Brodmann area

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Brodmann areas 3D

A Brodmann area is a region of the human cerebral cortex defined based on its cytoarchitectonics, or structure and organization of cells.

History

A number of important Brodmann areas have been marked out on this brain.

Brodmann areas were originally defined and numbered by the German anatomist Korbinian Brodmann based on the cytoarchitectural organization of neurons he observed in the cerebral cortex using the Nissl stain. Brodmann published his maps of cortical areas in humans, monkeys, and other species in 1909,1 along with many other findings and observations regarding the general cell types and laminar organization of the mammalian cortex. (The same Brodmann area number in different species does not necessarily indicate homologous areas.2) A similar, but more detailed cortical map was published by Constantin von Economo and Georg N. Koskinas in 1925.3

Present importance

Brodmann areas have been discussed, debated, refined, and renamed exhaustively for nearly a century and remain the most widely known and frequently cited cytoarchitectural organization of the human cortex.

Many of the areas Brodmann defined based solely on their neuronal organization have since been correlated closely to diverse cortical functions. For example, Brodmann areas 1, 2 and 3 are the primary somatosensory cortex; area 4 is the primary motor cortex; area 17 is the primary visual cortex; and areas 41 and 42 correspond closely to primary auditory cortex. Higher order functions of the association cortical areas are also consistently localized to the same Brodmann areas by neurophysiological, functional imaging, and other methods (e.g., the consistent localization of Broca's speech and language area to the left Brodmann areas 44 and 45). However, functional imaging can only identify the approximate localization of brain activations in terms of Brodmann areas since their actual boundaries in any individual brain requires its histological examination.

Brodmann areas for human & non-human primates

(*) Area only found in non-human primates.

Some of the original Brodmann areas have been subdivided further, e.g., "23a" and "23b".5

Clickable map: lateral surface

Area 5 – Somatosensory Association Cortex Area 7 – Somatosensory Association Cortex Area 9 – Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Area 22 – Superior temporal gyrus Area 37 – Fusiform gyrus Area 39 – Angular gyrus Area 40 – Supramarginal gyrus Area 44 – pars opercularis, part of Broca's area Area 45 – pars triangularis, Broca's area Image MapImage mapped Brodmann Areas. Clicking on an area in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article.
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Clickable map: medial surface

Areas 3, 1 & 2 – Primary Somatosensory Cortex area 4 – primary motor cortex Area 5 – Somatosensory Association Cortex Area 6 – Premotor cortex and Supplementary Motor Cortex (Secondary Motor Cortex)(Supplementary motor area Area 7 – Somatosensory Association Cortex Area 8 – Includes Frontal eye fields Area 9 – Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Area 10 – Anterior prefrontal cortex Area 11 – Orbitofrontal area Area 12 – Orbitofrontal area Area 17 – Primary visual cortex (V1) Area 18 – Secondary visual cortex (V2) Area 19 – Associative visual cortex (V3) Area 19 – Associative visual cortex (V3) Area 18 – Secondary visual cortex (V2) Area 23 – Ventral Posterior cingulate cortex Area 24 – Ventral Anterior cingulate cortex Area 25 – Subgenual cortex (part of the Ventromedial prefontal cortex) Area 26 – Ectosplenial portion of the retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex Area 27 – Piriform cortex Area 28 – Posterior Entorhinal Cortex Area 29 – Retrosplenial cingulate cortex Area 30 – Part of cingulate cortex Area 31 – Dorsal Posterior cingulate cortex Area 32 – Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex Area 33 – Part of anterior cingulate cortex Area 34 – Anterior Entorhinal Cortex (on the Parahippocampal gyrus) Area 35 – Perirhinal cortex (on the Parahippocampal gyrus) Area 20 – Inferior temporal gyrus Area 37 – Fusiform gyrus Areas 3, 1 & 2 – Primary Somatosensory Cortex Area 38 – Temporopolar area Image MapImage mapped Brodmann Areas. Clicking on an area in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article.
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Criticism

When von Bonin and Bailey constructed a brain map for the macaque monkey they found the description of Brodmann inadequate and wrote: "Brodmann (1907), it is true, prepared a map of the human brain which has been widely reproduced, but, unfortunately, the data on which it was based was never published"6 They instead used the cytoarchitechtonic scheme of Constantin von Economo and Georg N. Koskinas published in 19257 which had the "only acceptable detailed description of the human cortex".

See also

References

  1. ^ Brodmann K. Vergleichende Lokalisationslehre der Grosshirnrinde. Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1909
  2. ^ Garey LJ. Brodmann's Localisation in the Cerebral Cortex. New York : Springer, 2006 (ISBN 0-387-26917-7) (ISBN 978-0387-26917-7)
  3. ^ Economo, C., Koskinas, G.N. (1925). Die Cytoarchitektonik der Hirnrinde des erwachsenen Menschen. Wien: Springer Verlag.
  4. ^ http://ukpmc.ac.uk/articles/PMC2268639;jsessionid=BBF4DB8DAFCFCB452BEA9AB7368AB5C6.jvm4
  5. ^ Brent A. Vogt, Deepak N. Pandya, Douglas L. Rosene (August 1987). "Cingulate Cortex of the Rhesus Monkey: I. Cytoarchitecture and Thalamic Afferents". The Journal of Comparative Neurology 262 (2): 256–270. doi:10.1002/cne.902620207. PMID 3624554. 
  6. ^ Gerhardt von Bonin & Percival Bailey (1925). The Neocortex of Macaca Mulatta. Urbana, Illinois: The University of Illinois Press. 
  7. ^ Constantin von Economo & Georg N. Koskinas (1925). Die Cytoarchitektonik der Hirnrinde des erwachsenen Menschen. Vienna and Berlin: Julius Springer. 

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