British Rail Class 345
|British Rail Class 345|
An artist's impression of the Class 345 Aventra
|In service||May 20171|
|Built at||Derby Litchurch Lane1|
|Number under construction||651|
|Formation||9 carriage sets2|
|Capacity||450 seated, 4 wheelchair, 1500 people total3|
|Depot(s)||Old Oak Common1|
|Line(s) served||Maidenhead/Heathrow – Shenfield/Abbey Wood|
|Train length||200 metres (660 ft)1|
|Doors||Plug, 6 per carriage|
|Maximum speed||145 km/h (90 mph)3|
|Weight||less than 350 tonnes3|
|Electric system(s)||25kV 50Hz AC3
conversion to 750V DC optional3
|Current collection method||Pantograph|
|Safety system(s)||Automatic Train Operation (central section)3
AWS (on surface),
TPWS (on surface),
ATP (GWML only)3
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
Class 345 are electric multiple units to be built by Bombardier Transportation for London Crossrail.42 The contract worth £1 billion will cover 65 nine-car Aventra trains 200m long carrying up to 1,500 passengers to speeds of up to 145 km/h, and maintenance at a depot at Old Oak Common.2
In 2008 the UK government's rolling stock plan stated a requirement for around 600 passenger rail vehicles for Crossrail, expected to be similar in design to the Thameslink rolling stock), to meet the design improvement requirements of the 'Rail Technical Strategy' (RTS) published 2007, including in-cab signalling/communication including satellite and ERTMS level 3 technologies, regenerative braking, low cost of operation and high reliability, with low weight and high acceleration.56
The procurement programme was launched in December 2010. The package valued at approximately £1bn was for 60 high-capacity ten-carriage trains with a capacity of about 1,500 passengers and construction of maintenance depots.7 In March 2011, Crossrail announced that Alstom, Bombardier, CAF, Hitachi and Siemens had been shortlisted. The initial bidding process was expected to start in late 2011, with a contract decision in 2013.89
In August 2011 the invitation to tender was delayed by one year to 2012 and the contract decision to 2014, with the introduction of trains on the Great Eastern Main Line expected from May 2017 (previously December 2016), with a correspondingly shortended production schedule. The delay was a cost-saving measure to avoid new vehicles being unused whilst Crossrail tunnelling was completed;10 it also postponed bidding until after a review of governmental procurement processes.1112 Alstom withdrew from the bidding process in August 2011, stating it lacked a suitable developed product.12 Concerns about taxpayer value for money on PFI funded projects led to Transport for London (TfL) seeking to purchase the trains outright.13 In December 2011 the request to raise the debt ceiling at TfL to allow the acquisition with public funds was refused by the Department for Transport.14
In February 2012 an invitation to negotiate was issued, which included clauses on 'responsible procurement' relating to UK supply chain sourcing and training opportunities;15 the procurement became politicised after Bombardier failed to win the Thameslink rolling stock programme, and said it may have to close its UK assembly plant (Derby Litchurch Lane) if it did not win the Crossrail contract.1617
The publicly released specifications included a passenger capacity of 1500, with 450 seated in a fully air-conditioned train no longer than 205 m (673 ft) with a top speed of 145 km/h (90 mph), and an energy efficiency as good as 24kWh per train kilometre. Integration with Platform screen doors is also expected.3 The contract included construction of a depot at Old Oak Common; the capital value was estimated at around £1 billion,15 the total value may be greater due to the winning bidder expected to undertake maintenance of the trains for three decades.16
Formal bids were expected in mid-2012, with a decision in early 2014, based on the roposed product meeting the design requirements, and on value for money. Procurement is expected to be ppartly public and partly privately financed.15 In September 2012 the government announced that it would underwrite a further £240million of the project cost under its 'UK Guarantees' infrastructure credit funding scheme, in addition to the 30 per cent of the project being government funded.18
Siemens withdrew from the tendering process in July 2013 citing a likelihood of insufficient production capacity in the production timeframe.19 In December 2013 the European Investment Bank (EIB) agreed to provide loans to Transport for London for the rolling stock of up to £500 million.20 On 6 February 2014 it was announced that Canada's Bombardier had been awarded a £1bn contract to supply 65 trains.21 with an option for 18 more.2
- First Capital Connect
- Aventra, Desiro City; Contemporary Bombardier and Siemens UK multiple unit designs.
- "Crossrail rolling stock and depot contract to be awarded to Bombardier" (Press release). Department of Transport. 6 February 2014.
- "Bombardier wins Crossrail train contract". Railway Gazette International. 6 February 2014.
- "Crossrail rolling stock contract invitations to negotiate issued". Railway Gazette International. 28 February 2012.
- "Crossrail Rolling Stock (Rolling Stock Technical Fact Sheet)". Crossrail. February 2012.
- "Bombardier wins £1bn Crossrail deal". BBC News. 6 February 2014.
- Sources "Rail Technical Strategy":
- "Department for Transport – Rolling stock plan". Department for Transport. 30 January 2008. Archived from the original on 5 June 2008.
- "Crossrail seeks privately-financed rolling stock". Railway Gazette International. 1 December 2010.
- "Crossrail confirms shortlist for rolling stock and depot facilities" (Press release). Crossrail. 30 March 2011.
- "Crossrail issues rolling stock shortlist". Railway Gazette International. 30 March 2011.
- "Update on Crossrail rolling stock and depot procurement" (Press release). Crossrail. 30 August 2011.
- "Crossrail postpones rolling stock tenders because of government review". New Civil Engineer. 30 August 2011.
- "Could Crossrail Contract Delay Save UK Jobs?". BskyB. 30 August 2011.
- Robert Wright; Helen Warrell (30 August 2011). "Alstom quits delayed Crossrail bids". Financial Times.
- Dan Milmo (9 October 2011). "Transport for London warns against PFI deal for Crossrail". The Observer.
- Mark Leftly (4 December 2011). "It could be back to the drawing board for Crossrail funding". The Independent.
- Dan Milmo (11 December 2011). "Minister blocks Boris Johnson's plan to fund £1bn Crossrail project". The Guardian.
- Jim Pickard; Mark Odell (27 February 2012). "Crossrail tender favours UK". The Financial Times. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
- Mark Odell (12 February 2012). "Bombardier warns on Derby plant’s future". The Financial Times.
- Mark Leftly (27 February 2012). "Britain must accept Bombardier's contract miss, says German rival". The Independent.
- Dan Milmo (26 February 2012). "Why Bombardier's bid for Crossrail means so much to Litchurch Lane". The Observer.
- François Shalom (29 February 2012). "Bombardier on $1.6B shortlist". Postmedia Network.dead link
- "UK to underwrite funding for Crossrail trains-minister". Reuters. 25 September 2012.
- "Crossrail stock procurement to benefit from UK Guarantees scheme". www.out-law.com. 26 September 2012.
- "Crossrail rolling stock procurement" (Press release). Siemens. 5 July 2013.
- "EIB provides £500m loan for Crossrail trains". Railway Gazette International. 13 December 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
- "Bombardier wins £1bn Crossrail deal". BBC News. 6 February 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "Rolling Stock Plan : Crossrail". www2.dft.gov.uk. Department for Transport.
- Trains Information from crossrail.co.uk