- 1 History
- 2 Current usage as a military rank and dignity
- 3 Administrative positions
- 4 In fiction
- 5 References
- 6 See also
This term "captain general" (actually "general captain") started to appear in the 14th century, with the meaning of commander in chief of an army (or fleet) in the field, probably the first usage of the term general in military settings. A popular term in the 16th and 17th centuries, but with various meanings depending on the country, it became less and less used in the 18th century, usually substituted by full generals or field marshals; and after the end of the Napoleonic Wars it had but disappeared in most European countries, except Spain and former colonies. See also Feldhauptmann ("field captain").
In the Republic of Venice, it meant the commander in chief of the fleet in war times. It is at least documented since 1370 and was used up to the end of the republic in 1797.
From 30 June to 22 October 1513, Catherine of Aragon held the titles Governor of the Realm and Captain General of the King's Forces as Queen Regent of England. First attested in the 1520s as the title for the permanent Commander in Chief of the Armies. Though commonly used in the 17th century, in the 18th century, the office was held by Duke of Marlborough (1702 to 1711, and again 1714 to 1717), and the Duke of Ormonde, 1711 to 1714 and the Duke of Cumberland 1745. The rank remains in Scottish use of the Royal Company of Archers.
The title appeared, as in some other countries, linked to the head of state in his military capacity. The last were the King of England up to the mid-19th century, and his prior replacement the Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell.
From 1787, the Governor of New South Wales has been also granted the title of Captain-General.1
In Rhode Island, the Governor holds two different military titles. According to Article IX, section 3 of the Rhode Island Constitution, the Governor holds the titles of "captain-general" and "Commander-in-Chief" 2
In Connecticut, the state Constitution of 1965 states that the Governor is also the Captain General of the state militia.
Maurice of Nassau received the title of "Captain General of the Union" and "Admiral General" in 1587, which became hereditary - like the Stadtholder title, to the Orange-Nassau family, until taken away by the States General in 1786.
By the late 15th century, the title, besides the usual meaning of commander-in-chief in the field, was also linked to the highest commander of specialized military branches (artillery, royal guards, etc.), usually signaling the independence of that particular corps.
No later than the fall of Granada (1492) the title was conferred also to officers with full jurisdiction of every person subject to fuero militar in a certain territorial circumscription. Those officers usually also acted as commanders for the troops and military establishments in their area, and as time passed, those duties (and the title) were mostly united in the highest civilian authority of the area. The military post of captain general as highest territorial commander lasted in Spain until the early 1980s.
In the late 17th or very early 18th century, a personal rank of captain general was created in the Spanish Army (and Navy) as the highest rank in the hierarchy, not unlike the Marechal de France. When wearing uniform, the kings used captain general insignia. Perhaps the best-known holder of the rank for Americans was Valeriano Weyler, Governor General of Cuba in 1896-97 during the period preceding the Spanish-American War. Briefly abolished by the Second Spanish Republic, it was restored by/for Francisco Franco in 1938. In 1999, the rank was reserved to the reigning monarch.
Since its restoration in 1938, only Franco, Juan Carlos I (1975), Agustín Muñoz Grandes (1956) and Camilo Alonso Vega (1972) were promoted while on active duty, being the rest of the (scarce) promotions either posthumous or to retired officers.
The evolution of the title in the Spanish Navy is parallel to that of the army.
During the 16th and 17th century the two main naval captain general posts were Capitán-General de la Armada de la Mar Oceana and Capitán-General de Galeras, roughly CIC for the Atlantic and the Mediterranean respectively.
A peculiar usage of the term captain general arose in the Spanish Navy of the 16th century. A capitán-general was appointed by the king as the leader of a fleet (although the term 'squadron' is more appropriate, as most galleon fleets rarely consisted of more than a dozen vessels, not counting escorted merchantmen), with full jurisdictional powers. The fleet second-in-command was the 'almirante' (admiral), an officer appointed by the capitan-general and responsible for the seaworthiness of the squadron.3 One captain-general that sailed under the Spanish flag that is now well known was Ferdinand Magellan, leader of the first fleet to sail around the world.
The rank of captain general of the Air Force is held only by HM King Juan Carlos.
The title was given, in 1508, to the commander-in-chief of the Ordenanças (the territorial army of the crown).
During the Portuguese Restoration War, after 1640, the "Captain-General of the Arms of the Kingdom", became the commander-in-chief of the Portuguese Army, under the direct authority of the War Council and the King. In 1762 the captain-general was substituted by the marechal-general - fieldmarshall-general.
Like in the Army, the Capitão-General da Armada Real (Captain-General of the Royal Navy) was the commander-in-chief of the Portuguese Navy in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The title has been only sporadically used in France. During the 17th century, and for a short while, a rank between Lieutenant General and Marshal of France of this denomination was created. The king of France was the Captain General of the Army, but was represented in the field by lieutenant generals who commanded in his absence.
In the former Kingdom of Bavaria, the generalkapitän was the leader of the royal Hartschier guard. The position was associated with the highest class ranking in the Hofrangordnung (court order of precedence).4
During the time of the Papal States the title of Captain General of the Church was given to the de facto commander-in-chief of the Papal Army. It existed parallel to the office of Gonfalonier of the Church, which was a more ceremonial position than a tactical military command position. Both offices were abolished by Pope Innocent XII and replaced with the office of Flag-bearer of the Holy Roman Church
In the modern British Army, and the armies of various Commonwealth nations, the term Captain General is used generally when describing the ceremonial head of the artillery corps. As such, HM The Queen is the Captain General of the Honourable Artillery Company,5 Royal Regiment of Artillery,5 Royal Canadian Artillery,6 Royal Australian Artillery and Royal New Zealand Artillery.7 The Queen is also Captain General of the Royal New Zealand Armoured Corps.7
In Bolivia, the head of state for the duration of his tenure has the rank and dignity of Captain General as head of the Armed forces, even if he is a civilian
If the Commander in Chief of the Army and the Head of State are reunited in the same person, he is promoted to the permanent military rank of Capitan General. It has only happened three times in Chile's history (Bernardo O'Higgins, Ramon Freire and Augusto Pinochet Ugarte). Current electoral provisions (as of 2008) forbid the Commander in Chief becoming President.
In Spain, the title Captain General (capitán general) is the highest military rank, since 1999 reserved for the king. Assimilated to a NATO OF-11 rank (OF-10 until that year).
The term "captain general" can also be used to translate Spanish capitán general or Portuguese capitão-mor, administrative titles used in the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire, especially in the Americas. Each was in charge of a captaincy.
Capitão-mor (plural capitães-mores), sometimes also capitão-donatário, was the hereditary title and office given by the Portuguese Crown to noblemen granted the rule of captaincies in the territories of the Portuguese Empire, most importantly in Terra de Santa Cruz (modern Brazil). They held absolute powers in their lands, subject only to the Crown, and were given the task of settling and colonizing their respective domains.
In Brazil, most of these settlements failed, and their nominal dominions were actually haphazardly settled by colonists and Jesuit Reductions, and ultimately the land was incorporated first into the only succeeding capitanias, São Vicente and Pernambuco, which then became the Viceroyalty of Brazil and the Viceroyalty of Grão-Pará. The absolute power of the Capitães-Mor was continued, in Brazil, by the tradition of Coronelism that endures to this day in the northeast of that nation.
In the Wheel of Time series by Robert Jordan, "captain-general" is the highest rank of the Ever Victorious Army of Seanchan, excepting only the rank of marshal-general, which may be temporarily assigned to a captain-general given the command of a theatre of war. In addition, captain-general is also the title of both the leader of the Queen's Guard of Andor and the head of the Green Ajah of the Aes Sedai.
In the BattleTech universe, captain-general is the title of the military and political leader of the Free Worlds League. Since the 25th century, captain-generals have been members of the Marik family.
In the Ring of Fire universe (created by Eric Flint), Gustav II Adolf, King of Sweden, is granted the newly created hereditary title of "Captain General of the State of Thuringia" (later known as the State of Thuringia-Franconia) at the end of the first book, entitled '1632'. This was a recognition of his authority over Thuringian territory as an integral part of the "Confederated Principalities of Europe", a Protestant substitute for the Holy Roman Empire which he created, while allowing the Thuringian government to continue to claim that it was a republic and not a monarchy.
- "Spanish Galleon: 1530 - 1690" by Angus Konstam, copyright 2004 Osprey Publishing, Ltd.
- 'Hofrangordnung (German) Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon.
- London Gazette Issue 39509 published on the 4 April 1952. Page 1 of 4
- London Gazette Issue 39864 published on the 26 May 1953. Page 1 of 2
- London Gazette Issue 39866 published on the 26 May 1953. Page 1 of 4
- Royal Company of Archers on the Official Website of the British Monarchy
- Captain General of the Church
- Captaincy, an administrative division in the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires, governed by a captain general.
- General, a description of the various general officer ranks, including the full general which is the successor to captain general.
- List of senior officers of the British Army
- Queen Elizabeth II's honorary military positions