Buddhism and Eastern religions
Confucianism in particular raised fierce opposition to Buddhism in early history, principally because it perceived Buddhism to be a nihilistic worldview, with a negative impact on society at large. "The Neo-Confucianists had therefore to attack Buddhist cosmological views by affirming, in the firstplace, the reality and concreteness of the universe and of man."1 The prominence of Confucianism in the Chinese society forced Buddhism to endorse certain uniquely Confucianist values. Over time as Buddhism became increasingly accepted by the Chinese intellectual class, relation between these two philosophies became more symbiotic. For example, Buddhism shares many commonalities with Neo-Confucianism, which is Confucianism with more religious elements.
"Before Prince Shotoku made Buddhism the national religion of Japan, many opposed the integration of Buddhism into Japan. Once this forced integration occurred, Japan synchronized Buddhism with its native religion Shinto, resulting in a unique sect of Buddhism existing only on the East Asian Island."2
In the Japanese religion of Shinto, the long coexistence of Buddhism and Shintoism resulted in the merging of Shintoism and Buddhism. Gods in Shintoism were given a position similar to that of Hindu gods in Buddhism. Moreover, because the Buddha Vairochana's symbol was the sun, many equated Amaterasu, the sun goddess, as his previous bodhisattva reincarnation. The later Tokugawa Shogunate era saw a revival of Shinto, and some Shinto scholars began to argue that Buddhas were previous incarnations of Shinto gods, reversing the traditional positions of the two religions. Shinto and Buddhism were officially separated during the Meiji Restoration and the brief, but socially transformative rise of State Shinto followed. In post-war modern Japan, most families count themselves as being of both religions, despite the idea of "official separation". "As time went on, the Japanese became more and more accustomed to including both the kami and Buddhist ideas in their spiritual lives. Philosophers put forward the idea that the kami were "transformations of the Buddha manifested in Japan to save all sentient beings"."3
The relationships between Taoism and Buddhism are complex, as they influenced each other in many ways while often competing for influence. Taoism in its early form was a mixture of early mythology, folk religion, and Taoist philosophy. The arrival of Buddhism forced Taoism to renew and restructure itself into a more organized religion, while addressing similar existential questions raised by Buddhism. Early Buddhism was sometimes seen as a kind of foreign relative of Taoism and its scriptures were often translated into Chinese with Taoist vocabulary. Ch'an Buddhism in particular holds many beliefs in common with philosophical Taoism. "Daoist (Taoist) simplicity stimulated Chan's abandonment of Buddhist theory and was accompanied by another traditional Daoist feature — the emphasis on total absorption in practice of a highly cultivated skill."4
- Buddhism and Jainism
- Buddhism and Hinduism
- Buddhism and Christianity
- God in Buddhism (Buddhism, mysticism, and monotheism)
- Buddhism and Eastern teaching (Buddhism and East Asian teaching)
- Buddhism and psychology
- Buddhism and science
- Buddhist ethics (Buddhism and ethics)
- Buddhist philosophy (Buddhism and Western philosophy)
- Buddhism and Thelema5
- Arthur F. Wright, (1971) Buddhism in Chinese History, Stanford University Press, Stanford California.
- Tang Yi-Jie,(1991) Confucianism, Buddhism, Daoism, Christianity, and Chinese Culture, University of Peking, The Council for research in values and philosophy
- Christine Mollier,(2008) Buddhism and Taoism Face to Face: Scripture, Ritual, and Iconographic exchange in Medieval China, University of Hawaii Press.
- Fung Yu-Lan and Derk Bodde (1942),The Rise of Neo-Confucianism and Its Borrowings From Buddhism and Taoism, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies
- Selfhood and Identity in Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, and Hinduism: Contrasts With the West
- The Influence of Confucianism and Buddhism on Chinese Business
- Religions -- An Introduction to the Study of Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Confucianism, and Tao
- BUDDHISM AND CONFUCIANISM IN CH'I-SUNG'S ESSAY ON TEACHING (YUAN-TAO)
- The Conception of Language And The Use of Paradox In Buddhism And Taoism
- Relations Among Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, and the Development of Chinese Buddhism
- The Fusion of Three Religions and the Self-adjustment of Northern Song's Demoted Literators
- A Study of the Syncretism of the Three Religions from the Evolvement of "Tao"
- An Analysis of How the Fusion of Confucianism,Buddhism and Taoism Reflects in Journey to the West