|This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2010)|
|Population||71,000 approx. (2011) (2006)1 (26th)|
|• Density||268.6/km2 (696/sq mi)|
|Area||252.6 km2 (97.5 sq mi)|
|Time zone||AEST (UTC+10)|
|Location||385 km (239 mi) from Brisbane|
Bundaberg is a city in Queensland, Australia. It is part of the local government area of the Bundaberg Region and is a major centre within Queensland's broader Wide Bay-Burnett geographical region. The city is on the Burnett River, approximately 385 kilometres (239 mi) north of the state capital, Brisbane and 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) inland from the coast.
The first Europeans in the area, were timbergetters and farmers who arrived in 1867. The town was surveyed in 1870 and by 1881 it was gazetted as a municipality. It grew rapidly into a town by 1902 and a city by 1913.
The city name is thought to be an artificial combination of bunda, the Kabi Aboriginal word denoting important man and the German suffix berg indicating mountain.2 The city is colloquially known as "Bundy".
||This article is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay rather than an encyclopedic description of the subject. (January 2013)|
The local Aboriginal group is the Kalki people the inhabitants of the region which stretched from the Burrum river in the south to the Baffle creek in the north who were part of the Kabi Language Group. (Edward Curr 1886).
Tha first white man to visit the region was James Davis an escaped convict from the Moreton Bay Penal settlement in 1830. Davis was referred to as Durrumboi by the local Kabi people. (Rev Dunmore Lang 1861, William Ridley 1866). Another man named Alfred Dale Edwards was adopted into the Kalkie speaking clan Yongkonu (Thyeebalang Roth 1910, Archibald Meston 1892) and was given the moiety name Bunda which was part of the four class matrilineal (female descent) moiety system used by the Kabi people whose territory spread from the Caboolture river in the south to the Kolan river in the north. The Kabi moiety names were Balgoin, Barang, Bunda, Derwain and Tandor (Durrumboi in Ridley 1866), the phratry names were Kupaiathin and Dilbai. Gooreng (Gurang) and Wakka inland or wa'pa (slow speech) utilised the moiety name Banjurr in Balgoin's stead (Mathew 1910). Bunda was not a clan sub-tribe or tribe only one of the moiety names ( Dr T H May 1892 Brisbane Courier). Kabi headquarters is in Bundaberg (Kamarangan 2012). The boundary between the Wahr and Kalkie peoples of the Kabi tribe is the Burnett River.
Queen Maria was the headman (Kamarangan 2012) of the Dilbai phratry over all Kabi people which is an inherited title (Mathew 1910). Maria stated that she was "Queen over all the bloomin' land".
Bundaberg as a European township was founded by timbergetters Bob and George Stewart in 1867.3 The first farmers in the area, including Thomas Watson, arrived soon after. It was local resident and District Surveyor John Charlton Thompson who received the directive to survey a plot an area on the South side of the river. The city was surveyed, laid out and named Bundaberg in 1870.3 It was gazetted a town in 1902 and a city in 1913.
Timber was the first established industry in Bundaberg. In 1868, Samuel Johnston erected a sawmill in Waterview, on the north bank of the Burnett River (downstream from the Steuart and Watson holdings).34 Waterview sawmill supplied Rockhampton as well as local needs. It became prominent enough to prompt the government to extend the railway connecting North Bundaberg with Mount Perry, eastward to the Waterview Mill. Waterview sawmill closed 1903 after being damaged by flood.5
Experimental sugar cane growing in the district followed and a successful industry grew. The first sugar mill was opened in 1882.6 The early sugar industry in Bundaberg was the result of the semi-slave labour carried out by Kanakas.
The naming of Bundaberg's streets was a job for its surveyors, of which there were three. Thompson was assisted by unregistered surveyor assistants James Ellwood and Alfred Dale Edwards.7 Edwards preferred using aboriginal names. Kolan, Woongarra, Barolin, Bingera, Kalkie, Moolboolooman, and for streets Tantitha, Bourbong etc. the later local Kalkie name for a large waterhole in front of the old Post Office Cairns Post 1910 P7 18 Jan W.A Dean. It is a common misconception that the main street was incorrectly gazetted in the Bundaberg Mail as "Bourbong" instead of "Bourbon" street and the name persisted. However, Rackemann conducted a survey of letterheads printed between 1904 and 1957.7 Up until 1940 the count for both names was near enough to equal, with in some cases companies carrying both spelling variations in successive years. However, by 1941 there is no reference to "Bourbon" street. It is thought more likely that Edwards named it after 'Boorbong', the local name given to a series of waterholes near the Rubyanna area.8 (Now East Bundaberg) This is borne out by farmer Robert Strathdee's farming selection in the vicinity of the watering holes being recorded on early survey maps as 'Boorbung'.9 The Bourbong was referred to (Howitt 1904) as the name of one of the initiation ceremonies. Harry Aldridge stated that the scars of initiated men differed from that of Fraser Island in that men on Fraser Island had 5 vertical scars on their chest whereas in Bundaberg the Kalki people had 3 scars across the chest.
Bourbong is in fact Bairbong, bair (chief) and bong means(dead) which refers to the place a waterhole where a chief was speared through the eye. The Kalki people referred to Bundaberg as Bairbara or place of Chiefs the region was referred to as Borral Borral.
Just two years later, in January 2013, Bundaberg experienced its worst flooding in recorded history, with floodwaters from the Burnett River peaking at 9.53 meters. As of January 28, 2013, more than 2000 properties have been affected by floodwaters, which moved in excess of 70 km/h. Two defence force Blackhawk helicopters were brought in from Townsville as part of the evacuation operation, which involved a further 14 aircraft.
Bundaberg has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:
- Bourbong Street: Bourbong Street Weeping Figs13
- Bourbong Street: Bundaberg War Memorial14
- Bourbong Street: Bundaberg War Nurses Memorial and Park15
- Bourbong Street: Kennedy Bridge16
- cnr Maryborough Street: St Andrews Uniting Church17
- Corner of Bargara Road and Zeilke Avenue: Kalkie State School18
- Quay Street: Bundaberg Police Station Complex (former)19
- Quay Street: Burnett Bridge20
- Quay Street: Saltwater Creek Railway Bridge21
- Sir Anthony's Rest Street: Sir Anthony's Rest22
- Thornhill Street: Fairymead House23
- 1 Maryborough Street: Fallon House24
- 17 Sussex Street: East Water Tower25
- 30 George Street: St John's Lutheran Church, Bundaberg26
- 46 Johnston Street: South Sea Islander Church and Hall27
- 55 Woongarra Street: 4BU Radio Station (former)28
- 184 Bourbong Street: Bundaberg School of Arts29
- 191-193 Bourbong Street: Commercial Bank of Sydney (former)30
Bundaberg has a subtropical climate with wet hot summers and mild winters. The climate is the most equable of any Australian town or city and ranked 5th on a worldwide comparison.3 The mean daily maximum temperature is highest in January at 30.3 °C (86.5 °F) Celsius, and the mean daily minimum is lowest in July at 9.9 °C (49.8 °F).31 The coldest temperature recorded in Bundaberg is −0.7 °C (30.7 °F) degrees Celsius, and some inland areas of Bundaberg sometimes experience frosts. The mean annual rainfall is 1,142.6 mm (44.98 in).
|Climate data for Bundaberg Post Office|
|Record high °C (°F)||38.9
|Average high °C (°F)||30.3
|Average low °C (°F)||21.3
|Record low °C (°F)||14.1
|Precipitation mm (inches)||205.8
|Avg. precipitation days||10.0||9.6||9.5||6.6||5.7||4.3||4.0||3.5||3.5||5.2||6.3||7.9||76.1|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology32|
Subtropical Bundaberg is dependent to a large extent on the local sugar industry. Extensive sugar cane fields are found throughout the district and value-adding operations, such as the milling and refinement of sugar, and its packaging and distribution, are located around the city. A local factory that manufactured sugar-cane harvesters was closed down after it was taken over by the US multinational corporation Case New Holland. Most of the raw sugar is exported.6 A bulk terminal for the export of sugar is located on the Burnett River east of Bundaberg.
Another of the city's exports is Bundaberg Rum, made from the sugar cane by-product molasses. Bundaberg is also home to beverage producer Bundaberg Brewed Drinks. Commercial fruit and vegetable production is also significant: avocado, banana, bean, button squash, capsicum, chilli, citrus, cucumber, custard apple, egg fruit, honeydew melon, lychee, mango, passionfruit, potato, pumpkin, rockmelon, snow peas, stone fruit, sweet corn, sweet potato, tomato, watermelon, zucchini.33 Macadamia nuts are also grown.34
Tourism is an important industry in Queensland, and Bundaberg is known as the 'Southern Gateway to the Great Barrier Reef'.3 The city lies near the southern end of the reef in proximity to Lady Elliot and Lady Musgrave Islands. The nearby town of Bargara is an increasingly popular holiday and retirement destination.
The Mon Repos turtle rookery is located on the coast just east of Bundaberg. The northern bank of the Burnett River between the Don Tallon and Burnett bridges is home to a colony of flying foxes.citation needed
Nearby beaches are popular with both locals and tourists.35 Moore Park, to the city's north, has 20 kilometres (12 mi) of golden sandy beach. Beaches on the southern side of the Burnett River are (from north to south) the Oaks Beach, Mon Repos, Nielsen Park, Bargara Beach, Kellys Beach, Innes Park and Elliott Heads.
Tours of the Bundaberg Rum distillery and attractions at Bundaberg's Botanic Gardens, such as the 2 ft (610 mm) narrow gauge36 Australian Sugar Cane Railway, are also popular with tourists.35 The Mystery Craters, 35 un-explained water-filled holes in the ground, discovered in 1971 at South Kolan, are also a tourist attraction.37
Opened in December 2008, the Hinkler Hall of Aviation is an historical aviation tourist attraction that celebrates pioneer solo aviator Bert Hinkler. In 1928, Hinkler was the first person to fly solo from England to Australia.38 The museum includes an exhibition hall, featuring multi-media exhibits, a flight simulator, a theatre, five aircraft and the historic Hinkler House.
Other local attractions & events include the Whaling Wall, East Bundaberg Water Tower, Baldwin Swamp Environmental Park, Alexandra Park Zoo, Barrell House, Bundy in Bloom, Whale watching, reef tours of Lady Musgrave & Lady Elliiot islands, the Bundaberg Show, Bundaberg & Childers Regional Art Galleries, The Bundaberg Gliding school, Fishing Charters, The Bundaberg International Air Show, The Woongarra Marine Park.
Bundaberg has two cinemas. The Reading Cinemas, on Johanna Boulevarde, west Bundaberg, and the Moncrieff Entertainment Centre (formerly known as the Moncrieff Theatre), located on Bourbong Street, central Bundaberg. The Moncrieff Entertainment Centre also holds live musical and theatrical performances year round.39
The Bundaberg Regional Art Gallery (BRAG) is a large multi-purpose visual arts facility located in central Bundaberg.40
The newspaper in Bundaberg is called the NewsMail and it is published from Monday to Saturday. It is available in print and online.41 Several community Newspapers are also available including the Guardian,42 The bugle43 & the Bundaberg Coastline44
- ABC Local Radio: Wide Bay 855 AM/100.1 FM – due to the terrain of the area, both AM and FM frequencies are used.
- 4BU 1332 AM (commercial) - owned by Grant Broadcasters
- Sea FM 93.1 (commercial) – part of the Today Network, owned by Southern Cross Media Group .
- Hitz FM 93.9 (commercial) - owned by Fairfax Media
- 4BCR 94.7 FM (community)
- 4DoubleB 96.3 FM (community)
- Kix Country 97.1 FM (narrowcast) - owned by Grant Broadcasters
- RadioTAB 95.5 FM (narrowcast) - owned by Tatts Group
- ABC Classic FM 98.5 FM
- Triple J 99.3 FM
- ABC Radio National 100.9 FM
- Rebel FM 106.7 FM (Wide Bay)
Local news coverage of Bundaberg and the Wide Bay is provided on all three commercial networks with both Seven Queensland's Seven Local News and Win Queensland's WIN News airing 30-minute local news bulletins each weeknight.
The city has been the location for two film sets, including the 1989 film, The Delinquents, starring Kylie Minogue, which was set in Brisbane, but partly shot in Bundaberg,45 and the 1977 film, The Mango Tree.46
Most major Australian sporting codes are played in Bundaberg, including; rowing, basketball, roller derby, cricket, golf, lawn bowls, netball, tennis, rugby union, rugby league, soccer, hockey, Australian Rules football, and softball.
Basketball - Bundaberg has two professional teams, both competing in the Australian Basketball Association's Queensland Conference (QBL). They are the Bundaberg Radiology Bulls (men) and Bundaberg Radiology Bears and both feature local players.
Tennis - The Bundaberg & District Tennis Senior Association operates eleven floodlit clay courts in Drinan Park, Bundaberg West at the corner of George & Powers Streets.47 Competition tennis is played all year round. The Bundaberg & District Junior Tennis Association operates five artificial grass courts, and two granite courts.
Rowing - Bucca Weir, west of Bundaberg, is home to the state rowing Championships every three years.
Australian Rules football - Bundaberg has two current clubs playing in the AFL Wide Bay competition.
- Across The Waves Bundaberg Eagles (merger of North Bundaberg and Souths/ATW Magpies)
- Brothers Bulldogs (formerly West Bundaberg)
The other clubs in the competition are:
- Hervey Bay Bombers
- Maryborough Bears
- Bay Power
There are many public and private primary schools in Bundaberg.
Bundaberg has three public high schools, Bundaberg North State High School, Bundaberg State High School (the second-oldest high school in Queensland that is still open) and Kepnock State High School. There are also three main private secondary schools: Shalom Catholic College, St Luke's Anglican School, and Bundaberg Christian College.
Bundaberg's bus operator is Duffy's City Buses. As of 2013, they transport over 1000 passengers in town services, and over 2000 passengers in school services every day.48 Routes extend to the beach suburbs of Burnett Heads, Bargara, and Innes Park. Stewards and Sons Coaches also operates bus services in the area 49
Bundaberg is serviced by several Queensland Rail passenger trains, including the Tilt Train and is approximately four and a half hours north of Brisbane by rail. The closed North Bundaberg railway station formerly served the Mount Perry railway line and is now a museum.
Bundaberg is situated at the end of the Isis Highway (State Route 3), approximately 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of its junction with the Bruce Highway. Many long-distance bus services also pass through the city.
Bundaberg Port is located 20 kilometres (12 mi) northeast of the city, at the mouth of the Burnett River. The port is a destination for ships from Australia and overseas. It is predominantly used for shipping raw sugar and other goods related to that industry such as Bundaberg Rum.
Bundaberg is served by three hospitals. One public hospital, Bundaberg Base Hospital on Bourbong St, and two private hospitals, Friendly Society Private Hospital & Mater Hospital.
The Friendly Society Hospital has undergone a redevelopment and forms part of the GP Super Clinic Program.citation needed
Well-known current and former inhabitants of Bundaberg include:
- Clint Bolton, football (soccer) player, Socceroo, 2 time A-League championship winning player
- Mark Callaghan, frontman of Gang Gajang
- Allan Davis, Road racing cyclist, 2009 Tour Down Under Winner
- Troy Elder, Hockey player
- Steve Goodall, cyclist, 1978 Commonwealth Games Bronze Medalist, 1976 Olympian
- Bert Hinkler, pioneer aviator
- Antonio Kaufusi, rugby league footballer
- Mitchell Langerak, football (soccer) player, A-League championship winning player
- Rheed McCracken, 2012 Summer Paralympics, won a silver and bronze medal
- Sarah McLellan, dancer and entertainer, lead singer of the group Lez Zeppelin and blogger of "The Aussie who ate the Big Apple" currently living in New York
- Mal Meninga, rugby league footballer
- Tom Miles, professional athlete/sprinter, Winner 1927 Stawell Gift, 1928 World Champion
- Gladys Moncrieff, singer
- Vance Palmer, writer
- Jayant Patel, the alleged "Doctor Death" of the Bundaberg Base Hospital
- Chris Sarra, 2004 Queenslander of the Year
- Donald Smith, operatic tenor
- Michelle Steele, Winter Olympian at the 2006 Winter Olympics
- Don Tallon, Australian Cricketer
- Keith Thiele, World War II Pilot (awarded DSO, DFC & 2 medal bars)
- Tommy Trash, ARIA and Grammy nominated Australian DJ & Producer
- Jack Dempsey, (Liberal National Party), State member for Bundaberg
- Keith Pitt (Liberal National Party of Queensland), Federal member for Hinkler
- Prime Ministers Andrew Fisher and Frank Forde both represented Federal electorates that included Bundaberg, though neither was from there originally.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Bundaberg (Statistical District)". 2006 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- "Place Name Details" (PHP). Natural Resources and Water (Queensland). 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2008.
- "History Of Bundaberg". Bundaberg Regional Council. Retrieved 21 September 2010.
- "HISTORY OF BUNDABERG". Bundaberg Regional Council. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
- Kerr, John (1998). Report on Site Visits: 298 http://www.daff.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/50787/qld_se_saw19.pdf
|url=missing title (help). Retrieved 26 December 2013.
- Hall, James; Dening, Jill (1988). Beautiful Sugar Country. West End, Queensland: Child & Associates Publishing. p. 2. ISBN 0-949267-86-4.
- Bundaberg – From Pioneers to Prosperity. (1992) Neville Rackemann. p46 ISBN 0-646-12555-9
- Bundaberg History and People. (1978) Janet Nolan. p 86
- Bundaberg- from Pioneers to Prosperity. (1992)Neville Rackemann p 48
- "Bundaberg Soldiers' Memorial.". Queensland Times (Ipswich) (Qld. : 1909 - 1954) (Ipswich) (Qld.: National Library of Australia). 1 August 1921. p. 6 Edition: DAILY. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
- "Bundaberg War Memorial". Monument Australia. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
- Calligeros, Marissa and Cameron Atfield (30 December 2010). "Second Queensland town evacuated due to floodwater". The Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax). Retrieved 30 December 2010.
- "Bourbong Street Weeping Figs (entry 16801)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "Bundaberg War Memorial (entry 15139)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "Bundaberg War Nurses Memorial and Park (entry 15140)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "Kennedy Bridge (entry 15142)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "St Andrews Uniting Church (entry 19610)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "Kalkie State School (entry 15746)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "Bundaberg Police Station Complex (former) (entry 16499)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "Burnett Bridge (entry 15143)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "Saltwater Creek Railway Bridge (entry 15145)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "Sir Anthony's Rest (entry 16789)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "Fairymead House (entry 15784)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "Fallon House (entry 33400)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "East Water Tower (entry 15144)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "St John's Lutheran Church, Bundaberg (entry 33401)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "South Sea Islander Church and Hall (entry 16788)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "4BU Radio Station (former) (entry 16047)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "Bundaberg School of Arts (entry 15137)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- "Commercial Bank of Sydney (former) (entry 15138)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 2013-07-07.
- Climate Statistics for Australian Locations, Bureau of Meteorology
- "Climate statistics for Australian locations". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- "What's Growing?". Bundaberg Fruit and Vegetable Growers. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Electra going nuts for macadamias". Bundaberg NewsMail. 28 May 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Vanessa Marsh (17 December 2009). "Bundaberg region a tourist haven". NewsMail (APN News & Media). Retrieved 21 September 2010.
- Australian Sugar Cane Railway - official website
- "Mystery Craters". queenslandholidays.com.au. Tourism Queensland. Retrieved 21 September 2010.
- Cook, Penny (2006). Discover Queensland Heritage. Corinda, Queensland: Pictorial Press Australia. p. 29. ISBN 1876561424.
- "Moncrieff Entertainment Centre". Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Bundaberg Regional Art Gallery". Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "NewsMail". Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- imdb page for The Delinquents Retrieved 9 March 2014
- imdb page for The Mango Tree Retrieved 9 March 2014
- "Tennis Bundaberg Website" (PHP). Bundaberg & District Tennis Senior Association. 2008. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
- "Duffy's City Buses". Duffy's City Buses. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bundaberg, Queensland.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Bundaberg.|
- Bundaberg Regional Council
- University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Bundaberg
- Bundaberg Port Authority