Carl Gustav Hempel
January 8, 1905|
Oranienburg, German Empire
|Died||November 9, 1997
Princeton, New Jersey
|Main interests||Philosophy of science, logic|
|Notable ideas||Hempel's Dilemma, Deductive-nomological, Raven paradox|
Carl Gustav "Peter" Hempel (January 8, 1905 – November 9, 1997) was a philosopher of science and a major figure in 20th-century logical empiricism. He is especially well known for his articulation of the deductive-nomological model of scientific explanation, which was considered the "standard model" of scientific explanation during the 1950s and 1960s. He is also known for the Raven paradox, which highlights the problem of induction.
Hempel studied mathematics, physics, and philosophy at the University of Göttingen, Heidelberg and Berlin. In Göttingen he encountered David Hilbert and was impressed by his attempt to base all of mathematics on solid logical foundations derived from a limited number of axioms (Hilbert's Program). Having moved to Berlin he participated in a congress on scientific philosophy in 1929, where he met Rudolf Carnap and became involved in the Berlin Circle of philosophers that was associated with the Vienna Circle. In 1934 he received his doctoral degree from the University of Berlin with a dissertation on probability theory.
Within a year of completing his doctorate Hempel had fled the increasingly repressive and anti-semitic Germany (his wife was of Jewish ancestry1) and emigrated to Belgium with the help of Paul Oppenheim, with whom he co-authored the book Der Typusbegriff im Lichte der neuen Logik on typology and logics in 1936. In 1937 Hempel emigrated to the US where he accepted a position as Carnap's assistant2 at the University of Chicago. Subsequently he held positions at New York's City College of New York (1939–1948), Yale University (1948–1955), and Princeton University where he taught alongside Thomas Kuhn, and stayed until he was given emeritus status in 1973. As an emeritus he spent the years from 1974-1976 at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. He became University Professor of Philosophy at the University of Pittsburgh in 1977 and taught there until 1985.
He never embraced the term "logical positivism" as an accurate description of the Vienna Circle and Berlin Group in which he had participated during the years between the World Wars, preferring to describe those philosophers, and himself, as "logical empiricists."
Hempel believed that the term "positivism", with its roots in Auguste Comte, invoked a materialist metaphysic that empiricists need not embrace. He regarded Wittgenstein as a philosopher with a genius for stating philosophical insights in striking and memorable language, but believed that Wittgenstein (or at least, the Wittgenstein of the Tractatus) made claims which could only be supported by recourse to metaphysics. To Hempel, metaphysics were anathema, involving claims to know things which were not knowable, that is, advancing hypotheses incapable of confirmation or disconfirmation by evidence.
In 2005 the City of Oranienburg renamed a street to "Carl-Gustav-Hempel-Straße".
- 1936: Über den Gehalt von Wahrscheinlichkeitsaussagen
- 1936: Der Typusbegriff im Licht der neuen Logik mit Paul Oppenheim
- 1942: The Function of General Laws in History
- 1943: Studies in the Logic of Confirmation
- 1959: The Logic of Functional Analysis
- 1965: Aspects of Scientific Explanation
- 1966: Philosophy of Natural Science
- 1967: Scientific Explanation
- Aspects of Scientific Explanation and Other Essays, 1965, ISBN 0-02-914340-3
- Selected Philosophical Essays, 2000, ISBN 0-521-62475-4
- The Philosophy of Carl G. Hempel: Studies in Science, Explanation, and Rationality, 2001, ISBN 0-19-512136-8
- ″On the Nature of Mathematical Truth,″ and ″Geometry and Empirical Science,″ published by the American Mathematical Monthly, 52, 1945. Articles also in the book, Readings in Philosophical Analysis, edited by Herbert Feigl and Wilfrid Sellars, pp. 222-249, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1949.
- "Carl Hempel "Scientific Inquiry: Invention and Test"". First Philosophy: Fundamental Problems and Readings in Philosophy, Volume 2 (2nd ed.). Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press. p. 206. ISBN 978-1-55111-973-1.
- Hempel, Carl. "Carl Gustav Hempel's Papers". Special Collections Department, University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved September 17, 201.
- Carl Gustav Hempel at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- "Problems and Changes in the Empiricist Criterion of Meaning" by Carl G. Hempel
- Carl G. Hempel obituary by the Princeton University Office of Communications
- Carl Gustav Hempel Papers, 1903-1997, ASP.1999.01, Archives of Scientific Philosophy, Special Collections Department, University of Pittsburgh
- Carl Gustav Hempel PapersObituary in New York Times