The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) is the largest rodent in the world, followed by the beaver, porcupine, and mara. Its closest relatives are guinea pigs and rock cavies, and is more distantly related to the agouti, chinchillas, and the coypu. Native to South America, the capybara inhabits savannas and dense forests and lives near bodies of water. It is a highly social species and can be found in groups as large as 100 individuals, but usually lives in groups of 10–20 individuals. The capybara is not a threatened species, though it is hunted for its meat and hide and also for a grease from its thick fatty skin which is used in the pharmaceutical trade.2
Its common name is derived from Tupi ka'apiûara, a complex agglutination of kaá (leaf) + píi (slender) + ú (eat) + ara (a suffix for agent nouns), meaning "one who eats slender leaves", or "grass-eater".3 The scientific name, both hydrochoerus and hydrochaeris, comes from Greek ὕδωρ (hydor = water) + χοίρος (choiros = pig, hog).45
The capybara and the lesser capybara belong to the subfamily Hydrochoerinae along with the rock cavies. The living capybaras and their extinct relatives were previously classified in their own family Hydrochoeridae.6 Since 2002, molecular phylogenetic studies have recognized a close relationship between Hydrochoerus and Kerodon7 supporting placement of both genera in a subfamily of Caviidae.4 Paleontological classifications have yet to incorporate this new taxonomy and continue to use Hydrochoeridae for all capybaras, while using Hydrochoerinae for the living genus and its closest fossil relatives, such as Neochoerus.89 The taxonomy of fossil hydrochoerines is also in a state of flux. In recent years, the diversity of fossil hydrochoerines has been substantially reduced.89 This is largely due to the recognition that capybara molar teeth show strong variation in shape over the life of an individual.8 In one instance, material once referred to four genera and seven species on the basis of differences in molar shape is now thought to represent differently aged individuals of a single species, Cardiatherium paranense.8
The capybara has a heavy, barrel-shaped body and short head, with reddish-brown fur on the upper part of its body that turns yellowish-brown underneath. Its sweat glands can be found in the surface of the hairy portions of its skin, an unusual trait among rodents.6 The animal lacks underhair, and guard hair differs little from overhair. Adult capybaras grow to 107 to 134 cm (3.51 to 4.40 ft) in length, stand 50 to 64 cm (20 to 25 in) tall at the withers, and typically weigh 35 to 66 kg (77 to 150 lb), with an average in the Venezuelan llanos of 48.9 kg (108 lb).1011 The top recorded weights are 91 kg (200 lb) for a wild female from Brazil and 73.5 kg (162 lb) for a wild male from Uruguay.612 The dental formula is 22.214.171.124.6 Capybaras have slightly webbed feet and vestigial tails.6 Their hind legs are slightly longer than their forelegs; they have three toes on their rear feet and four toes on their front feet.13 Their muzzles are blunt, with nostrils, and the eyes and ears are near the top of their heads. Females are slightly heavier than males.
Capybaras are semi-aquatic mammals11 found throughout almost all countries of South America (except Chile14) in densely forested areas near bodies of water, such as lakes, rivers, swamps, ponds, and marshes,10 as well as flooded savannah and along rivers in tropical forest. Capybara have flourished in cattle ranches.6 They roam in home ranges averaging 10 hectares (25 acres) in high-density populations.6
Many escapees from captivity can also be found in similar watery habitats around the world. Sightings are fairly common in Florida, although a breeding population has not yet been confirmed.15 In 2011, one was spotted in the central coast of California.16
Capybaras are herbivores, grazing mainly on grasses and aquatic plants,1017 as well as fruit and tree bark.11 They are very selective feeders18 and will feed on the leaves of one species and disregard other species surrounding it. They eat a greater variety of plants during the dry season, as fewer plants are available. While they eat grass during the wet season, they have to switch to more abundant reeds during the dry season.19 Plants that capybaras eat during the summer lose their nutritional value in the winter and therefore are not consumed at that time.18 The capybara's jaw hinge is not perpendicular and they thus chew food by grinding back-and-forth rather than side-to-side.20 Capybaras are coprophagous, meaning they eat their own feces as a source of bacterial gut flora, to help digest the cellulose in the grass that forms their normal diet, and to extract the maximum protein and vitamins from their food. They may also regurgitate food to masticate again, similar to cud-chewing by a cow.21 As is the case with other rodents, the front teeth of capybaras grow continually to compensate for the constant wear from eating grasses;14 their cheek teeth also grow continuously.20
Like its cousin the guinea pig, the capybara does not have the capacity to synthesize vitamin C, and capybaras not supplemented with vitamin C in captivity have been reported to develop gum disease as a sign of scurvy.22
They can have a life span of 8–10 years in the wild,23 but live less than four years on average, as they are "a favourite food of jaguar, puma, ocelot, eagle and caiman".14 The capybara is also the preferred prey of the anaconda.24
Capybaras are very gregarious. While they do sometimes live solitarily, they are more commonly found in groups that average 10–20 individuals, with two to four adult males, four to seven adult females and the rest juveniles.25 Capybara groups can consist of as many as 50 or 100 individuals during the dry season,2126 when the animals gather around available water sources. Males are organized in stable, linear hierarchies. The dominant male in each group is significantly heavier than any of the subordinates, but among subordinates, status is not correlated with weight.27 The dominant male is positioned in the center of the group while subordinates are on the periphery. These hierarchies are established early in life among the young with play fights and mock copulations.25 The most dominant males have access to the best resources.27 Capybaras are very vocal and, when in groups, chatter with each other to establish social bonds, dominance or general group census.26 They can make dog-like barks21 when threatened or when females are herding young.28 Capybaras have two different scent glands; a morillo, located on the snout, and an anal gland.29 Both sexes have these glands, but males have much larger morillos and their anal pockets can open more easily. The anal glands of males are also lined with detachable hairs. A crystalline form of scent secretion is coated on these hairs and are released when in contact with objects like plants. These hairs have a longer-lasting scent mark and are tasted by other capybaras. A capybara marks by rubbing its morillo on an object or by walking over a scrub and marking with its anal gland. A capybara can spread its scent further by urinating. However, females usually mark without urinating and mark less frequently than males overall. Females mark more often during the wet season when they are in estrus. In addition to objects, males will also mark females.29
When in estrus, the female's scent changes subtly and nearby males begin pursuit.27 In addition, a female will alert males she is in estrus by whistling though her nose.21 During mating, the female has the advantage and mating choice. Capybaras mate only in water, and if a female does not want to mate with a certain male, she will either submerge or leave the water.2126 Dominant males are highly protective of the females, but they usually cannot prevent all the subordinates from copulating.27 The larger the group, the harder it is for the male to watch all the females. Dominant males secure significantly more matings than each subordinate, but subordinate males, as a class, are responsible for more matings than each dominant male.27 The lifespan of the capybara's sperm is longer than that of other rodents.30
Capybara gestation is 130–150 days, and usually produces a litter of four capybara babies, but may produce between one and eight in a single litter.6 Birth is on land and the female will rejoin the group within a few hours of delivering the newborn capybaras, which will join the group as soon as they are mobile. Within a week, the young can eat grass, but will continue to suckle—from any female in the group—until weaned at about 16 weeks. The young will form a group within the main group.14 Alloparenting has been observed in this species.26 Breeding peaks between April and May in Venezuela and between October and November in Mato Grosso, Brazil.6
Though quite agile on land (capable of running as fast as a horse),31 Capybaras are equally at home in the water. They are excellent swimmers, and can remain completely submerged for up to five minutes,10 an ability they use to evade predators. Capybaras can sleep in water if need be, only keeping their noses out of the water. During midday, as temperatures increase, they wallow in water and then graze in late afternoons and early evenings.6 They also spend a lot of time wallowing in mud.13 They rest around midnight and then continue to graze before dawn.
Capybaras are hunted for their meat and pelts in some areas,32 and otherwise killed by humans who see their grazing as competition for livestock. In some areas, they are farmed, which has the effect of ensuring the wetland habitats are protected. Their survival is aided by their ability to breed rapidly.14
The European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) tasked Drusillas Park in Alfriston, Sussex to keep the studbook for Capybaras, to monitor captive populations in Europe. The studbook includes information about all births, deaths and movements of capybaras, as well as how they are related.33
Capybara are farmed for meat and skins in South America.34 The meat is considered unsuitable to eat in some areas, while in other areas it is considered an important source of protein.6 In parts of South America, especially in Venezuela, capybara meat is popular during Lent and Holy Week as the Catholic Church is claimed to have given a special dispensation that allows for its consumption even while other meats are generally forbidden. Accounts differ of how the dispensation arose.35
- Josephoartigasia monesi, an extinct species identified as the largest rodent ever
- In medicine, see Kurloff cells
- Queirolo, D., Vieira, E. & Reid, F. (2008). "Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
- Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris). ARKive.org
- Ferreira, A. B. H. (1986) Novo Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa, 2nd ed., Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, p.344
- Woods, C. A.; Kilpatrick, C. W. (2005). "Infraorder Hystricognathi". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 1556. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Darwin, Charles R. (1839). Narrative of the surveying voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle between the years 1826 and 1836, describing their examination of the southern shores of South America, and the Beagle's circumnavigation of the globe. Journal and remarks. 1832–1836. London: Henry Colburn. p. 619.
- In page 57, Darwin says "The largest gnawing animal in the world, the Hydrochærus Capybara (the water-hog), is here also common."
- See it also in The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online
- Anon (16 June 1986). "Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. Brisson, 1762". Mammalian Species 264: 1–7.
- Rowe, D. L.; Honeycutt, R. L. (2002). "Phylogenetic relationships, ecological correlates, and molecular evolution within the Cavioidea (Mammalia, Rodentia)". Molecular Biology and Evolution 19 (3): 263–277. PMID 11861886.
- Vucetich, M. G.; Deschamps, C. M.; Olivares, A. I.; Dozo, M. T. (2005). "Capybaras, size, shape, and time: A model kit". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 50 (2): 259–272. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- Deschamps, C. M.; Olivares, A. I.; Vieytes, E. C.; Vucetich, M. G. (2007). "Ontogeny and diversity of the oldest capybaras (Rodentia: Hydrochoeridae; late Miocene of Argentina". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27 (3): 683–692. JSTOR 30126368.
- Capybara Facts. Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Retrieved on December 16, 2007.
- Capybara. Palm Beach Zoo. Retrieved on December 17, 2007.
- World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. WAZA. Retrieved on 2011-12-07.
- "Enchanted Learning Home Page". Enchantedlearning.com. Retrieved 2013-05-27.
- Bristol Zoo Gardens (UK) ''Capybara''. Bristolzoo.org.uk. Retrieved on 2011-12-07.
- Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission: Capybara – ''Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris''
- Mather, Kate (18 August 2011). "A gnawing question answered: It's a capybara roaming Paso Robles". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
- Forero-Montana J, Betancur J and Cavelier J (2003). "Dieta del capibara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (cavia: Hydrochaeridae) en Caño Limón, Arauca, Colombia". Rev. Biol. Trop 51 (2): 571–578. PMID 15162749. PDF
- Quintana, R.D., S. Monge, A.I. Malvárez (1998). "Feeding patterns of capybara Hydrochaeris hypdrochaeris (Rodentia, Hydrochaeridae) and cattle in the non-insular area of the Lower Delta of the Parana River, Argentina". Mammalia 62 (1): 37–52. doi:10.1515/mamm.19126.96.36.199.
- Barreto, Guillermo R.; Herrera, Emilio A. (1998). "Foraging patterns of capybaras in a seasonally flooded savanna of Venezuela". Journal of Tropical Ecology 14: 87. doi:10.1017/S0266467498000078. JSTOR 2559868.
- Capybara. Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris. San Francisco Zoo
- Lord-Rexford, D. (1994). "A descriptive account of capybara behaviour". Studies on neotropical fauna and environment 29 (1): 11–22. doi:10.1080/01650529409360912.
- Cueto, GR; Allekotte, R; Kravetz, FO (2000). "Scurvy in capybaras bred in captivity in Argentine". Journal of wildlife diseases 36 (1): 97–101. PMID 10682750.
- Burton M and Burton R. The International Wildlife Encyclopedia. Marshall Cavendish, 2002, ISBN 0-7614-7269-X, p. 384
- Capybara, the master of the grasses: pest or prey Sounds and Colours. Retrieved on January 23, 2011.
- Alho C. J. R., Rondon N. L. (1987). "Habitats, population densities, and social structure of capybaras (hydrochaeris hypdrochaeris rodentia) in the pantanal Brazil". Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 4 (2): 139–149.
- Macdonald, D. W. (1981). "Dwindling resources and the social behavior of Capybaras, (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) (Mammalia)". Journal of Zoology 194 (3): 371–391. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1981.tb04588.x.
- Herrera, Emilio A.; MacDonald, David W. (1993). "Aggression, dominance, and mating success among capybara males (Hydrochaeris hypdrochaeris)". Behavioral Ecology 4 (2): 114. doi:10.1093/beheco/4.2.114.
- Murphey, R; Mariano, J; Mouraduarte, F (1985). "Behavioral observations in a capybara colony (Hydrochaeris hypdrochaeris)". Applied Animal Behaviour Science 14: 89. doi:10.1016/0168-1591(85)90040-1.
- Macdonald, D. W.; Krantz, K. and Aplin, R. T. "Behavioral anatomical and chemical aspects of scent marking among Capybaras (Hydrochaeris hypdrochaeris) (Rodentia: Caviomorpha)". Journal of Zoology 202 (3): 341–360. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1984.tb05087.x.
- Paula, T.A.R.; Chiarini-Garcia, H.; França, L.R. (1999). "Seminiferous epithelium cycle and its duration in capybaras (Hydrochaeris hypdrochaeris)". Tissue and Cell 31 (3): 327–34. doi:10.1054/tice.1999.0039. PMID 10481304.
- The Life of Mammals – "Chisellers"
- Andy Thompson Trip to South America gives new meaning to outdoors life. Richmond Times. January 18, 2008
- "Conservation at Drusillas Park". Drusillas.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-05-27.
- San Diego Zoo. "Capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris: October 2008". Retrieved 22 June 2011.
- Ellsworth, Brian. "In Days Before Easter, Venezuelans Tuck Into Rodent-Related Delicacy". New York Sun. March 24, 2005
- Perez, Larry (2012). Snake in the Grass: an Everglades Invasion (1st ed.). Sarasota, Fla.: Pineapple Press. p. 89. ISBN 9781561645138.
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