|Full name||Ballspielverein Borussia 09 e.V. Dortmund|
Die Schwarzgelben (The Black and Yellows)
Der BVB (The BVB)
|Founded||1909 December 19|
|Chairman||Hans-Joachim Watzke (CEO)|
|Website||Club home page|
Ballspielverein Borussia 09 e.V. Dortmund, commonly known as Borussia Dortmund [boˈʁʊsi̯a ˈdɔʁtmʊnt], Dortmund, or BVB, is a German sports club based in Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia. The football team is part of a large membership-based sports club with 95,000 members (as of October 2013),1 making BVB the third largest sports club by membership in Germany. Dortmund plays in the Bundesliga, the top tier of the German football league system. Dortmund is one of the most successful clubs in German football history.23
Borussia Dortmund was founded in 1909 by seventeen football players from Dortmund. Borussia Dortmund have won eight German football championships, three DFB-Pokals, four DFL-Supercups, one UEFA Champions League, one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, and one Intercontinental Cup. Their Cup Winners' Cup win in 1966 made them the first German club to win a European title.
Since 1974, Dortmund have played their home games at Westfalenstadion. The stadium is the biggest stadium in Germany. Dortmund has the highest average attendance of any football club in the world.4 Borussia Dortmund's colours are black and yellow, giving the club its nickname die Schwarzgelben.56 Dortmund holds a long-standing rivalry with Ruhr neighbours Schalke, known as the Revierderby. Dortmund also has a rivalry with Bayern Munich, known as Der Klassiker (English: The Classic).78 In terms of Deloitte's annual Football Money League, Dortmund is the second biggest sports club in Germany and the eleventh biggest football team in the world.9 Borussia Dortmund's motto is "Echte Liebe" (English: "True Love").
- 1 History
- 2 Crest
- 3 Grounds
- 4 Training ground
- 5 Organization and finance
- 6 Charity
- 7 Shirt sponsors and kit manufacturers
- 8 Players
- 9 Club officials
- 10 Records
- 11 Honours
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The club was founded on 19 December 1909 by a group of young men unhappy with church-sponsored Trinity Youth, where they played football under the stern and unsympathetic eye of the local parish priest. Father Dewald was blocked at the door when he tried to break up the organizing meeting being held in a room of the local pub, Zum Wildschütz. The founders were Franz and Paul Braun, Henry Cleve, Hans Debest, Paul Dziendzielle, Julius and Wilhelm Jacobi, Hans Kahn, Gustav Müller, Franz Risse, Fritz Schulte, Hans Siebold, August Tönnesmann, Heinrich and Robert Unger, Fritz Weber and Franz Wendt. The name Borussia is Latin for Prussia but was taken from the Borussia beer from the nearby Borussia brewery in Dortmund.10 The team began playing in blue and white striped shirts with a red sash, and black shorts. In 1913, they donned the black and yellow stripes so familiar today.
Over the next decades the club enjoyed only modest success playing in local leagues. They had a brush with bankruptcy in 1929 when an attempt to boost the club's fortunes by signing some paid professional footballers failed miserably and left the team deep in debt. They survived only through the generosity of a local supporter who covered the team's shortfall out of his own pocket.
The 1930s saw the rise of the Third Reich which restructured sports and football organizations throughout the nation to suit the regime's goals. Borussia's president was replaced when he refused to join the Nazi Party, and a couple of members who surreptitiously used the club's offices to produce anti-Nazi pamphlets were executed in the last days of the war. The club did have greater success in the newly established Gauliga Westfalen, but would have to wait until after World War II to make a breakthrough. It was during this time that Borussia developed its intense rivalry with FC Schalke 04 of suburban Gelsenkirchen, the most successful side of the era (see Revierderby). Like every other organisation in Germany, Borussia was dissolved by the Allied occupation authorities after the war in an attempt to distance the country's institutions from the so-recent Nazi past. There was a short-lived attempt to merge the club with two others – Werksportgemeinschaft Hoesch and Freier Sportverein 98 – as Sportgemeinschaft Borussia von 1898, but it was as Ballspiel-Verein Borussia (BVB) that they made their first appearance in the national league final in 1949 where they lost 2–3 to VfR Mannheim.
Between 1946 and 1963, Borussia featured in the Oberliga West, a first division league which dominated German football through the late 1950s. In 1949, Borussia reached the final in Stuttgart against VfR Mannheim, which they lost 2–3 after extra time. The club claimed its first national title in 1956 with a 4–2 win against Karlsruher SC. One year later, Borussia defeated Hamburger SV 4–1 to win their second national title. After this coup the three Alfredos (Alfred Preißler, Alfred Kelbassa and Alfred Niepieklo) were legends in Dortmund. In 1963, Borussia won the last edition of the German Football Championship before the introduction of the new Bundesliga to secure their third national title.
In 1962, the DFB met in Dortmund and voted to finally establish a professional football league in Germany to begin play in August 1963 as the Bundesliga. Borussia Dortmund earned its place among the first sixteen clubs to play in the new league by winning the last pre-Bundesliga national championship. Losing club 1. FC Köln also earned an automatic berth. It was Dortmund's Friedhelm Konietzka who scored the first-ever Bundesliga goal barely a minute into a match which they would eventually lose 2–3 to Werder Bremen.
In 1965, Dortmund captured its first DFB-Pokal. In 1966, Dortmund won the European Cup Winners' Cup 2–1 against Liverpool in extra time with the goals coming from Sigfried Held and Reinhard Libuda. In the same year, however, the team surrendered a commanding position atop the Bundesliga by losing four of their last five league games and finished second, three points behind champions TSV 1860 München. Ironically, much of 1860's success came on the strength of the play of Konietzka, recently transferred there from Dortmund.
The 1970s were characterized by financial problems and relegation from the Bundesliga in 1972 and the opening of the Westfalenstadion, named after its home region Westphalia in 1974. The club earned its return to Bundesliga in 1976.
Dortmund continued to suffer from financial problems through the 1980s. BVB narrowly avoided being relegated again in 1986 by winning a third decisive play-off-game against Fortuna Köln after finishing the regular season in 16th place.
Dortmund did not enjoy any significant success again until a 4–1 DFB-Pokal win in 1989 against SV Werder Bremen. It was Horst Köppel's first trophy as a manager. Dortmund then won the 1989 DFL-Supercup 4-3 against rivals Bayern Munich.
Along with a fourth place finish in the Bundesliga, Dortmund in 1993 made it to the UEFA Cup final, which they lost 6–1 on aggregate to Juventus. In spite of this result, Borussia walked away with DM25 million under the prize money pool system in place at the time for German sides participating in the Cup. Cash flush, Dortmund was able to sign players who later brought them numerous honours in the 1990s.
Under the captaincy of 1996 European Footballer of the Year Matthias Sammer, Borussia Dortmund won back-to-back Bundesliga titles in 1995 and 1996. Dortmund also won the DFL-Supercup against Mönchengladbach in 1995 and Kaiserslautern in 1996.
In 1996–97 the team reached its first European Cup final. In a memorable 1997 UEFA Champions League Final at the Olympiastadion in Munich, Dortmund faced the holders Juventus. Karl-Heinz Riedle put Dortmund ahead, shooting under goalkeeper Angelo Peruzzi from a cross by Paul Lambert. Riedle then made it two with a bullet header from a corner kick. In the second half, Alessandro Del Piero pulled one back for Juventus with a back heel. Then 20-year old substitute and local boy Lars Ricken latched on to a through pass by Andreas Möller. Only 16 seconds after coming on to the pitch, Ricken chipped Peruzzi in the Juventus goal from over 20 yards out with his first touch of the ball. With Zinedine Zidane unable to make an impression for Juventus against the close marking of Lambert,111213 Dortmund lifted the trophy with a 3–1 victory.
Dortmund then went on to beat Brazilian club Cruzeiro 2–0 in the 1997 Intercontinental Cup Final to become world club champions.14 Borussia Dortmund were the second German club to win the Intercontinental Cup, after Bayern Munich in 1976.15
At the turn of the millennium, Borussia Dortmund became the first—and so far the only—publicly traded club on the German stock market.
In 2002, Borussia Dortmund won their third Bundesliga title. Dortmund had a remarkable run at the end of the season to overtake Bayer Leverkusen, securing the title on the final day. Manager Matthias Sammer became the first person in Borussia Dortmund history to win the Bundesliga as a player and manager.16 In the same season, Borussia lost the final of the 2001–02 UEFA Cup to Dutch side Feyenoord.
Dortmund's fortunes then steadily declined for a number of years. Poor financial management led to a heavy debt load and the sale of their Westfalenstadion ground. The situation was compounded by failure to advance in the 2002–03 UEFA Champions League when the team was eliminated on penalties in the qualifying rounds by Club Brugge. In 2003, Bayern Munich loaned €2 million to Dortmund for a couple of months to pay their payroll. Borussia was again driven to the brink of bankruptcy in 2005, the original €11 value of its shares having plummeted by over 80% on the Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse (Frankfurt Stock Exchange). The response to the crisis included a 20% pay cut to all players.17
The team still plays at Westfalenstadion, named after its home region of Westphalia. To reduce debts, the stadium was renamed "Signal Iduna Park", after a local insurance company, in 2006 under a sponsorship agreement that runs until 2016. The stadium is currently the largest football stadium in Germany with a capacity of 80,720 spectators, and hosted several matches in the 2006 FIFA World Cup, including a semi-final. Borussia Dortmund enjoys the highest average attendance of any football club in Europe, at 80,478 per match (2010–11).
Dortmund suffered a miserable start to the 2005–06 season, but rallied to finish seventh. The club failed to gain a place in the UEFA Cup via the Fair Play draw. The club's management recently indicated that the club again showed a profit; this was largely related to the sale of David Odonkor to Real Betis and Tomáš Rosický to Arsenal.
In the 2006–07 season, Dortmund unexpectedly faced serious relegation trouble for the first time in years. Dortmund went through three coaches and appointed Thomas Doll on 13 March 2007 after dropping to just one point above the relegation zone. Christoph Metzelder also left Borussia Dortmund on a free transfer.
In the 2007–08 season, Dortmund lost to many of the smaller clubs in the Bundesliga. That season was one of the worst in 20 years. Nevertheless, Dortmund reached the DFB-Pokal Final against Bayern Munich, where they lost 2–1 in extra time. The final appearance qualified Dortmund for the UEFA Cup because Bayern already qualified for the Champions League. Thomas Doll resigned on 19 May 2008 and was replaced by Jürgen Klopp.
In the 2009–10 season, Dortmund qualified for the UEFA Europa League and finished fifth in the Bundesliga. The team missed an opportunity to qualify for the Champions League by failing to beat eighth placed VfL Wolfsburg and 14th placed SC Freiburg in the final two matches of the campaign. Nonetheless, they demonstrated a renewed charisma and passion under the direction of coach Jürgen Klopp.
Entering the 2010–11 season, Dortmund fielded a young and vibrant roster which looked better. On 4 December 2010, Borussia became Herbstmeister (Autumn Champion), an unofficial accolade going to the league leader at the winter break. They did this three matches before the break, sharing the record for having achieved this earliest with Eintracht Frankfurt (1993–94) and 1. FC Kaiserslautern (1997–98).18 On 30 April 2011, the club beat 1. FC Nuremberg 2–0 at home, while second-placed Bayer Leverkusen lost, leaving Dortmund eight points clear with two games to play. This championship equaled the seven national titles held by rivals Schalke 04, and guaranteed a spot in the 2011–12 UEFA Champions League group stages.19
One year later, Dortmund made a successful defense of its Bundesliga title with a win over Borussia Mönchengladbach, again on the 32nd matchday. By the 34th and final matchday, Dortmund set a new record with the most points—81—ever gained by a club in one Bundesliga season.2021 The club's eighth championship places it third in total national titles and players will now wear two stars over their uniform crest in recognition of the team's five Bundesliga titles. Notable names from the winning roster include Lucas Barrios, Mario Götze, Neven Subotić, Mats Hummels, Robert Lewandowski, Shinji Kagawa, Łukasz Piszczek, Jakub Błaszczykowski, Kevin Großkreutz, Ivan Perišić, and İlkay Gündoğan. The club capped its successful 2011–12 season by winning the double for the first time by beating Bayern Munich 5–2 in the final of the DFB-Pokal. Borussia Dortmund are one of four German clubs to win the Bundesliga and DFB-Pokal double along with Bayern Munich, 1. FC Köln, and Werder Bremen.22 The club was voted Team of the Year 2011 at the annual Sportler des Jahres (German Sports Personality of the Year) awards.
Borussia Dortmund ended the 2012–13 season in second place in the Bundesliga. Dortmund played in their second UEFA Champions League Final against Bayern Munich in the first ever all-German club final at Wembley Stadium on 25 May 2013 which they lost 2–1.23
The Westfalenstadion is the home stadium of Borussia Dortmund. It is Germany's biggest stadium and the seventh biggest stadium in Europe.24 The stadium is officially named Signal Iduna Park. The insurance company Signal Iduna purchased the rights to name the stadium until 2021.25 However this name cannot be used when hosting FIFA and UEFA events, since these governing bodies have policies forbidding corporate sponsorship from companies that are not official tournament partners. During the 2006 FIFA World Cup, the stadium was referred to as FIFA World Cup Stadium, Dortmund. In UEFA club matches, it is known as BVB Stadion Dortmund. The Stadium now hosts up to 80,645 fans (standing and seated) for league matches, and 65,829 seated spectators for international games.26 For these, the characteristic Southern grandstand is re-equipped with seats to conform with FIFA regulations.
In 1974, the Westfalenstadion replaced the Stadion Rote Erde, which is located next door and serves now as the stadium of Borussia Dortmund II. After the increasing popularity of Borussia Dortmund in the 1960s, it became obvious that the traditional ground was too small for the increasing number of Borussia Dortmund supporters. The city of Dortmund, however, was not able to finance a new stadium and federal institutions were unwilling to help. But in 1971, Dortmund was selected to replace the city of Cologne, which was forced to withdraw its plans to host games in the 1974 FIFA World Cup. The funds originally set aside for the projected stadium in Cologne were thus re-allocated to Dortmund and a new stadium became a reality.
The Westfalenstadion has undergone several renovations throughout the years to increase the size of the stadium, including an expansion of the stadium for the 2006 World Cup. In 2008, the Borusseum, a museum about Borussia Dortmund opened in the stadium.27 In 2011, Borussia Dortmund agreed a partnership with Q-Cells. The company installed 8,768 solar cells on the roof of the Westfalenstadion to generate up to 860,000 kWh per year.28
Borussia Dortmund's training ground and Academy base Hohenbuschei is located in Brackel, a district of Dortmund.29 Inside the complex system, there are physical exercise training for physical fitness and rehabilitation robotics areas, physiotherapy and massage rooms, and remedial and hydrotherapy pools. There are also sauna rooms, steam rooms and weight rooms, classrooms, conference halls, offices for the BVB front office, a restaurant, and a TV studio to interview the BVB professional footballers and coaching staff for BVB total!. On the grounds, there are five grass pitches, two of which has under-soil heating, one artificial grass field, two small grass pitches and a multi-functional sports arena. The site covers a total area of 18.000 m².30 Besides Dortmund owns the Footbonaut, a training robot which is effectively a 14 m² training cage. 31
Borussia Dortmund e. V. is represented by its management board and board of directors consisting of the president Dr. Reinhard Rauball, his proxy and vice president Gerd Pieper and the treasurer Dr. Reinhold Lunow.32
Professional football at Dortmund is run by the organization Borussia Dortmund GmbH & Co. KGaA. This corporation model has two types of participators: at least one partner with unlimited liability and at least one partner with limited liability. The investment of the latter is divided into stocks. The organization Borussia Dortmund GmbH is the partner with unlimited liability and is responsible for the management and representation of Borussia Dortmund GmbH & Co. KGaA. Borussia Dortmund GmbH is fully owned by the sports club, Borussia Dortmund e. V. This organizational structure was designed to ensure that the sports club has full control over the professional squad.33
The stocks of Borussia Dortmund GmbH & Co. KGaA was floated on the stock market in October 2000 and it is listed in the General Standard of Deutsche Börse AG. Borussia Dortmund GmbH & Co. KGaA became the first and so far the only publicly traded sports club on the German stock market. 7,24% of Borussia Dortmund GmbH & Co. KGaA is owned by the sports club; the Borussia Dortmund e. V., 11,71% by Bernd Geske and 81,05% are widely spread shareholdings.34 Hans-Joachim Watzke is the CEO and Thomas Treß is the CFO of the GmbH & Co. KGaA. Michael Zorc as sporting director is responsible for the first team, the coaching staff, the youth and junior section, and scouting.35 The supervisory board consists among others of the politicians Friedrich Merz and Peer Steinbrück.36
BVB's main advertising partner and current holder of the kit rights is Evonik.37 The insurance company Signal Iduna purchased the rights to name the Westfalenstadion Signal Iduna Park until 2021.25 The main supplier of the sports club is Puma SE.37 In addition there are three different levels of partners; BVBChampionPartner include among others Opel, Turkish Airlines, Brinkhoff's, Wilo, Hankook and Huawei; BVBPartner include among others EA Sports, Coca-Cola Zero, MAN, Norton, REWE and Ruhr Nachrichten; and BVBProduktPartner include among others Westfalenhallen, Sennheiser, TEDi, Dorma, Ramada and McDonald's.37 Since 2012, the Brixental in the Kitzbühel Alps in Austria is a BVB sponsor as well, furthermore the region is host of one of the annual summer training camps.3839
|Borussia Dortmund GmbH & Co. KGaA|
|Hans-Joachim Watzke||Chairman and managing director responsible for Sport, Sales & Marketing and Communications|
|Thomas Treß||Managing director responsible for Organization and Finance|
|Michael Zorc||Segment director responsible for Sport|
|Carsten Cramer||Segment director responsible for Sales & Marketing|
|Sascha Fligge||Segment director responsible for Communications|
|Dr. Christian Hockenjos||Segment director responsible for Organization|
|Marcus Knipping||Segment director responsible for Finance|
|Gerd Pieper||Chairman of the supervisory board of Borussia Dortmund GmbH & Co. KGaA
Vice-President of Borussia Dortmund e. V.
Owner and general manager of Stadt-Parfümerie Pieper GmbH
Federal State commissioner of the city council of Dortmund
|Bernd Geske||Major shareholder of Borussia Dortmund GmbH & Co. KGaA34
General manager of Bernd Geske Lean Communication
|Christian Kullmann||Executive Vice-President and head of General Secretaria of Evonik Industries AG|
|Friedrich Merz||Lawyer and partner of Mayer Brown LLP, former Member of the German Bundestag|
|Peer Steinbrück||Member of the German Bundestag, former Federal Minister|
Borussia Dortmund has raised money for charity over the years for various causes. On 17 May 2011, Borussia Dortmund held a charity game for the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami against "Team Japan". The ticket sales of the game and 1 million euros from Dortmund main sponsor Evonik went to charity for the Japan earthquake and tsunami.42 On 6 July 2013, Borussia Dortmund held a charity game for 2013 German flood victims in the German states of Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt which raised over 170,000 euros.43
^ 1: As a result of restructuring, the RAG business areas of chemicals, energy and real estate were transferred to a new business entity, but the company name was still unknown at that time. Placeholder in 2005–2006 was an artwork of an exclamation mark of the painter Otmar Alt.46
Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Borussia Dortmund II are the reserve team of the club and competes in the 3. Liga. They play their home games at Stadion Rote Erde. The team mainly consists of Under-23 players at the club and a restricted number of three over age players per game. Borussia Dortmund II is coached by David Wagner.
The Under-19 and the Under-17 teams currently play in the Under 19 Bundesliga and Under 17 Bundesliga respectively. The club operates an academy for boys from the age of nine upwards. Home games are staged at the club's training ground Hohenbuschei. Lars Ricken, a former Dortmund player and German international, has been the youth coordinator since 2008.49
In July 1935 Fritz Thelen became the club's first full-time head coach. But Thelen wasn't available in the first months of the season, so that Borussia Dortmund player and Germany international Ernst Kuzorra take over for the first time of the season instead.505152 In 1966, Willi Multhaup leading his side to clinch the European Cup Winners' Cup and Dortmund became the first German team to win a European trophy. Horst Köppel was the coach to bring major silverware to the club for the first time after over 20 years, winning the DFB-Pokal in 1989. Ottmar Hitzfeld was the club's most successful coach, having won the Bundesliga and the Supercup each twice. In 1997, Dortmund had to wait for continental success for over 30 years, Hitzfeld crowned his period with an unexpected triumph and won the Champions League. Dortmund won the Intercontinental Cup in 1997 and head coach Nevio Scala became the first and so far the only non-native speaker who won a major title. In 2001–02, Matthias Sammer, a former BVB player, brought the league title back to Dortmund. In 2008–09, the club approached 1. FSV Mainz 05 head coach Jürgen Klopp. He won the club's 7th championship title in the 2010–11 season. In his fourth season, Dortmund won the Bundesliga and the DFB-Pokal to complete the first league and cup double in the club's history.53
* Served as caretaker coach.
Borussia Dortmund's name is attached to a number of Bundesliga records: