Religion in Tunisia
The government controls and subsidizes mosques and pays the salaries of prayer leaders. The President appoints the Grand Mufti of the Republic. The 1988 Law on Mosques provides that only personnel appointed by the Government may lead activities in mosques and stipulates that mosques must remain closed except during prayer times and other authorized religious ceremonies, such as marriages or funerals. Some people may be interrogated just for associating or being seen in the street with practising Muslims. New mosques may be built in accordance with national urban planning regulations; however, upon completion, they become the property of the Government. The Government also partially subsidizes the Jewish community.
There is a small indigenous Sufi Muslim community; however, there are no statistics regarding its size. Reliable sourceswho? report that many Sufis left the country shortly after independence when their religious buildings and land reverted to the government (as did those of Orthodox Islamic foundations). Although the Sufi community is small, its tradition of mysticism permeates the practice of Islam throughout the country. There is a small indigenous "Maraboutic" Muslim community that belongs to spiritual brotherhoods known as "turuq."1 The Muslim holidays of Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Fitr, and Mawlid are considered national holidays in Tunisia.
The Christian community, composed of indigenous residents and a large group of native-born citizens of Berber Arab descent, numbers 25,000 and is dispersed throughout the country.1 There are an estimated 20,000 Catholics.1 The Roman Catholic Church in Tunisia, which forms the Archdiocese of Tunis, operates 12 churches, 9 schools, several libraries, and 2 clinics.1 In addition to holding religious services, the Catholic Church opened a monastery, freely organized cultural activities, and performed charitable work throughout the country.1 According to church leaders, there are 2,000 Protestant practicing Christians, including a few hundred citizens who have converted to Christianity.1 The Russian Orthodox Church has approximately 100 practising members and operates a church in Tunis and another in Bizerte.1 The Reformed Church of France maintains a church in Tunis, with a congregation of 140 primarily foreign members.1 The Anglican Church has a church in Tunis with several hundred predominantly foreign members.1 There are 50 Seventh-day Adventists.1 The 30-member Greek Orthodox Church maintained 3 churches (in Tunis, Sousse, and Djerba).1 There are also 50 Jehovah's Witnesses, of whom half are foreign residents and half are native-born citizens.1 Occasionally, Catholic and Protestant religious groups held services in private residences or other locations.1
Judaism is the country's third largest religion with 1,500 members.1 One-third of the Jewish population lives in and around the capital, and is descended predominantly from Arab and Spanish immigrants.1 The remainder lives on the island of Djerba, where the Jewish community dates back 2,500 years.1
The Bahá'í Faith in Tunisia begins circa 19102 when the first Bahá'í arrives, possibly from Egypt.34 In 1963 a survey of the community counted 1 assembly and 18 organized groups (between 1 and 9 adults) of Bahá'ís in Tunisia.5 US State Department 2001 estimates mention the Bahá'í community at about 150 persons.6 However Association of Religion Data Archives and several other sources point to over 1000 Bahá'ís in the country.783
The Constitution of Tunisia provides for freedom of religion and the freedom to practice the rites of one's religion unless they disturb the public order; however, the government imposes some restrictions on this right.1 The Constitution declares the country's determination to adhere to the teachings of Islam and stipulates that Islam is the official state religion and that the president must be Muslim.1 The government does not permit the establishment of political parties on the basis of religion and prohibits efforts to proselytize Muslims.1 It restricts the wearing of Islamic headscarves (hijab) in government offices, and discourages women from wearing the hijab on public streets and at certain public gatherings.1 Although changing religions is legal, there is great societal pressure against conversion of Muslims to other religions.1
- International Religious Freedom Report 2007: Tunisia. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (September 14, 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Temple, Bernard (May 27, 1910). "Persia and the Regenerations of Islam". Journal of the Royal Society of Arts 58 (2001): 652–665. Retrieved 2013–08–03.
- Khlifi, Roua (26 February 2013). "Tunisia’s Spiritual Pluralism: The Baha’i Faith". Tunis is Alive. Retrieved 2013-08-03.
- Hassall, Graham (c. 2000). "Egypt: Baha'i history". Asia Pacific Bahá'í Studies: Bahá'í Communities by country. Bahá'í Online Library. Retrieved 2013–08-03.
- Compiled by Hands of the Cause Residing in the Holy Land. "The Bahá'í Faith: 1844-1963: Information Statistical and Comparative, Including the Achievements of the Ten Year International Bahá'í Teaching & Consolidation Plan 1953-1963". pp. 118–119.
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2001: Tunisia". The Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affair. September 14, 2001. Retrieved 2013-08-03.
- "Most Bahá'í Countries". International > Regions > Northern Africa. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved 2013-08-03.
- "Tunisia: Treatment of Bahai's (or Baha'is) by non-Bahai's and Tunisian authorities; whether they have been targets of threats and/or violence; police attitude towards Bahai's, police response to complaints lodged by Bahai's and police protection available". Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. 17 April 2003. TUN41362.E. Retrieved 2013–08–03.