.
Meanwhile, the 72-seat Embraer E-170 came to market (production began in 2002), followed by the 110-seat E-195. Both models were widely adopted, and Bombardier had no product to compete with them in that capacity range.
In July 2004, Bombardier announced the development of the CSeries family of airliners to replace the cancelled BRJX project. The CSeries would be larger than the current Canadair Regional Jets, and capable of carrying 110 to 130 passengers. For the first time, Bombardier would be competing directly with the smallest airliners from Boeing and Airbus. At the time, Bombardier expected the aircraft to be available by 2013.
In March 2005, Bombardier's board decided to promote the plane to airlines to gather advance orders. Two models were announced: the C110 with layouts from 100–125 seats, and the C130 with layouts from 120–145 seats. The CSeries would feature new, more fuel-efficient engines and a higher percentage of composite materials in its fuselage,10 a strategy similar to that used on the wide-body Boeing 787 Dreamliner and forthcoming Airbus A350 XWB.
The new aircraft would seat passengers in a 2–3 arrangement in coach and a 2–2 arrangement in business/first class, similar to the Boeing 717. With the 2–3 arrangement, 80% of the seats would be aisle or window seats, contrary to 'middle' seats (seats set between two other seats). The aircraft would have under-wing turbofans. The CSeries' cross section was designed to give enhanced seating comfort for passengers, with features like broader seats and armrests for the middle passenger and larger windows at every seat to give every passenger the physical and psychological advantages of ample natural light.
In May 2005, Bombardier secured agreements with the Federal Government of Canada, the Provincial Government of Quebec, and the Government of the United Kingdom for support and loans for the CSeries project. The Canadian government has committed US$350 million in financing; the British government has committed US$300 million. The program will cost about $3.5 billion, and Bombardier will share the cost with suppliers and governments.11
The fuselage was to be built by China Aviation Industry Corporation (AVIC)'s affiliate Shenyang Aircraft Corporation.10 Final assembly of the aircraft was to be at Mirabel Airport, Mirabel, Quebec, outside Montreal.12 Substantial portions of the aircraft were to be constructed at Bombardier facilities in Belfast, Northern Ireland.13
On 31 January 2006, Bombardier announced it would not go forward with plans to develop the CSeries after it had failed to secure significant orders to that point. It stated that it would keep a small team of roughly 50 employees working on the CSeries marketing plan, and would include other risk-sharing partners in the program.1415 With the CSeries on hold, Bombardier announced on 18 February 2006 that it would begin work on the 100-seat CRJ1000 regional jet.
On 31 January 2007, Bombardier announced that work on the aircraft would continue.16 In November 2007, Bombardier announced that the Pratt & Whitney Geared Turbofan (now PW1000G) would be the exclusive powerplant for the CSeries.17 On 22 February 2008, Bombardier Aerospace announced that its parent company's Board of Directors authorized it to offer formal sales proposals of the CSeries family to airline customers.18
On 13 July 2008, in a press conference on the eve of the opening of the Farnborough Airshow, Bombardier Aerospace announced the launch of the CSeries, with a letter of interest for 60 aircraft (including 30 options) from Lufthansa. The final assembly of the aircraft would be done at a new assembly facility to be built beside the existing one where the CRJ700 and CRJ900 are assembled in Mirabel, north of Montreal.19 Ghafari Associates was retained to develop the Montreal manufacturing site to accommodate CSeries production.20 The CSeries aircraft will use the Rockwell Collins Pro Line Fusion avionics suite, an integrated cockpit system which incorporates 15 inch displays, with comprehensive navigation, communications, surveillance, engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS), and aircraft maintenance systems.21
The CSeries is designed for the 100- to 149-seat market category. Bombardier estimated this market to be 19,333 aircraft,22 representing more than $250 billion revenue over the next 20 years. Bombardier expects to be able to capture up to half of this market with the CSeries.23 In 2009, first flight for the CSeries was expected in 2012.24
In 2009, Mongolian airline Eznis Airways was reported to have signed a letter of interest for seven CSeries aircraft.25 Qatar Airways had previously been in talks with Bombardier, but broke off talks in 2009 after disagreeing on terms.26 An unnamed lessor was understood to be in talks for 40 aircraft.27 On 11 March 2009, Bombardier announced the first firm orders for the CSeries. Lufthansa, who originally had signed a letter of interest for 60 aircraft, firmed up an order for 30. The aircraft are to be operated by Lufthansa subsidiary Swiss European Air Lines.28
In March 2009 Bombardier also announced that the C110 and C130 were being redesignated CS100 and CS300, respectively.29 The models were offered in normal and extended range (ER) versions, additionally, an extra thrust (XT) version of the CS300 was also offered.30 The ER and XT versions were removed in 2012 by Bombardier, providing a standard range equal to the one previously identified as extended range.31
On 30 March 2009, Bombardier inked the second CSeries order, with airliner lessor Lease Corporation International (LCI) of Dublin, Ireland ordering 3 CS100s and 17 CS300s, becoming the launch customer of the latter.32 LCI also holds options for a further 20 aircraft.33
In January 2010, JP Morgan reported that Bombardier was considering a 150-seat version of the CSeries. Bombardier called the report speculative, noting that the CSeries development program "is in the joint definition phase where we will be able to add greater product definition and that includes the ability to make changes before the final design is frozen".34
Republic Airways Holdings ordered 40 CS300 aircraft with options for an additional 40 in February 2010.35 In March 2010, easyJet stated that the company was having “ongoing discussions with Bombardier regarding its CSeries.36 In December 2009, United Airlines expressed interest in using the CS100 and CS300 for replacing its retiring 737–300 and 737-500 aircraft.37 But no plans or orders had been made by United Airlines as of December 2011.
On 1 June 2011, Braathens Leasing Limited in Sweden announced that it had placed a firm order for five CS100 and five CS300 aircraft with options for ten more aircraft. With the order, Bombardier had secured a combined 100 firm orders.38 On 7 June 2011, Bombardier announced that an unnamed airline had placed a firm order for three CSeries airliners, with options for three more.39 On 20 June 2011, Bombardier announced it had secured a launch customer for the CS100 at the Paris Air Show. The undisclosed airline signed a firm order for 10 aircraft with an option for six more.40 On 21 June 2011, Korean Air announced signing a letter of intent to purchase 10 CS300 plus an additional 10 options and 10 purchasing rights on CS300; this agreement was converted to a firm order on 29 July 2011.4142 On 24 June 2011, the last day of the 2011 Paris Show, Bombardier announced a deal with an undisclosed European carrier to purchase ten CS100s.43
On 17 August 2011, at the MAKS Airshow, Bombardier announced an agreement with Ilyushin Finance for up to 30 CSeries aircraft.44 Atlasjet announced plans on 15 November 2011 to purchase ten CS300 aircraft with options for another five.45 In July 2012, Latvia's airBaltic announced plans to order 20 CSeries jets for delivery starting in 2015, in place of the Airbus A319s which had been previously considered.4647 airBaltic announced a firm order for 10 CS300 aircraft plus an option for 10 additional aircraft in December 2012.48
The CSeries programme has several major suppliers, including Shenyang Aircraft (centre fuselage), Alenia Aeronautica (horizontal and vertical stabilisers), Fokker Elmo (wiring and interconnection systems), C&D Zodiac (interiors), Parker Hannifin (flight control, fuel and hydraulics systems), Liebherr-Aerospace (air management system), Goodrich (flap and slat actuation systems and engine nacelles), and Rockwell Collins (avionics).4950
In March 2012, Bombardier specified the target date for the first flight was December 2012,53 and reaffirmed that date in June 2012.54 A news report in June 2012 stated that first CS100 delivery remained scheduled for the end of 2013.5455
At the Farnborough Airshow in July 2012, Bombardier started discussions with AirAsia about a proposed 160-seat configuration for the CS300 airliner.56 In November 2012, this configuration was included in the CS300 project, although AirAsia rejected this proposal.57
During a conference call in November 2012, Bombardier Aerospace acknowledged a delay of six months, for both first flight and entry into service of the CS100, due to issues with some unspecified suppliers.58 This pushed the announced date for initial deliveries to customers into 2014.
On 20 February 2013 Bombardier announced that Ilyushin Finance Co. converted the letter of intent it signed in August 2011 into a purchase agreement, subject to approval by its shareholders, for 32 CS300 aircraft.59 On the same day, Pratt & Whitney announced that its PW1500G had been granted certification by Transport Canada.60 The PW1500G powers the CSeries.
During its earnings call on 21 February 2013, Bombardier announced that the first completed CSeries aircraft would be presented publicly the following month.6162 An extensive update on the CSeries program was presented on 7 March 2013; the first Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) was displayed in an almost completed state, along with three other FTVs in various states of assembly.6364 The 160-seat "Extra Capacity" version of the CS300, featuring two sets of over wing emergency exits, was also presented.63
In a press release on 25 March 2013, Bombardier disclosed that the electrical system of the first flight test aircraft was successfully powered up and that tests on the static test airframe proceeded satisfactorily and on schedule.65
On 6 June 2013, Bombardier announced that Gulf Air ordered ten CS100s.66
In June 2013, due to upgrades of the aircraft's software and final ground testing, Bombardier shifted the timeline for the first flight into July 2013.67 On 24 July 2013, Bombardier disclosed that, due to a longer than expected system integration process, the first flight will take place "in the coming weeks".68
On 30 August 2013, Bombardier received the flight test permit from Transport Canada, granting permission to perform high speed taxi testing and flight testing.1 As Bombardier planned,69 a CS100 took the maiden flight for the model and the CSeries on 16 September 2013 from Mirabel Airport north of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.7071 Over 14,000 data points were gathered on this first flight, and after some reconfigurations and software upgrades, the aircraft flew for the second time on 1 October 2013.72
On 16 January 2014, Bombardier announced that difficulties with certification flight testing had caused the entry-into-service date to be delayed by at least 12 months, to the second half of 2015; the CS300 is still to follow approximately six months after the CS100.2
On 3 March 2014, the third CSeries test aircraft took its first flight. The first two test CS100s had totaled 100 hours in flight by the end of February.76
The Bombardier CSeries aircraft will contain a high usage of composite materials and larger windows.77 The CSeries cabin will feature large, rotating overhead storage bins, allowing each passenger to stow a sizeable carry-on bag overhead.77 Compared to the cabins of current in-service narrowbody aircraft, the CSeries is to provide airlines with the highest overhead bin volume per passenger and a wider aisle that would allow for faster boarding and disembarkation of passengers.77
The CSeries aircraft contain 70% advanced materials comprising 46% composite materials and 24% aluminium-lithium which allows for a 15% lower seat-mile cost and a significant reduction in maintenance costs.78 The CSeries aircraft will also permit a significant fuel burn advantage and noise reduction.79 Computer software design tools were used on the project, including CATIA, HyperSizer, and similar technology that was employed in the Learjet 85 programme.80
|CS100||CS300||Total firm orders|
- Orders and deliveries by year82
|Cockpit crew||2 pilots|
|Cabin crew||2 to 5 flight attendants||3 to 5 flight attendants|
|Passengers||125 (1-class, dense)
110 (1-class, standard)
108 (2-class, mixed)
|160 (1-class, extra capacity)
150 (1-class, dense)
135 (1-class, standard)
130 (2-class, mixed)
|Seat Pitch||28 in (71 cm) (1-class, extra capacity)
30 in (76 cm) (1-class, dense)
32 in (81 cm) (1-class, standard)
36 in (91 cm) & 32 in (81 cm) (2-class, mixed)
|Seat Width||18.5 in (47 cm) standard seat
19 in (48 cm) middle seat
20 in (51 cm) business class seat
|Length||35.0 m (114.8 ft)||38.7 m (127 ft)|
|Wingspan||35.1 m (115 ft)|
|Wing Area (net)||112.3 m2 (1,209 sq ft)|
|Tail height||11.5 m (38 ft)|
|Fuselage max diameter||3.7 m (12 ft)|
|Cabin width||3.28 metres (129 in)|
|Cabin height||2.11 metres (83 in)|
|Cabin length||23.7 metres (78 ft)||27.5 metres (90 ft)|
|Cargo Volume||23.7 m3 (840 cu ft)||31.6 m3 (1,120 cu ft)|
|Operating empty weight (OEW)||33,300 kg (73,400 lb)83||n/a|
|Max takeoff weight (MTOW)||58,967 kg (130,000 lb)||65,317 kg (143,999 lb)|
|Max landing weight (MLW)||50,802 kg (111,999 lb)||57,606 kg (126,999 lb)|
|Maximum cargo payload||3,629 kg (8,001 lb)||4,853 kg (10,699 lb)|
|Maximum payload (total)||14,583 kg (32,150 lb)||18,552 kg (40,900 lb)|
|Max range||5,463 km (2,950 nmi)|
|Max cruise speed||Mach 0.82 (870 km/h, 470 kn, 541 mph)|
|Typical cruise speed||Mach 0.78 (828 km/h, 447 kn, 514 mph)|
|Take off run at MTOW||1,463 m (4,800 ft)||1,890 m (6,200 ft)|
|Landing field length at MLW||1,356 m (4,449 ft)||1,494 m (4,902 ft)|
|Service ceiling||12,497 m (41,001 ft)|
|Engines||2× Pratt & Whitney PW1500G|
|Thrust per Engine||84.1 kN (18,900 lbf) – PW1519G
93.4 kN (21,000 lbf) – PW1521G
103.6 kN (23,300 lbf) – PW1524G
|93.4 kN (21,000 lbf) – PW1521G
103.6 kN (23,300 lbf) – PW1524G
|Max takeoff weight (MTOW)||53,060 kg (116,980 lb)||58,967 kg (130,000 lb)|
|Max landing weight (MLW)||49,895 kg (110,000 lb)||55,111 kg (121,499 lb)|
|Maximum cargo payload||3,629 kg (8,001 lb)||4,853 kg (10,699 lb)|
|Maximum payload (total)||13,676 kg (30,150 lb)||16,284 kg (35,900 lb)|
|Max range||3,148 km (1,700 nmi)|
|Take off run at MTOW||1,219 m (3,999 ft)||1,524 m (5,000 ft)|
|Landing field length at MLW||1,341 m (4,400 ft)||1,448 m (4,751 ft)|
- Notes: Data are preliminary and may change.
- Sources: Bombardier Aerospace31848586 and Pratt & Whitney87
- Related development
- Bombardier CRJ700/900/1000
- Comac C919 (agreement between Comac and Bombardier for program commonalities)88
- Irkut MS-21 (agreement between Irkut and Bombardier for joint customer support)89
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Airbus A320neo
- Boeing 737 MAX
- Embraer E-Jets/E-Jets E2
- Kawasaki YPX
- Mitsubishi Regional Jet
- Sukhoi Superjet 100/130
- Related lists
- Bombardier Inc. (30 August 2013). "Bombardier CSeries Aircraft Awarded Transport Canada Flight Test Permit".
- "Bombardier Aerospace Confirms Change to its CSeries Aircraft’s Entry-into-Service". Bombardier, Inc. 16 January 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- "CSeries FTV3 Takes Flight; Joins FTV1 and FTV2 in Flight Test Program". CSeries.com. 3 March 2014.
- Hemmerdinger, Jon (13 February 2014). "Bombardier's CSeries development costs jump to $4.4 billion". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- Solarina Ho (7 March 2013). "Bombardier unveils high-stakes CSeries jetliner". Reuters. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
- "List of Approved Special Conditions - Airworthiness". Transport Canada.
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- Orders by year:
- Bombardier Inc. (11 March 2009). "Lufthansa Group Signs Purchase Agreement with Bombardier for up to 60 CSeries Aircraft". Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- Bombardier Inc. (30 March 2009). "Lease Corporation International Group Orders 20 Bombardier CSeries Jetliners with Options to Purchase a Further 20". Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- Bombardier Inc. (25 February 2010). "Republic Airways Holdings Becomes First North American Customer for Bombardier CSeries Aircraft with Order for up to 80 Airliners". Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- Bombardier Inc. (1 June 2011). "Bombardier Sells 10 CSeries Jetliners to Sweden's Braathens Aviation". Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- Bombardier Inc. (7 June 2011). "Airline Places Order for Up to Six Bombardier CSeries Aircraft". Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- Bombardier Inc. (20 June 2011). "Major Network Carrier Places Firm Order for 10 CSeries Aircraft; Will Take First CS100 Aircraft Delivery". Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- Bombardier Inc. (24 June 2011). "Eighth Customer Places Firm Order for 10 CSeries Aircraft". Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- Bombardier Inc. (29 July 2011). "Korean Air Converts Letter of Intent to Firm Order for Bombardier CSeries Aircraft". Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- Bombardier Inc. (19 January 2012). "Bombardier Signs PrivatAir for up to 10 CSeries Aircraft". Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- Bombardier Inc. (20 December 2012). "airBaltic Signs Firm Order for up to 20 CSeries Airliners". Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- "Russia's Ilyushin Finance Co. Firms Purchase Agreement for up to 42 Bombardier CSeries Aircraft". 4 June 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- "Iraqi Airways Signs Firm Purchase Agreement with Options for up to 16 Bombardier CS300 Aircraft". 4 December 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- "Al Qahtani Aviation Company Orders up to 26 Bombardier CSeries Aircraft". 16 January 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- "Existing Customer Orders Three Bombardier CSeries Aircraft – Program’s Firm-Order Tally Increases to More than 200". 9 February 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- Mary Kirby (16 March 2009). "Bombardier divulges further details about new CSeries specs". Flightglobal. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- Bombardier (March 2013). "Bombardier CS100". Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- Bombardier (March 2013). "Bombardier CS300". Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Bombardier CSeries page". Bombardier.com.
- Pratt & Whitney. "PurePower PW1500G Engine for the Bombardier CSeries". Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- Bombardier Inc. (21 March 2012). "COMAC and Bombardier Sign Definitive Agreement to Establish Commonality Opportunities Between C919 and CSeries Aircraft". Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- Bombardier Inc. (28 August 2013). "Bombardier, IRKUT Entering Exploratory Discussions on Customer Support for the MS-21 Aircraft". Retrieved 13 September 2013.
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