Boston Marathon

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Boston Marathon
Bostonmarathonlogo.jpg
The Boston Marathon logo
Date Third Monday of April (Patriots' Day)
Location Eastern Massachusetts, ending in Boston
Event type Road
Distance Marathon
Established 1897
Course records Men: 2:03:02 (2011)
Geoffrey Mutai
Women: 2:18:57 (2014)
Rita Jeptoo
Official site www.bostonmarathon.org

The Boston Marathon is an annual marathon hosted by several cities in Greater Boston in eastern Massachusetts. It is always held on Patriots' Day, the third Monday of April. Begun in 1897, inspired by the success of the first modern-day marathon competition in the 1896 Summer Olympics,1 the Boston Marathon is the world's oldest annual marathon and ranks as one of the world's best-known road racing events. It is one of six World Marathon Majors.

Since 1897, the Boston Athletic Association (B.A.A.) has managed this event.2 Amateur and professional runners from all over the world compete in the Boston Marathon each year, braving the hilly New England terrain and varying weather to take part in the race.

The event attracts 500,000 spectators each year, making it New England's most widely viewed sporting event.3 Though starting with 18 participants in 1897, the event now attracts an average of about 30,000 registered participants each year, with 26,839 people entering in 2013.4 The Centennial Boston Marathon in 1996 established a record as the world's largest marathon with 38,708 entrants, 36,748 starters, and 35,868 finishers.3

History

Boston Marathon Finish Line, 1910.

The Boston Marathon was first run in April 1897, inspired by the revival of the marathon for the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens. It is the oldest continuously running marathon, and the second longest continuously running footrace in North America, having debuted five months after the Buffalo Turkey Trot.5

On April 19, 1897, ten years after the establishment of the B.A.A., the association held the 24.5 mile (39.4 km) marathon to conclude its athletic competition, the B.A.A. Games.2 The event was scheduled for the recently established holiday of Patriots Day, with the race linking the Athenian and American struggles for liberty.6 The race, which became known as the Boston Marathon, has been held every year since then, making it the world's oldest annual marathon. In 1924, the starting line was moved from Metcalf's Mill in Ashland to Hopkinton Green and the course was lengthened to 26 miles 385 yards (42.195 km) to conform to the standard set by the 1908 Summer Olympics and codified by the IAAF in 1921.7

The Boston Marathon was originally a local event, but its fame and status have attracted runners from all over the world. For most of its history, the Boston Marathon was a free event, and the only prize awarded for winning the race was a wreath woven from olive branches.8 However, corporate-sponsored cash prizes began to be awarded in the 1980s, when professional athletes began to refuse to run the race without cash awards. The first cash prize for winning the marathon was awarded in 1986.9

Walter A. Brown was the President of the Boston Athletic Association from 1941 to 1964.10 In 1951, during the height of the Korean War, Brown denied Koreans entry into the Boston Marathon. He stated: "While American soldiers are fighting and dying in Korea, every Korean should be fighting to protect his country instead of training for marathons. As long as the war continues there, we positively will not accept Korean entries for our race on April 19."11

Women were not allowed to enter the Boston Marathon officially until 1972. Roberta "Bobbi" Gibb is recognized, by the race organizers, as the first woman to run the entire Boston Marathon (in 1966). In 1967, Kathrine Switzer, who had registered as "K. V. Switzer", was the first woman to run and finish with a race number. She finished despite a famous incident in which race official Jock Semple tried to rip off her numbers and eject her from the race.12 In 1996 the B.A.A. retroactively recognized as champions the unofficial women's leaders of 1966 through 1971. In 2011, about 43 percent of the entrants were female.

Rosie Ruiz scandal

Scandal came to the Boston Marathon in 1980 when amateur runner Rosie Ruiz came from out of nowhere to win the women's race. Marathon officials became suspicious when it was discovered Ruiz did not appear in race videotapes until near the end of the race. A subsequent investigation concluded that Ruiz had skipped most of the race and blended into the crowd about one mile (1.6 km) from the finish line, where she then ran to her apparent victory. Ruiz was officially disqualified, and the winner was proclaimed to be Canadian Jacqueline Gareau.1314

Deaths

In 1996, a 62-year-old Swedish man died of a heart attack during the 100th anniversary event.15 In 2002, Cynthia Lucero, 28, died of hyponatremia.16

2011 Boston Marathon

On Monday, April 18, 2011 Geoffrey Mutai of Kenya won the Boston Marathon in a time of 2:03:02.17 In recognizing Mutai's mark as the "fastest Marathon ever run", the International Association of Athletics Federations noted that the performance was not eligible for world record status given that the course does not satisfy rules regarding elevation drop and start/finish separation (the latter requirement being intended to prevent advantages gained from a strong tailwind, as was the case in 2011).18 The Associated Press reported that Mutai has the support of other runners who describe the IAAF's rules as "flawed".19 According to the Boston Herald, race director Dave McGillivray said he was sending paperwork to the IAAF to have Mutai's mark ratified as a world record.17 The AP also indicated that the attempt to have the mark certified as a world record "would force the governing bodies to reject an unprecedented performance on the world's most prestigious marathon course".19

2013 bombings

During the 2013 Boston Marathon, on April 15, 2013 at 2:49 p.m. EDT, nearly three hours after the winners crossed the finish line, two explosions occurred about 200 yards (180 m) apart on Boylston Street, in approximately the last 225 yards (205 m) of the course. The race was halted, preventing many from finishing.2021 Three spectators were killed and more than 200 people were injured.2223 Entrants who completed at least half the course and did not finish due to the bombings were given automatic entry in 2014.24

Race

Qualifying

Boston Marathon
Qualifying Standards

(effective for 2014 race)

Age Men Women
18–34 3hrs 5min 3 hrs 35min
35–39 3hrs 10min 3 hrs 40min
40–44 3hrs 15min 3 hrs 45min
45–49 3hrs 25min 3 hrs 55min
50–54 3hrs 30min 4 hrs 0min
55–59 3hrs 40min 4 hrs 10min
60–64 3hrs 55min 4 hrs 25min
65–69 4hrs 10min 4 hrs 40min
70–74 4hrs 25min 4 hrs 55min
75–79 4hrs 40min 5 hrs 10min
80+ 4hrs 55min 5 hrs 25min

The Boston Marathon is open to runners 18 or older from any nation, but they must meet certain qualifying standards.25 To qualify, a runner must first complete a standard marathon course certified by a national governing body affiliated with the International Association of Athletics Federations within a certain period of time before the date of the desired Boston Marathon (usually within approximately 18 months prior).

In the 1980s and 1990s, membership in USA Track & Field was required of all runners, but this requirement has been eliminated.

Qualifying standards for the 2013 race were tightened on February 15, 2011, by five minutes in each age-gender group for marathons run after September 23, 2011.26 Prospective runners in the age range of 18–34 must run a time of no more than 3:05:00 (3 hours and 5 minutes) if male, or 3:35:00 (3 hours and 35 minutes) if female; the qualifying time is adjusted upward as age increases. In addition, the 59-second grace period on qualifying times has been completely eliminated; for example, a 40- to 44-year-old male will no longer qualify with a time of 3:15:01. For many marathoners to qualify for Boston (to "BQ") is a goal and achievement in itself.2728

An exception to the qualification times is for runners who receive entries from partners. About one-fifth of the marathon's spots are reserved each year for charities, sponsors, vendors, licensees, consultants, municipal officials, local running clubs, and marketers. In 2010, about 5,470 additional runners received entries through partners, including 2,515 charity runners.29 The marathon currently allocates spots to two dozen charities who in turn are expected to raise more than $10 million a year.30

On October 18, 2010, the 20,000 spots reserved for qualifiers were filled in a record-setting eight hours and three minutes.31 The speed of registration prompted the B.A.A. to change its qualifying standards for the 2013 marathon onward.26 In addition to lowering qualifying times, the change includes a rolling application process, which gives faster runners priority. Organizers decided not to significantly adjust the number of non-qualifiers.

Race day

The race has traditionally been held on Patriots' Day,32 a state holiday in Massachusetts, and until 1969 that was every April 19, whichever day of the week that fell on. Starting in 1969, the holiday was observed on the third Monday in April33 and so the marathon date was correspondingly fixed to that Monday, often referred to by local residents as "Marathon Monday."34

Starting times

Through 2005, the race began at noon (wheelchair race at 11:25 am, and elite women at 11:31 am), at the official starting point in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Beginning with the 2006 event, the race has used a staggered "wave start," where (in 2006) top seeded runners (the elite men's group) and a first batch of up to 10,000 runners started at noon, with a second group starting at 12:30. Beginning in 2007 the starting times for the race were moved up, allowing runners to take advantage of cooler temperatures and enabling the roads to be reopened earlier. The marathon later added a third wave to help further stagger the runners and reduce congestion.353637

As of 2014, the starting times are:

  • 8:50 a.m.: Mobility Impaired
  • 9:17 a.m.: Wheelchair Division
  • 9:22 a.m.: Handcycle Participants
  • 9:32 a.m.: Elite Women
  • 10:00 a.m.: Elite Men and Wave One
  • 10:25 a.m.: Wave Two
  • 11:00 a.m.: Wave Three38
  • 11:25 a.m.: Wave Four

Course

Course map

The course runs through 26 miles 385 yards (42.195 km) of winding roads, following Route 135, Route 16, Route 30 and city streets into the center of Boston, where the official finish line is located at Copley Square, alongside the Boston Public Library. The race runs through eight Massachusetts cities and towns: Hopkinton, Ashland, Framingham, Natick, Wellesley, Newton, Brookline, and Boston.39

Robert Kipkoech Cheruiyot in the 2006 Boston Marathon, where he set a new course record.

The Boston Marathon is considered to be one of the more difficult marathon courses because of the Newton hills, which culminate in Heartbreak Hill near Boston College.40 While the three hills on Commonwealth Avenue (Route 30) are better known, a preceding hill on Washington Street (Route 16), climbing from the Charles River crossing at 16 miles (26 km), is regarded by Dave McGillivray, the long-term race director, as the course’s most difficult challenge.4142 This hill, which follows a 150-foot (46 m) drop in a half-mile stretch, forces many lesser-trained runners to a walking pace.

Heartbreak Hill

Heartbreak Hill is an ascent over 0.4-mile (600 m) between the 20 and 21-mile (32 and 34 km) marks, near Boston College. It is the last of four "Newton hills", which begin at the 16-mile (26 km) mark and challenge contestants with late (if modest) climbs after the course's general downhill trend to that point. Though Heartbreak Hill itself rises only 88 feet (27 m) vertically (from an elevation of 148 feet (45 m) to 236 feet (72 m)),43 it comes in the portion of a marathon distance where muscle glycogen stores are most likely to be depleted—a phenomenon referred to by marathoners as "hitting the wall."

It was on this hill that, in 1936, defending champion John A. "Johnny" Kelley overtook Ellison "Tarzan" Brown, giving him a consolatory pat on the shoulder as he passed. This gesture renewed the competitive drive in Brown, who rallied, pulled ahead of Kelley, and went on to win—thereby, it was said, breaking Kelley's heart.4445

Records

Participants in the 2010 Boston Marathon in Wellesley, just after the halfway mark

Because the course drops 459 feet (140 m) from start to finish19 and the start is quite far west of the finish, allowing a helpful tailwind, the Boston Marathon does not satisfy two of the criteria necessary for the ratification of world46 or American records.47

On April 18, 2011, Geoffrey Mutai of Kenya ran the fastest marathon ever in a time of 2:03:02 at the 2011 Boston Marathon.4849 Rita Jeptoo, also from Kenya, set the women's course record with a 2:18:57 performance on April 21, 2014.50

Other course records include:

  • Men’s Masters: John Campbell (New Zealand), 2:11:04 (set in 1990)
  • Women’s Masters: Mary Hannah (United States), 2:27:58 (set in 2012)
  • Men’s Push Rim Wheelchair: Joshua Cassidy (Canada), 1:18:25 (set in 2012)
  • Women’s Push Rim Wheelchair: Jean Driscoll (United States), 1:34:22 (set in 1994)50

On only four occasions have world record times for marathon running been set in Boston.citation needed In 1947, the men's record time set was 2:25:39, by Suh Yun-Bok of South Korea. In 1975, a women's world record of 2:42:24 was set by Liane Winter of West Germany, and in 1983, Joan Benoit Samuelson of the United States ran a women's world record time of 2:22:43. In 2012 Joshua Cassidy of Canada set a men's wheelchair marathon world-record time of 1:18:25.

The race's organizers keep a standard time clock for all entries, though official timekeeping ceases after the six-hour mark.

The B.A.A.

The Boston Athletic Association is a non-profit, organized sports association that organizes the Boston Marathon and other events.251

Divisions

In 1975, the Boston Marathon became the first major marathon to include a wheelchair division competition.3 Bob Hall wrote race director Will Cloney to ask if he could compete in the race in his wheelchair. Cloney wrote back that he could not give Hall a race number, but would recognize Hall as an official finisher if he completed the race in under 3 hours and 30 minutes. Hall finished in 2 hours and 58 minutes, paving the way for the wheelchair division.52

In addition to the push rim wheelchair division, the Boston Marathon also hosts a blind/visually impaired division and a mobility impaired program. Similar to the running divisions, a set of qualifying times has been developed for these divisions to motivate aspiring athletes and ensure competitive excellence. In 1986, the introduction of prize money at the Boston Marathon gave the push rim wheelchair division the richest prize purse in the sport. More than 1,000 people with disabilities and impairments have participated in the wheelchair division, while the other divisions have gained popularity each year.53 In 2013, 40 blind runners participated.54

Memorial

The Boston Marathon Memorial in Copley Square, not far from the finish line, was installed to mark the one-hundredth running of the race. A circle of granite blocks set in the ground surrounds a central medallion that traces the race course and other segments that show an elevation map of the course and the names of the winners.55

Notable features

Spectators

With approximately 500,000 spectators, the Boston Marathon is New England's most widely viewed sporting event.3 About 1,000 media members from more than 100 outlets received media credentials in 2011.56

For the entire distance of the race, thousands line the sides of the course to cheer the runners on, encourage them, and provide free water and snacks to the runners.

Scream Tunnel

At Wellesley College, a women's college, it is traditional for the students to cheer on the runners in what is referred to as the Scream Tunnel.5758 For about a quarter of a mile (400 m), the students line the course, scream, and offer kisses. The Scream Tunnel is so loud runners claim it can be heard from a mile away. The tunnel is roughly half a mile (0.8 km) prior to the halfway mark of the course.5960

Boston Red Sox

Every year, the Boston Red Sox play a home game at Fenway Park, starting at 11:05 am. When the game ends, the crowd empties into Kenmore Square to cheer as the runners enter the final mile. This tradition started in 1903.61 In the 1940s, the Red Sox from the American League and the Boston Braves from the National League (who moved to Milwaukee after the 1953 season) alternated yearly as to which would play the morning game. In 2007, the game between the Red Sox and the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim was delayed until 12:18 pm due to heavy rain. The marathon, which had previously been run in a wide variety of weather conditions, was not delayed.62

Dick and Rick Hoyt

Team Hoyt at 12.5 miles on the Marathon course on April 16, 2012

One of the most recognized duos each year at the Boston Marathon is Dick and Rick Hoyt.63 Dick is the father of Rick, who has cerebral palsy. While doctors said he would never have a normal life and thought that institutionalizing Rick was the best option, Dick and his wife disagreed and raised him as an ordinary child. Eventually a computer device was developed that helped Rick communicate with his family, and they learned that one of his biggest passions was sports. "Team Hoyt" (Dick and Rick) started competing in charity runs, with Dick pushing Rick in a wheelchair. Dick and Rick have competed in 66 marathons and 229 triathlons (as of August 2008). Their top marathon finish was 2:40:47. The team completed their 30th Boston Marathon in 2012, when Dick was 72 and Rick was 50.64 They had intended the 2013 marathon to be their final one, but due to the Boston Marathon bombings were stopped a mile short of completing their run, and decided to run one more marathon the following year. They completed the 2014 marathon on April 21, 2014, having previously announced that it would be their last.65

Bandits

Unlike many other races, the Boston Marathon tolerates bandits, or runners who do not register and pay an entry fee.66 They are held back until after all the registered runners have left the starting line, and then are released in an unofficial fourth wave. They are also not pulled off the course and are allowed to cross the finish line.66

Given the increased field that is planned for the 2014 Marathon, however, organizers plan "more than ever" to discourage bandits from running.67

Costumes

A number of people choose to run the course in a variety of costumes each year.6869 During the 100th running in 1997, one runner wore a scale model of the Old North Church steeple on his back. Old North Church is where the signal that set Paul Revere off on his midnight ride was lit, and which is commemorated each year on the same day as the Marathon.

See also

References

  1. ^ "The First Boston Marathon". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c "Boston Athletic Association: Established March 15, 1887". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Boston Marathon History: Boston Marathon Facts". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  4. ^ "2013 Boston Marathon Statistics". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 21, 2013. 
  5. ^ Graham, Tim (November 24, 2011). "Pollow takes third consecutive Turkey Trot amid the goofballs". The Buffalo News. Retrieved November 24, 2011. 
  6. ^ "The History of the Boston Marathon: A Perfect Way to Celebrate Patriot's Day". The Atlantic. Retrieved April 23, 2013. 
  7. ^ "Timeline of Events". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Q&A: The Boston Marathon". Wasabi Media Group. Retrieved April 4, 2011. 
  9. ^ "De Castella and Kristiansen Win First Cash Prize". NY Times Co. Retrieved April 4, 2011. 
  10. ^ Pave, Marvin (April 17, 2008). "Legacy on the line". The Boston Globe. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Sport: Banned in Boston". Time. February 12, 1951. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  12. ^ "NPR: Marathon Women". NPR. April 15, 2002. Retrieved April 14, 2011. 
  13. ^ Boston Athletic Association (2011). "Boston Marathon History: 1976–1980". baa.org. Boston: Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Boston disqualifies Rosie Ruiz". Boca Raton News. April 30, 1980. p. 3C. Retrieved March 9, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Boston Marathon Appears to Have a Lower Heart-Attack Death Rate Than Other Marathons". Runners World. April 5, 2011. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Fluid Cited in Marathoner's Death". Associated Press. August 13, 2002. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  17. ^ a b Connolly, John (April 20, 2011). "BAA on record: Geoffrey Mutai’s No. 1". Boston Herald. Retrieved April 20, 2011. 
  18. ^ Monti, David (April 18, 2011). "Strong winds and ideal conditions propel Mutai to fastest Marathon ever – Boston Marathon report". iaaf.org. International Association of Athletics Federations. Retrieved April 18, 2011. 
  19. ^ a b c Golen, Jimmy (April 19, 2011). "Boston wants Mutai's 2:03:02 to be world record". The Boston Globe. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  20. ^ "Explosions rock Boston Marathon, several injured". CNN. April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  21. ^ Golen, Jimmy (April 15, 2013). "Two explosions at Boston marathon finish line". AP Newswire. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  22. ^ McConville, Christine (April 23, 2013). "Marathon injury toll jumps to 260". Boston Herald. Retrieved April 23, 2013. 
  23. ^ "Injury toll from Marathon bombings rises". Retrieved April 23, 2013. 
  24. ^ Stableford, Dylan (May 16, 2013). "Runners who didn’t finish Boston Marathon due to bombings to get automatic entry in 2014". The Lookout. Retrieved June 27, 2013. 
  25. ^ "Participant Information: Qualifying". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 14, 2011. 
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  27. ^ Burfoot, Amby (April 6, 2009). "All in the Timing". Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  28. ^ Mannes, George (March 29, 2011). "B.Q. or Die". Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  29. ^ Hohler, Bob; Springer, Shira (February 17, 2011). "Marathon qualifying is revised". The Boston Globe. Retrieved April 17, 2011. 
  30. ^ "Boston Marathon Official Charity Program". BAA. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  31. ^ Shira Springer (October 19, 2010). "Online, sprinters win race: Marathon fills its field in a record 8 hours". NY Times Co. Retrieved April 14, 2011. 
  32. ^ "The Boston Marathon Is Held on Patriots' Day, Which Has Become an Unofficial Anti-Government Day of Action". Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  33. ^ "Patriot's Day in United States". Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  34. ^ Hansen, Amy (April 15, 2013). "Potter Twp. native recalls Marathon Monday". Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  35. ^ "Boston Marathon Set to Begin Two Hours Earlier". VisitingNewEngland.com. Retrieved April 14, 2011. 
  36. ^ "Time lapse video of 2008 marathon start". The New York Times. March 1, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2011. 
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  38. ^ "Race Day Schedule". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 15, 2013. 
  39. ^ "Event Information: Spectator Information". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  40. ^ Bakken, Marius. "Boston Marathon: Pros and Cons". Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  41. ^ Connelly, Michael (1998). 26 Miles to Boston. Parnassus Imprints. pp. 105–06. 
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  45. ^ "Recalling The Most Memorable Boston Moments". Competitor Group, Inc. April 13, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2011. 
  46. ^ Malone, Scott; Krasny, Ros (April 18, 2011). "Mutai runs fastest marathon ever at Boston". Reuters. Retrieved April 18, 2011. 
  47. ^ "USATF Rule 265(5)". USATF. p. 9. Retrieved April 14, 2011. 
  48. ^ Connolly, John (April 19, 2011). "Geoffrey Mutai in a hurry to set new marathon marks". Boston Herald. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  49. ^ May, Peter (April 18, 2011). "Kenya’s Mutai Wins Boston in 2:03:02". The New York Times. Retrieved April 18, 2011. 
  50. ^ a b "Boston Marathon course records". Boston Globe marathon site. April 18, 2011. Retrieved April 17, 2011. 
  51. ^ Hanc, John (2012). The B.A.A. at 125: The Official History of the Boston Athletic Association, 1887-2012. Sports Publishing. ISBN 978-1613211984. 
  52. ^ Savicki, Mike. "Wheelchair Racing in the Boston Marathon". Disaboom. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  53. ^ "Paving the way for disabled athletes since 1975". Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  54. ^ "Running blind: 40 sightless runners competing in Boston marathon". Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  55. ^ "100 Public Artworks". Boston Marathon Memorial. Boston Art Commission. p. 3. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  56. ^ "Driven to Repeat". Boston Herald. Retrieved April 17, 2011. 
  57. ^ Pave, Marvin (April 22, 2003). "Resounding Wellesley message: voices carry". Boston Globe. Retrieved March 30, 2009. 
  58. ^ "Runner's World Slideshow: 2008 Boston Marathon". Runnersworld.com. 2008. Retrieved March 30, 2009. 
  59. ^ "Marathon Monday". Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  60. ^ "Support, kisses at marathon's Scream Tunnel". The Boston Globe. April 16, 2012. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  61. ^ "Move Over Marathon: Red Sox Share the Tradition of Patriots’ Day". Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  62. ^ "Patriots’ Day Weather". April 20, 2009. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  63. ^ Bousquet, Josh (April 15, 2012). "Dick and Rick Hoyt are Boston Marathon fixtures". Telegram & Gazette. Retrieved December 13, 2012. 
  64. ^ "Dick And Rick Hoyt Complete 30th Boston Marathon". April 16, 2012. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  65. ^ "Team Hoyt -- father and son Dick and Rick Hoyt -- finish final Boston Marathon". MassLive.com (Associated Press). April 21, 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  66. ^ a b Helliker, Kevin. "Fleet of Foot and Blissfully Bold, Freeloaders at the Marathon Wear Fake Bibs—but Win No Prizes". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 5, 2013. 
  67. ^ McGoldrick, Hannah. "Q&A with B.A.A. Executive Director and Boston Marathon Race Director". Runners World. Retrieved November 5, 2013. 
  68. ^ "Costumed runners". Boston.com. April 17, 2011. Retrieved November 5, 2013. 
  69. ^ "Boston Marathon 2013 costumed runners". Boston.com. Retrieved November 5, 2013. 

Further reading

  • History of the Boston Marathon, Boston Marathon: The First Century of the World's Premier Running Event, by Tom Derderian, Human Kinetics Publishers, 1996, 634 pages, ISBN 0-88011-479-7

External links

General reference

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