The World Factbook

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The World Factbook
Wfbcover.jpg
Cover of the latest government print edition of The World Factbook (2013–14 edition)
Author Central Intelligence Agency
Country  United States
Language English
Genre Almanac about the countries of the world
Publisher Directorate of Intelligence1
Publication date
See frequency of updates and availability, no longer published in paper book form by the CIA

The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)2 is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. The official paper copy version is available from the National Technical Information Service and the Government Printing Office. Other companies—such as Skyhorse Publishing—also print a paper edition. The Factbook is available in the form of a website, which is partially updated every week. It is also available for download for use off-line. It provides a two- to three-page summary of the demographics, geography, communications, government, economy, and military of 267 entities3 including U.S.-recognized countries, dependencies, and other areas in the world.

The World Factbook is prepared by the CIA for the use of U.S. government officials, and its style, format, coverage, and content are primarily designed to meet their requirements.4 However, it is frequently used as a resource for academic research papers and news articles,5 despite the dubious quality of its information (see below). As a work of the U.S. government, it is in the public domain in the United States.6

Sources

In researching the Factbook, the CIA uses the sources listed below. Other public and private sources are also consulted.4

Copyright(s)

The World Factbook website as it appeared in January 2010

Because the Factbook is in the public domain, people are free under United States law to redistribute and modify it in any way that they like, without permission of the CIA.4 However, the CIA requests that it be cited when the Factbook is used.6 The official seal of the CIA, however, under US law may not be copied without permission as required by the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949 (50 U.S.C. § 403m).

Frequency of updates and availability

Before November 2001 The World Factbook website was updated yearly;7 from 2004 to 2010 it was updated every two weeks;7 since 2010 it has been updated weekly.8 Generally, information currently available as of January 1 of the current year9 is used in preparing the Factbook.

Government edition of the Factbook

The first, classified, edition of Factbook was published in August 1962, and the first unclassified version in June 1971.10 The World Factbook was first available to the public in print in 1975.10 In 2008 the CIA discontinued printing the Factbook themselves, instead turning printing responsibilities over to the Government Printing Office.11 This happened due to a CIA decision to "focus Factbook resources" on the online edition.12 The Factbook has been on the World Wide Web since October 1994.13 The Web version gets an average of 6 million visits per month;5 it can also be downloaded.14 The official printed version is sold15 by the Government Printing Office and National Technical Information Service. In past years, the Factbook was available on CD-ROM,16 microfiche,17 magnetic tape,17 and floppy disk.17

Reprints and older editions online

Many Internet sites use information and images from the CIA World Factbook.18 Several publishers, including Grand River Books,19 Potomac Books (formerly known as Brassey's Inc.),20 and Skyhorse Publishing21 have re-published the Factbook in recent years.

Entities listed

As of July 2011, The World Factbook consists of 267 entities.3 These entities can be divided into categories.22 They are:

Independent countries
This category has independent countries, which the CIA defines as people "politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory".22 In this category, there are 195 entities.
Others
The Other category is a list of other places set apart from the list of independent countries. Currently there are two: Taiwan and the European Union.
Dependencies and Areas of Special Sovereignty
This category is a list of places affiliated with another country. They may be subdivided into categories using the country they are affiliated with:
Miscellaneous
This category is for Antarctica and places in dispute. There are six entities.
Other entities
This category is for the World and the oceans. There are five oceans and the World (the World entry is intended as a summary of the other entries).5

Territorial issues and controversies

Political

Areas not covered
Specific regions within a country or areas in dispute among countries, such as Kashmir, are not covered,23 but other areas of the world whose status is disputed, such as the Spratly Islands, have entries.2324 Subnational areas of countries (such as US States or the Canadian provinces and territories) are not included in the Factbook. Instead, users looking for information about subnational areas are referred to "a comprehensive encyclopedia" for their reference needs.25 This criterion was invoked in the 200726 and 201127 editions with the decision to drop the entries for French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion. They were dropped because besides being overseas departments, they were now overseas regions, and an integral part of France.2627
Kashmir
Maps depicting Kashmir have the India–Pakistan border drawn at the Line of Control, but the region of Kashmir administered by China drawn in hash marks.28
Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus, which the U.S. considers part of the Republic of Cyprus, is not given a separate entry because "territorial occupations/annexations not recognized by the United States Government are not shown on U.S. Government maps."29
Taiwan/Republic of China
The name "Republic of China" is not listed as Taiwan's official name under the "Government" section,30 due to U.S. acknowledgement of Beijing's One-China policy according to which there is one China and Taiwan is a part of it.31 The name "Republic of China" was briefly added on January 27, 2005,32 but has since been changed back to "none".30 Of the Factbook's two maps of China, one highlights the island of Taiwan highlighted as part of the country28 whilst the other does not.33 (See also: Political status of Taiwan, Legal status of Taiwan)
Disputed South China Sea Islands
The Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands, subjects of territorial disputes, have entries in the Factbook where they are not listed as the territory of any one nation. The disputed claims to the islands are discussed in the entries.3435
Burma/Myanmar
The U.S. does not recognize the renaming of Burma by its ruling military junta to Myanmar and thus keeps its entry for the country under "Burma". This is done because the name change "was not approved by any sitting legislature in Burma". As a result, the US government has never adopted the name Myanmar.36
FYROM/Republic of Macedonia
The Republic of Macedonia is entered as Macedonia,37 the name used in its first entry in the Factbook upon independence in 1992.38 In the 1994 edition, the name of the entry was changed to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, as it is officially recognised by the United Nations (awaiting for the resolution of the Macedonia naming dispute).3940 For the next decade, this was the name the nation was listed under. Finally, in the 2004 edition of the Factbook, the name of the entry was changed back to Macedonia, following a November 2004 US decision to refer to the country using this name,4142 even though the official appellation of the republic within the UN remains FYROM.
European Union
On December 16, 2004, the CIA added an entry for the European Union (EU).43 (Before this date, the EU was excluded from the Factbook.44) According to the CIA, the European Union was added because the EU "continues to accrue more nation-like characteristics for itself".31
United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges and Iles Eparses
In the 2006 edition of The World Factbook, the entries for Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Kingman Reef, Johnston Atoll, Palmyra Atoll and the Midway Islands were merged into a new United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges entry.45 The old entries for each individual insular area remain as redirects on the Factbook website.46 On September 7, 2006, the CIA also merged the entries for Bassas da India, Europa Island, the Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island into a new Iles Eparses entry.47 As with the new United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges entry, the old entries for these five islands remained as redirects on the website.48 On July 19, 2007, the Iles Eparses entry and redirects for each island were dropped due to the group becoming a district of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands in February.49
Serbia and Montenegro/Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) broke apart in 1991. The following year, it was replaced in the Factbook with entries for each of its former constituent republics.38 In doing this, the CIA listed the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), proclaimed in 1992, as Serbia and Montenegro, as the U.S. did not recognize the union between the two republics.5051 This was done in accordance with a May 21, 1992, decision52 by the U.S. not to recognize any of the former Yugoslav republics53 as successor states to the recently dissolved SFRY.
A map of Serbia and Montenegro from the 2000 edition of The World Factbook.54 Notice how the disclaimer is printed in the upper right hand corner. One can see how the capital cities of both republics are individually labeled on the map.
These views were made clear in a disclaimer printed in the Factbook: "Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint independent state, but this entity has not been recognized as a state by the United States."55 Montenegro and Serbia were treated separately in the Factbook data, as can be seen on the map.56 In October 2000, Slobodan Milošević was forced out of office after a disputed election.57 This event led to democratic elections and US diplomatic recognition. The 2001 edition of the Factbook thus referred to the state as Yugoslavia.58 On March 14, 2002, an agreement was signed to transform the FRY into a loose state union called Serbia and Montenegro;59 it took effect on February 4, 2003.60 The name of the Yugoslavia entity was altered in the Factbook the month after the change.61
Kosovo
On February 28, 2008, the CIA added an entry for Kosovo;62 before this, Kosovo was excluded in the Factbook.23 Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. Kosovo's independence has been recognised by 107 out of 193 United Nations member states, including the US.63
East Timor/Timor-Leste
On July 19, 2007, the entry for East Timor was renamed Timor-Leste following a decision of the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN).64

Factual

In June 2009, the National Public Radio (NPR), relying on information obtained from the CIA World Factbook, put the number of Israeli Jews living in settlements in the West Bank and Israeli-annexed East Jerusalem at 250,000. However, a better estimate, based on State Department and Israeli sources put the figure at about 500,000. NPR then issued a correction. Chuck Holmes, foreign editor for NPR Digital, said, “I’m surprised and displeased, and it makes me wonder what other information is out-of-date or incorrect in the CIA World Factbook.”65

Geographical information about countries in the CIA Factbook may not quite tally with information from government sources in those countries. For example, the Factbook gives the land area of Australia as 7,682,300 km266 while Geoscience Australia gives the area as 7,692,024 km2,67 a difference of 9,724 km2. A Fiji government website gives the land area of the Fiji Islands as 18,333 km268 while the CIA Factbook gives the area as 18,274 km2,69 a difference of 59 km2.

Various demographic information is full of usually minor errors, inaccuracies, and out-of-date information, which are often repeated elsewhere due to the Factbook's widespread use as a reference. For example, Albania is described in the Factbook as 70% Muslim, 20% Eastern Orthodox, and 10% Roman Catholic, which was based on a survey conducted in 1939, before World War II; numerous surveys conducted since the fall of the Communist regime since 1990 have given quite different figures. Another example is Singapore, which the Factbook states has a total fertility rate of 0.78 children per woman, despite figures in Statistics Singapore which state that the rate has been about 1.2–1.3 children per woman for at least the past several years, and it is unclear when, or even whether, it ever dropped as low as 0.78.70 This extremely low and inaccurate value then gets cited in news articles which state that Singapore has the world's lowest fertility, or at least use the figure for its shock value.7172

Before 1998, the United Kingdom profile contained a sentence that asserted the UK had gained independence on 1 January 1801.73 This description in reference to the Act of Union 1801 which expanded the United Kingdom of Great Britain to include Ireland, has since been greatly expanded,74 although the primary date of UK Independence is now given as 1927. This has been argued by some as misleading, and refers to the date the entity adopted its current name under the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act, of that year. Indeed it can be argued the country has no one year in which independence was achieved, since there is an arguable legitimate succession of states, systems and entities from the Norman Conquest, 1066.

See also

Alternative publications

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World Factbook.

  1. ^ Central Intelligence Agency (2007-04-25). "Intelligence & Analysis – Products". Retrieved 2010-10-23. "The DI publishes unclassified reference aids that are available to the public. The annual World Factbook is a comprehensive compendium of profiles on more than 260 countries and other entities."  (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5th2WIAtu)
  2. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence (2011-07-12). "CIA – World Factbook". Retrieved 2011-07-14. "The World Factbook provides information on the history, people, government, economy, geography, communications, transportation, military, and transnational issues for 267 world entities." 
  3. ^ a b c Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Contributors and Copyright Information". Retrieved 2006-09-23. "The World Factbook is prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency for the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage, and content are designed to meet their specific requirements. Information is provided by ... other public and private sources. The Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)." 
  4. ^ a b c "CIA World Factbook 2006 Now Available" (Press release). Central Intelligence Agency. 2006-04-05. Retrieved 2007-01-11. "The World Factbook remains the CIA's most widely disseminated and most popular product, now averaging almost 6 million visits each month. In addition, tens of thousands of government, commercial, academic, and other Web sites link to or replicate the online version of the Factbook. * * * Included among the 271 geographic entries is one for the "World," which incorporates data and other information summarized where possible from the other 270 country listings." 
  5. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): Can I use some or all of The World Factbook for my Web site (book, research project, homework, etc.)?". Retrieved 2006-09-23. "The World Factbook is in the public domain and may be used freely by anyone at anytime without seeking permission.* * * As a courtesy, please cite The World Factbook when used." 
  6. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): How often is The World Factbook updated?". Retrieved 2009-01-26. "Formerly our Web site (and the published Factbook) were only updated annually. Beginning in November 2001 we instituted a new system of more frequent online updates. The World Factbook is currently updated every two weeks." 
  7. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2010-11-24). "World Factbook Updates – October 22, 2010". Retrieved 2010-12-01. "Since 2004, The World Factbook website has been updated on a bi-weekly schedule. Culminating a three-month trial effort, we are pleased to announce that the Factbook will now be updated on a weekly basis." 
  8. ^ Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Notes and Definitions: Date of information". Retrieved 2006-09-23. "In general, information available as of 1 January 2007 was used in the preparation of this edition." 
  9. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – History". Retrieved 2007-03-03. "The first classified Factbook was published in August 1962, and the first unclassified version was published in June 1971." 
  10. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2009-06-08). "CIA – The World Factbook – About :: History: 2008". Retrieved 2009-06-08. "Printing of the Factbook turned over to the Government Printing Office." 
  11. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2008). CIA – The World Factbook 2008: Purchasing Information. Retrieved 2010-12-01. "The Government Printing Office hass assumed production of The World Factbook print edition. The CIA has decided to focus Factbook resources on the World Wide Web online edition..." 
  12. ^ Miller, Jill Young. "CIA puts data on the internet." Fort Lauderdale Sun-Sentinel 12 December 1994.
  13. ^ Central Intelligence Agency. "CIA Download Page". Retrieved 2007-06-10. 
  14. ^ Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Purchasing Information". Retrieved 2006-09-23. "Other users may obtain sales information about printed copies from the following: Superintendent of Documents...National Technical Information Service" 
  15. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (1999). "The World Factbook 1999 – Purchasing Information (mirror)". Retrieved 2006-09-24. "The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) prepares The World Factbook in printed, CD-ROM, and Internet versions." 
  16. ^ a b c Directorate of Intelligence (1995). "Publication Information for The World Factbook 1995 (mirror)". Retrieved 2006-09-24. "This publication is also available in microfiche, magnetic tape, or computer diskettes." 
  17. ^ Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): I am using the Factbook online and it is not working. What is wrong?". Retrieved 2006-09-24. "Hundreds of “Factbook” look-alikes exist on the Internet. The Factbook site at: www.cia.gov is the only official site." 
  18. ^ Texas A&M University Libraries. "Introduction to Comparative Politics POLS 329". Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-02. "The world factbook (Handbook of the Nations). Detroit, Mich.: Grand River Books, 1981–." 
  19. ^ Potomac Books. "The World Factbook 2008 CIA's 2007 Edition". Retrieved 2008-01-02. 
  20. ^ Skyhorse Publishing. "CIA World Factbook 2008, The". Retrieved 2008-01-22. dead link
  21. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Notes and Definitions: Entities". Retrieved 2011-07-12. ""Independent state" refers to a people politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory. * * * There are a total of 266 separate geographic entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as follows..." 
  22. ^ a b c Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): Why don’t you include information on entities such as Tibet or Kashmir?". Retrieved 2008-08-24. "Also included in the Factbook are entries on parts of the world whose status has not yet been resolved (e.g., West Bank, Spratly Islands). Specific regions within a country or areas in dispute among countries are not covered." 
  23. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2006-09-19). "The World Factbook – Spratly Islands". Retrieved 2006-09-24. 
  24. ^ Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): Why doesn't The World Factbook include information on states, departments, provinces, etc., in the country format?". Retrieved 2007-05-26. "The World Factbook provides national-level information on countries, territories, and dependencies, but not subnational administrative units within a country. A comprehensive encyclopedia might be a source for state/province-level information." 
  25. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): Why has The World Factbook dropped the four French departments of Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion, and French Guiana?". Retrieved 2007-05-26. "The reason the four entities are no longer in The World Factbook is because their status has changed. While they are overseas departments of France, they are also now recognized as French regions, having equal status to the 22 metropolitan regions that make up European France." 
  26. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence (2011-04-08). "World Factbook Updates – April 8, 2011". Retrieved 2011-04-11. "The Indian Ocean island entity of Mayotte became an overseas department of France on 31 March. The change in status makes it an integral part of France and so its description is now included in the France country profile of The World Factbook."  (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/5xpDpGjbr)
  27. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence (2006-09-19). "The World Factbook – China (map)". Retrieved 2009-12-27. 
  28. ^ Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): Why are the Golan Heights not shown as part of Israel or Northern Cyprus with Turkey?". Retrieved 2006-09-23. "Territorial occupations/annexations not recognized by the United States Government are not shown on US Government maps." 
  29. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence (2006-09-19). "The World Factbook – Taiwan". Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  30. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): Why are Taiwan and the European Union listed out of alphabetical order at the end of the Factbook entries?". Retrieved 2006-09-23. "Taiwan is listed after the regular entries because even though the mainland People's Republic of China claims Taiwan, elected Taiwanese authorities de facto administer the island and reject mainland sovereignty claims. * * * The European Union (EU) is not a country, but it has taken on many nation-like attributes and these are likely to be expanded in the future." 
  31. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2005-01-27). "The World Factbook – Taiwan". Archived from the original on 2005-01-30. Retrieved 2010-10-17. 
  32. ^ "China". CIA World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved February 2, 2013. 
  33. ^ "Paracel Islands". CIA World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved February 2, 2013. 
  34. ^ "Spratly Islands". CIA World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved February 2, 2013. 
  35. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2006-09-19). "The World Factbook – Burma". Retrieved 2006-09-23. "since 1989 the military authorities in Burma have promoted the name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state; this decision was not approved by any sitting legislature in Burma, and the US Government did not adopt the name, which is a derivative of the Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw" 
  36. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2006-09-19). "The World Factbook – Macedonia". Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  37. ^ a b Directorate of Intelligence (1992). "The World Factbook 1992 – Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations". Retrieved 2006-09-23. "Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia have replaced Yugoslavia." 
  38. ^ "Official site of the U.N., List of UN Member States". Un.org. Retrieved 2013-03-29. 
  39. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (1994). "The World Factbook 1994 – Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations". Retrieved 2006-09-23. "The name of Macedonia was changed to The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)." 
  40. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2004-11-30). "The World Factbook – Macedonia)". Archived from the original on 2004-12-07. Retrieved 2010-10-17. 
  41. ^ Staff reporter (2004-11-04). "US snubs Greece over Macedonia". BBC News. Retrieved 2006-09-23. "Greece has protested strongly at a decision by the US to refer to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) simply as "Macedonia"." 
  42. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2006-09-19). "The World Factbook – European Union". Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  43. ^ Directorate of Intelligence. "The World Factbook – Why doesn't The World Factbook include information on states, departments, provinces, the European Union, etc., in the country format? (mirror)". Retrieved 2007-06-02. "The World Factbook provides national-level information on countries, territories, and dependencies, but not on subnational administrative units within a country or supranational entities like the European Union." 
  44. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2006-09-19). "The World Factbook – United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges". Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  45. ^ For an example of a redirect, see what happens with the profile for Kingman Reef.
  46. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2006-09-19). "The World Factbook – Iles Eparses (mirror)". Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  47. ^ For an example of a redirect, see what happens with the profile for Juan de Nova Island (mirror).
  48. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2007-07-19). "CIA – The World Factbook 2007: What's New". Retrieved 2007-07-20. "The five former entities of Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island, previously grouped as Iles Eparses (Scattered Islands), now constitute a district of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands." 
  49. ^ Department of State (August 1999). "Serbia and Montenegro (08/99) (See Yugoslavia)". Archived from the original on January 14, 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-03. "(Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint independent state, but this entity has not been recognized as a state by the United States.)" 
  50. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (1992). "1992 CIA World Factbook: Serbia and Montenegro (mirror)". Retrieved 2006-10-29. 
  51. ^ Department of State. "Chiefs of Mission by Country, 1778–2005: Serbia and Montenegro". Retrieved 2006-10-30. "On May 21, 1992, the United States announced that it did not recognize the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was composed of the Republics of Serbia and Montenegro, as a successor state of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia." 
  52. ^ White, Mary Jo (2000-01-31). "767 Third Avenue Associates v. United States: Brief For Amicus Curiae United States of America Supporting Appellees and Supporting Affirmance in Part and Reversal in Part" (MS Word). Retrieved 2010-10-17. "Since 1992, the United States has taken the position that the SFRY has ceased to exist, that there is no state representing the continuation of the SFRY, and that five successors have arisen—the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) (“FRY(S&M)”), the Republic of Slovenia ("Slovenia"), the Republic of Croatia ("Croatia"), the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina ("Bosnia-Herzegovina"), and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia ("FYROM")" 
  53. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2000). "CIA World Factbook 2000 – Country Maps (mirror)". Retrieved 2007-02-06. 
  54. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (1999). "CIA – The World Factbook 1999 – Serbia and Montenegro". Archived from the original on 1999-11-09. Retrieved 2010-10-17. "Serbia and Montenegro have asserted the formation of a joint independent state, but this entity has not been formally recognized as a state by the US. The US view is that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and that none of the successor republics represents its continuation." 
  55. ^ For an example, see the profile for the FRY in the 1999 World Factbook.
  56. ^ Staff reporter (2000-10-07). "Kostunica sworn in as president of Yugoslavia". CNN. Archived from the original on September 22, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-30. 
  57. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2001). "CIA – The World Factbook – Notes and Definitions". Archived from the original on 2002-08-03. Retrieved 2010-10-17. "The entity of Serbia and Montenegro is now officially known as Yugoslavia." 
  58. ^ Staff reporter (2002-03-14). "Yugoslav partners sign historic deal". BBC News. Retrieved 2006-10-30. "Serbia and Montenegro have signed an accord which will consign the name Yugoslavia to history and shelve any immediate plans for Montenegrin independence." 
  59. ^ Staff reporter (2003-02-04). "Yugoslavia consigned to history". BBC News. Retrieved 2006-11-17. "From now on it will be called just Serbia and Montenegro—the two remaining republics joined in a loose union." 
  60. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2003-03-19). "CIA – The World Factbook 2002: What's new". Archived from the original on 2003-04-08. Retrieved 2010-10-17. "Yugoslavia has been renamed Serbia and Montenegro as of 4 February 2003." 
  61. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2008-02-28). "The World Factbook – Kosovo". Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  62. ^ "Kosovo's parliament declares independence". CTV.ca. 2008-02-17. Retrieved 2008-08-24. "Serbia opposes the declaration of independence* * *" 
  63. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2007-07-19). "CIA – The World Factbook 2007: What's New". Retrieved 2007-07-20. "The US Board on Geographic Names (BGN) now recognizes Timor-Leste as the short form name for East Timor* * *" 
  64. ^ Alicia Shepard (2 June 2010). "NPR Ombudsman CIA get numbers wrong on Jewish Settlers". National Public Radio. Retrieved 30 October 2010. 
  65. ^ "The World Factbook: Australia-Oceania – Australia". web page. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 15 November 2010. 
  66. ^ "Area of Australia – States and Territories". web page. Australian Government, Geoscience Australia. 4 June 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  67. ^ "About Fiji: Our Country". web page. Ministry of Information. November 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2010. 
  68. ^ "The World Factbook: Australia-Oceania – Fiji". web page. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 15 November 2010. 
  69. ^ [1]
  70. ^ Sapere, Aude (2013-03-12). "What Happens When Half The World Stops Making Babies". The Global Mail. Retrieved 2013-03-29. 
  71. ^ "How Japan stood up to old age". The Financial Times. 2014-01-17. Retrieved 2014-01-17. 
  72. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (1996). "The World Factbook – United Kingdom (mirror)". Retrieved September 23, 2006. 
  73. ^ Directorate of Intelligence (2006-09-19). "The World Factbook – United Kingdom". Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  74. ^ Central Intelligence Agency. "World Leaders". Retrieved 2007-10-25. 

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