Cabinet of Indonesia

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The cabinet of Indonesia (Indonesian: Kabinet Republik Indonesia) is the council of ministers appointed by the president. Indonesia has seen dozens of cabinets since independence in 1945, although during the New Order most cabinets retained unchanged for five years at a time. Most cabinets are referred to by the names given them at the time of formation.

History of the Indonesian cabinet

The concept of a cabinet is not mentioned explicitly in the 1945 Constitution, so Indonesia's cabinets since 14 November 1945 are the result of administrative convention. There have been two types of cabinet in Indonesian history; presidential and parliamentary. In presidential cabinets, the president is responsible for government policy as head of state and government, while in parliamentary cabinets, the cabinet carries out government policy, and is responsible to the legislature.1

During the War of Independence from 1945-1949, the cabinet changed from a presidential to a parliamentary system, despite this not being the system intended by those who drew up the Constitution; however, at several critical periods, it reverted to a presidential system. During this period, the cabinet had between 16 and 37 ministers with 12-15 ministries.2

On 27 December 1949, the Netherlands recognized the sovereignty of the United States of Indonesia (RIS). Under the Federal Constitution of 1949, the RIS had a parliamentary cabinet as ministers were responsible for government policy. With the return to the unitary state of Indonesia in August 1950, the parliamentary cabinet system remained due to an agreement between the governments of the RIS and the Republic of Indonesia (a constituent of the RIS). Article 83 of the Provisional Constitution of 1950 stated that ministers had full responsibility for government policy. Over the following nine years there were seven cabinets with between 18 and 25 members.3

On 5 July 1956, President Sukarno issued a decree abrogating the 1950 Constitution and returning to the 1945 Constitution. The cabinet was also dissolved. A new presidential cabinet was formed shortly after and this system has continued to the present day. During the final years of Sukarno's presidency, cabinets were larger, peaking at 111 ministers.

During the New Order under President Suharto, cabinets were smaller, and from 1968 until 1998 lasted for the five-year presidential term. Following the fall of Suharto and the beginning of the Reformasi era, the presidential cabinet system has been retained.3

List of Indonesian Cabinets

Parliamentary cabinets were usually known by the name of the prime minister, but after 1959 they were named after their principal tasking.4 The complete list of cabinets follows:56

Name of Cabinet Head of Cabinet Period of Office

War of Independence

Presidential Cabinet Sukarno 2 September 1945 – 23 November 1945
First Sjahrir Cabinet Sutan Sjahrir 23 November 1945 – 12 March 1946
Second Sjahrir Cabinet 12 March 1946 – 2 October 1946
Third Sjahrir Cabinet 2 October 1946 – 27 June 1947
First Amir Sjarifuddin Cabinet Amir Sjarifuddin 3 July 1947 – 11 November 1947
Second Amir Sjarifuddin Cabinet 11 November 1947 – 29 January 1948
First Hatta Cabinet Mohammad Hatta 29 January 1948 – 19 December 1949
Emergency Cabinet Sjafruddin Prawiranegara 22 December 1948 – 13 July 1949
First Hatta Cabinet Mohammad Hatta 13 July 1949 – 4 August 1949
Second Hatta Cabinet 4 August – 14 December 1949

United States of Indonesia

RUSI Cabinet Mohammad Hatta 20 December 1949 – 7 September 1950
Susanto Cabinet Susanto Tirtoprodjo 27 December 1949 – 21 January 1950
Halim Cabinet Abdul Halim 21 January 1950 – 7 September 1950

Liberal Democracy

Natsir Cabinet Muhammad Natsir 7 September 1950 – 27 April 1951
Sukiman Cabinet Sukiman Wirjosandjojo 27 April 1951 – 3 April 1952
Wilopo Cabinet Wilopo 3 April 1952 – 30 July 1953
First Ali Sastroamidjojo Cabinet Ali Sastroamidjojo 30 July 1953 – 1 August 1955
Burhanuddin Harahap Cabinet Burhanuddin Harahap 1 August 1955 – 24 March 1956
Second Ali Sastroamidjojo Cabinet Ali Sastroamidjojo 26 March 1956 – 9 April 1957
Djuanda Cabinet Djuanda Kartawidjaja 10 April 1957 – 10 July 1959

Guided Democracy

First Working Cabinet Sukarno 10 July 1959 – 18 February 1960
Second Working Cabinet 18 February 1960 – 8 March 1962
Third Working Cabinet 8 March 1962 – 23 November 1963
Fourth Working Cabinet 23 November 1963 – 2 September 1964
Dwikora Cabinet 2 September 1964 – 24 February 1966
Revised Dwikora Cabinet 24 February 1966 – 30 March 1966
Second Revised Dwikora Cabinet 30 March – 25 July 1966
Ampera Cabinet Sukarno (until March 1967, then Suharto) 28 July 1966 – 14 October 1967
Revised Ampera Cabinet Suharto 14 October 1967 – 10 June 1968

New Order

First Development Cabinet Suharto 10 June 1968 – 28 March 1973
Second Development Cabinet 28 March 1973 – 31 March 1978
Third Development Cabinet 31 March 1978 – 19 March 1983
Fourth Development Cabinet 19 March 1983 – 23 March 1988
Fifth Development Cabinet 23 March 1988 – 19 March 1993
Sixth Development Cabinet 19 March 1993 – 16 March 1998
Seventh Development Cabinet 16 March 1998 – 23 May 1998

Reform Era

Development Reform Cabinet Jusuf Habibie 23 May 1998 – 29 October 1999
National Unity Cabinet Abdurrahman Wahid 29 October 1999 – 9 August 2001
Mutual Assistance Cabinet Megawati Sukarnoputri 10 August 2001 – 20 October 2004
United Indonesia Cabinet Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono 21 October 2004 – 22 October 2009
Second United Indonesia Cabinet Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono 22 October 2009 – present
Source: Simanjuntak 2003

Current Cabinet

The present Indonesian cabinet is the Second United Indonesia Cabinet, which was sworn in on 21 October 2009.78

The Second United Indonesia Cabinet
Portfolio Minister Party
Coordinating Ministers
Political, Law and Security Affairs Air Chief Marshal (Ret.) Djoko Suyanto none*
Economics Hatta Rajasa National Mandate Party
People's Welfare Agung Laksono Golkar
State Secretary Lieutenant General (Ret.) Sudi Silalahi none*
Ministers Leading Departments
Home Affairs Gamawan Fauzi none
Foreign Affairs Marty Natalegawa none
Defense Purnomo Yusgiantoro none
Justice and Human Rights Patrialis Akbar (2009-2011)
Amir Syamsuddin (2011–present)
National Mandate Party
Democratic Party
Finance Sri Mulyani Indrawati (2009-2010)
Agus Martowardojo (2010-2013)
Muhammad Chatib Basri (2013–present)
none
Energy and Mineral Resources Darwin Zahedy Saleh (2009-2011)
Jero Wacik (2011–present)
Democratic Party
Industry M S Hidayat Golkar
Trade Mari E. Pangestu (2009-2011)
Gita Wirjawan (2011–present)
none
Agriculture Suswono Prosperous Justice Party
Forestry Zulkifli Hasan National Mandate Party
Transportation Vice Admiral (Ret.) Freddy Numberi (2009-2011)
Major General (Ret.) Evert Ernest Mangindaan (2011–present)
Democratic Party
Democratic Party*
Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Fadel Muhammad (2009-2011)
Sharif Cicip Sutardjo (2011–present)
Golkar
Manpower and Transmigration Muhaimin Iskandar National Awakening Party
Public Works Djoko Kirmanto none
Health Endang Rahayu Sedyaningsih (2009-2012)
Nafsiah Mboi (2012–present)
none
National Education (2009-2011)
Education and Culture (2011–present)
Muhammad Nuh none
Social Services Salim Segaf Al Jufri Prosperous Justice Party
Religious Affairs Suryadharma Ali United Development Party
Culture and Tourism (2009-2011)
Tourism and Creative Economy (2011–present)
Jero Wacik (2009-2011)
Mari E. Pangestu (2011–present)
Democratic Party
none
Informatics and Communication Tifatul Sembiring Prosperous Justice Party
State Ministers
Research and Technology Suharna Surapranata (2009-2011)
Gusti Muhammad Hatta (2011–present)
Prosperous Justice Party
none
Cooperatives and Small and Medium Enterprises Syarief Hasan Democratic Party
Environment Gusti Muhammad Hatta (2009-2011)
Berth Kambuaya (2011–present)
none
Female Empowerment and Child Protection Linda Amalia Sari Agum Gumelar none
Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform Major General (Ret.) Evert Ernest Mangindaan (2009-2011)
Azwar Abubakar (2011–present)
Democratic Party*
National Mandate Party
Development of Disadvantaged Regions Ahmad Helmy Faishal Zaini National Awakening Party
National Development Planning and Chairperson of the National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas) Armida Alisjahbana none
State Enterprises Mustafa Abubakar (2009-2011)
Dahlan Iskan (2011–present)
none
Youth and Sports Affairs Andi Mallarangeng (2009-2012)
Roy Suryo (2013–present)
Democratic Party
Public Housing Suharso Monoarfa (2009-2011)
Djan Faridz (2011–present)
United Development Party
Officials of ministerial rank
Head of the Presidential Working Unit for Development Supervision and Control Kuntoro Mangkusubroto none
Head of the Investment Coordination Board Gita Wirjawan (2009-2011)
Muhammad Chatib Basri (2012–present)
none
Head of the State Intelligence Agency Police General (Ret.) Sutanto (2009-2011)
Lieutenant General Marciano Norman (2011–present)
none*
none
Attorney General Hendarman Supandji (2009-2010)
Darmono (2010, temporary)
Basrief Arief (2010–present)
none
Indonesian National Armed Forces Chief of Staff General Djoko Santoso (2009-2010)
Admiral Agus Suhartono (2010–present)
none*
Indonesian National Police Chief Police General Bambang Hendarso Danuri (2009-2010)
Police General Timur Pradopo (2010–present)
none
*Former military/police personnel

See also

References

  • Daniel Dhaidae & H. Witdarmono (Eds) (2000)Wajah Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Republic Indonesia Pemilihan Umum 1999 (Faces of the Republic of Indonesia People's Representative Council 1999 General Election) Harian Kompas, Jakarta, ISBN 979-9251-43-5
  • Feith, Herbert (2007) The Decline of Constitutional Democracy in Indonesia Equinox Publishing (Asia) Pte Ltd, ISBN 9793780452
  • Simanjuntak, P. N. H. (2003). Kabinet-Kabinet Republik Indonesia: Dari Awal Kemerdekaan Sampai Reformasi (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Djambatan. ISBN 979-428-499-8. 
  • Yayasan API (2001),Panduan Parlemen Indonesia (Indonesian Parliamentary Guide), ISBN 979-96532-1-5

Notes

  1. ^ Simanjuntak (2003) p1
  2. ^ Simanjuntak (2003) p2
  3. ^ a b Simanjuntak (2003) pp. 3-4
  4. ^ Simanjuntak (2003) p66
  5. ^ Simanjuntak (2003)
  6. ^ Feith (2007)
  7. ^ "Indonesia's New Cabinet Sworn In". The Jakarta Globe. 2009-10-22. Retrieved 2009-10-22. 
  8. ^ "United Indonesia Cabinet 2009-2014". The Jakarta Post. 2009-10-22. p. 3. 

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