Chronology of Jesus

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Medieval Russian icon depicting the life of Jesus

A chronology of Jesus aims to establish a timeline for some of the events of the life of Jesus in the four canonical gospels. The Christian gospels were primarily written as theological documents rather than historical chronicles and their authors showed little interest in an absolute chronology of Jesus. However, it is possible to correlate the New Testament with non-Christian sources such as Jewish and Greco-Roman documents to estimate specific date ranges for the major events in Jesus' life.1234

Two independent approaches can be used to estimate the year of birth of Jesus, one based on the nativity accounts in the gospels, the other by working backwards from the date of the start of his ministry. Scholars estimate a year of birth between 7 and 2 BC.5 Three independent approaches to estimate the dates of the ministry of Jesus are: first, the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, second: the date of the building of the Jerusalem Temple and third, the date of the death of John the Baptist.67891011 Scholars generally estimate that the ministry of Jesus began around 27-29 AD and lasted at least one year, and perhaps three years, or more.681213

Diverse approaches have been used to estimate the date of the crucifixion of Jesus. One approach uses the attestations of non-Christian sources such as Josephus and Tacitus.1415 Another method works backwards from the historically well established trial of Apostle Paul in Achaea to estimate the date of his conversion.16161718 Scholars generally agree that Jesus was crucified between 30-36 AD.8161920

Context and overview

The Christian gospels were written as theological documents in the context of early Christianity rather than historical chronicles and their authors showed little interest in an absolute chronology of Jesus or in synchronizing the episodes of his life with the secular history of the age.12 One manifestation of the gospels being theological documents rather than historical chronicles is that they devote about one third of their text to just seven days, namely the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem.21

A 1466 copy of Jewish historian Flavius Josephus' first century work Antiquities of the Jews, widely used to establish the chronology of Jesus.22

Although the gospels do not provide enough details regarding exact dates, it is possible to draw from them a general picture of the life story of Jesus and to establish some date ranges regarding the major events in his life via correlations with non-Christian sources.1223 A number of historical non-Christian documents, such as Jewish and Greco-Roman sources, have been used in historical analyses of the existence of Jesus and his chronology.24 Virtually all modern historians agree that Jesus existed, and regard his baptism and his crucifixion as historical events, and assume that approximate ranges for these events can be estimated.252627 However, as stated in John 21:25 the gospels do not claim to provide an exhaustive list of the events in the life of Jesus.32829

The year of birth of Jesus can be estimated using two independent approaches: one based on the nativity accounts in the gospels of Matthew and Luke, the other by working backwards from the date of the start of his ministry, when according to the Gospel of Luke he was about thirty years old. Most scholars assume a date of birth between 6 and 4 BC.5

Three independent approaches have been used to estimate the dates of the ministry of Jesus. One method relies on Luke 3:1-2's statement that the ministry of John the Baptist (which preceded that of Jesus) started in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar.67 Another approach is to correlate John 2:20's statement about the Jerusalem Temple being in construction for 46 years with the date of the building of the Second Temple.68 A third method uses the date of the death of John the Baptist based on the writings of Josephus, and correlates it to Matthew 14:4.91011 Scholars generally estimate that the ministry of Jesus began around 27-29 AD and lasted one to three years.681213

A number of approaches have been used to estimate the date of the crucifixion of Jesus. One approach uses the attestations of non-Christian sources such as Josephus and Tacitus.1415 Another approach works backwards from the historically well established trial of Apostle Paul in Corinth to estimate the date of his conversion, given that in the New Testament accounts this takes place after the death of Jesus.161718

Astronomical calculations have also been suggested as a method for establishing the date of the crucifixion. One method attempts to establish the date on which the Passover would have fallen on a Friday in the Hebrew calendar.303132

Based on these calculations, scholars generally assume that Jesus died between 30-36 AD.8161920 The most popular date is 7 April, 30 AD,3334 followed by 3 April, AD 33.35

Year of birth

The two major, and independent, approaches to estimating the year of the birth of Jesus combine the accounts given in some of the Canonical gospels with non-biblical historical data to arrive at a date range, as discussed in the two sub-sections below. There are a wide range of more speculative theories, and some are discussed at the end of this article in the "other approaches" section.

Nativity accounts: Luke and Matthew

A view of Bethlehem today, from the hills above it

The nativity-based approach to estimating the year of birth of Jesus relies on the analysis of the nativity accounts in the Gospels of Luke and Matthew along with other corresponding historical data.836

Most mainstream scholars have not yet reconciled the Luke and Matthew nativity stories.37 Karl Rahner states that the authors of the gospels generally focus on theological elements rather than historical chronologies.38 However, both Luke and Matthew associate Jesus' birth with the time of Herod the Great.38

Herod the Great is generally believed to have died from 4 BC to 1 BC, placing the birth of Jesus from 7 BC to 2 BC.39404142433638 Matthew 2:1 states that "Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king" and Luke 1:5 mentions the reign of Herod shortly before the birth of Jesus.36 The Matthew account implies that Jesus could have been as much as two years old at the time of the visit of the Magi, before Herod's death.44

Scholars have attempted to address an apparent contradiction between the two accounts, in that Luke places the birth of Jesus during a Census of Quirinius (one later census took place in AD 6 also mentioned by Luke in Acts 5:37). Matthew states the conception took place during the reign of King Herod around 7-10 years earlier. Some scholars believe Luke made an error in referring to a census, while others have offered explanations to reconcile this account with that of Matthew, from alternative translations of the Greek word prōtē used by Luke ("before" the census, rather than "the first" census) to suggestions that the census was performed in two stages, involving an earlier registration, and that Quirinius may have served previously in a similar capacity.454647 484950

Scholars generally place the date of birth between 7 and 2 BC,5515253

Working backwards from when Jesus began preaching

Dispute of Jesus and the Pharisees, by James Tissot, c. 1890

The ministry-based approach to estimating the year of birth is independent of the nativity accounts, and works backwards from when Jesus began preaching, based on the statement in Luke 3:23 that he was "about 30 years of age" at that time.819

The section below discusses three independent approaches to estimating this: first by using the "fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius" in Luke 3:1-2, second via the reference in the dispute of Jesus and the Pharisees in John 2:20 ("“This temple has been under construction for forty-six years, and will you raise it up in three days?” ") and third by the reference of Flavius Josephus to the imprisonment and execution (Ant 18.5.2) of John the Baptist by Herod Antipas.

The third reference (i.e. the execution of the Baptist in Matthew 14:6-12) relates to a time when Jesus had already started preaching but the other two references relate to when he began.

The generally assumed date range for when John the Baptist was active, based on the reference to the reign of Tiberius in Luke 3:1-2, is from about 28-29 AD, with the preaching of Jesus following shortly thereafter.67195455 As discussed in the section below, based on the reference in John 2:13 to the Temple being in its 46th year of construction, scholarly estimates for Jesus' Temple visit in John 2:20 are around 27-29 AD, when Jesus was "about thirty years of age".656

By working backwards from this time, some scholars estimate the year 28 AD to be roughly the 32nd birthday of Jesus and his year of birth to be around 6-4 BC.81954

Years of preaching

Reign of Tiberius and the Gospel of Luke

Part of the Madaba Map showing Bethabara (Βέθαβαρά), calling it the place where John baptised

One method for the estimation of the date of the beginning of the ministry of Jesus is based on the Gospel of Luke's specific statement in Luke 3:1-2 about the ministry of John the Baptist which preceded that of Jesus:67

Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene, in the highpriesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness.

There are, however, two approaches to determining when the reign of Tiberius Caesar started.57 The traditional approach is that of assuming that the reign of Tiberius started when he became co-regent in 11AD, placing the start of the ministry of John the Baptist around 26 AD. However, some scholars assume it to be upon the death of his predecessor Augustus Caesar in 14 AD, implying that the ministry of John the Baptist began in 29 AD.57

The New Testament presents John the Baptist's ministry as the precursor to that of Jesus and the Baptism of Jesus as marking the beginning of Jesus' ministry.585960 In his sermon in Acts 10:37-38, delivered in the house of Cornelius the centurion, Apostle Peter gives an overview of the ministry of Jesus, and refers to what had happened "throughout all Judaea, beginning from Galilee, after the baptism which John preached" and that Jesus had then gone about "doing good".61

The generally assumed dates for the start of the ministry of John the Baptist based on this reference in the Gospel of Luke are about 28-29 AD, with the ministry of Jesus following it shortly thereafter.67195455

Jerusalem Temple and the Gospel of John

Israel Museum model of Herod's Temple, referred to in John 2:13.

One method for estimating the start of the ministry of Jesus without reliance on the Synoptic gospels is to relate the information in the Gospel of John (2:13 and 2:20) about the visit of Jesus to Herod's Temple in Jerusalem with historical data outside the gospels about dates of the construction of the Temple.6813

John 2:13 states that Jesus went to the Temple in Jerusalem around the start of his ministry and in John 2:20 Jesus is told: "This temple has been under construction for forty-six years, and will you raise it up in three days?".68

Herod's Temple in Jerusalem was an extensive and long term construction on the Temple Mount, with worship and religious rituals performed during the multi-decade building process, which was never fully completed, not even by the time that the Temple was destroyed by the Romans in 70AD.626364 Having built entire cities such as Caesarea Maritima, Herod saw the construction of the Temple as a key, colossal monument.63 The dedication of the initial temple (sometimes called the inner Temple) followed an 17 or 18 month construction period, just after the visit of Augustus to Syria.5862

Josephus (Ant 15.11.1) states that the temple's reconstruction was started by Herod in the 18th year of his reign.61965 But there is some uncertainty about how Josephus referred to and computed dates, which event marked the start of Herod's reign, and whether the initial date should refer to the inner Temple, or the subsequent construction.81358 Hence various scholars arrive at slightly different dates for the exact date of the start of the Temple construction, varying by a few years in their final estimation of the date of the Temple visit.1358 Given that it took 46 years of construction, scholarly estimates for the Temple visit in the Gospel of John are around 27-29 AD.68121366

Josephus' reference to the Baptist

In the Antiquities of the Jews, first century historian Flavius Josephus refers to the imprisonment and execution of John the Baptist by Herod Antipas and that Herodias left her husband to marry Herod Antipas, in defiance of Jewish law.9101167

The Baptist scolds Herod. Fresco by Masolino, 1435

Scholars view Josephus' accounts of John the Baptist as authentic.968 His reference to the marriage of Herod and Herodias, which is also mentioned in the gospels, establishes a key connection with the episodes that appear there.9

However, although both the gospels and Josephus refer to Herod Antipas killing John the Baptist, they differ on the details and motives, e.g. whether this act was a consequence of the marriage of Herod Antipas and Herodias (as indicated in Matthew 14:4, Mark 6:18), or a pre-emptive measure by Herod which possibly took place before the marriage to quell a possible uprising based on the remarks of John, as Josephus suggests in Ant 18.5.2.22697071

The exact year of the marriage of Herod Antipas and Herodias is subject to debate among scholars.10 While some scholars place the year of the marriage in the range 27-31AD, others have approximated a date as late as AD 35, although such a late date has much less support.10 In his analysis of Herod's life, Harold Hoehner estimates that John the Baptist's imprisonment probably occurred around AD 30-31.72 The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia estimates the death of the Baptist to have occurred about AD 31-32.11

Josephus stated (Ant 18.5.2) that the AD 36 defeat of Herod Antipas in the conflicts with Aretas IV of Nabatea was widely considered by the Jews of the time as misfortune brought about by Herod's unjust execution of John the Baptist.717374 Given that John the Baptist was executed before the defeat of Herod by Aretas, and based on the scholarly estimates for the approximate date of the marriage of Herod Antipas and Herodias, the last part of the ministry of John the Baptist and hence parts of the ministry of Jesus fall within the historical time span of AD 28-35, with the later year 35 having the least support among scholars.107475

Year of death

Prefecture of Pontius Pilate

Roman historian Tacitus

All four Canonical gospels state that Jesus was crucified during the prefecture of Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor of Judea.7677

In the Antiquities of the Jews (written about 93 AD) Josephus, states (Ant 18.3) that Jesus was crucified on the orders of Pilate.78 Most scholars agree that while this reference includes some later Christian interpolations, it originally included a reference to the execution of Jesus under Pilate.7980818283

In the second century the Roman historian Tacitus8485 in The Annals (c. 116 AD), described the persecution of Christians by Nero and stated (Annals 15.44) that Jesus had been executed on the orders of Pilate,788686 a reference generally considered genuine, and of value as an independent source.84878889

Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea from 26 AD until he was replaced by Marcellus, either in 36 AD or 37 AD, establishing the date of the death of Jesus between 26 and 37 AD.909192

Reign of Herod Antipas

In the Gospel of Luke, while Jesus is in Pilate's court, Pilate realizes that Jesus is a Galilean and thus is under the jurisdiction of Herod Antipas.9394 Given that Herod was in Jerusalem at that time, Pilate decided to send Jesus to Herod to be tried.9394

This episode is only described in the Gospel of Luke (23:7-15).95969798 While some scholars have questioned the authenticity of this episode, given that it is unique to the Gospel of Luke, the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia states that it fits well with the theme of the gospel.11

Herod Antipas, a son of Herod the Great, was born before 20 BC and was exiled in the summer of 39 AD following a lengthy intrigue involving Caligula and Agrippa I, the grandson of his father.99100 Although this episode provides a wider range date for the death of Jesus, it is in concord with the other estimates in that it indicates that Jesus' death took place before 39 AD.101102

Conversion of Paul

The Temple of Apollo in Delphi, Greece, where the Delphi Inscription was discovered early in the 20th century.103104

Another approach to estimating an upper bound for the year of death of Jesus is the estimation of the date of Conversion of Paul the Apostle which the New Testament accounts place some time after the death of Jesus.161718 Paul's conversion is discussed in both the Letters of Paul and in the Acts of the Apostles.16105

In the First Epistle to the Corinthians (15:3-8), Paul refers to his conversion. The Acts of the Apostles includes three separate references to his conversion experience, in Acts 9, Acts 22 and Acts 26.106107

Estimating the year of Paul's conversion relies on working backwards from his trial before Junius Gallio in Achaea Greece (Acts 18:12-17) around 51-52 AD, a date which gained historical credibility early in the 20th century following the discovery of four stone fragments as part of the Delphi Inscriptions, at Delphi across the Gulf from Corinth.104108

Most historians estimate that Gallio (brother of Seneca the Younger) became proconsul between the spring of 51 AD and the summer of 52 AD, and that his position ended no later than 53 AD.103104108109110 However, the trial of Paul is generally assumed to be in the earlier part of Gallio's tenure, based on the reference (Acts 18:2) to his meeting in Corinth with Priscilla and Aquila, who had been recently expelled from Rome based on Emperor Claudius' expulsion of some Jews from Rome, which is dated to 49-50 AD.108111

According to the New Testament, Paul spent eighteen months in Corinth, approximately seventeen years after his conversion.104112 Galatians 2:1-10 states that Paul went back to Jerusalem fourteen years after his conversion, and various missions (at times with Barnabas) such as those in Acts 11:25-26 and 2 Corinthians 11:23-33 appear in the Book of Acts.1617 The generally accepted scholarly estimate for the date of conversion of Paul is 33-36 AD, placing the death of Jesus before this date range.161718

Astronomical analysis

One possible approach to dating the death of Jesus is by using astronomical evidence to establish the dates of Passover. The difficulty here is that the Jewish calendar was based not on astronomical calculation but on observation. It is possible to establish whether the moon was visible on a particular day but not whether it was actually sighted.,113 As E. P. Sanders has pointed out, we cannot recreate local atmospheric conditions of two thousand years ago: "the synoptic chronology cannot be confirmed by astronomy, but neither can it be disproved".114 Nevertheless, some writers such as astronomer Colin Humphreys have attempted to confirm the crucifixion date using this method, obtaining 3 April 33115116 or 1 April 33.117118

Newton's method

In 1733,119 Isaac Newton estimated the date of the crucifixion by calculating the relative visibility of the crescent of the new moon.3031 In Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, assuming that the crucifixion took place on Friday, 14 Nisan, and based on the fact that this date always fell on the full moon next after the vernal Equinox, he argued that it must have taken place on 23 April, AD 34.32 Newton narrowed the possible years to AD 33 and 34 and selected the latter by using a 'postponement rule' from the Hebrew calendar.3032120

Later scientists used similar methods of relating the Hebrew and Julian calendars, with the version developed by J. K. Fotheringham becoming a standard by the middle of the 20th century.31121 Fotheringham narrowed the possible dates to 7 April, AD 30 and 3 April, AD 33.122123 He favored the latter date on the basis of its coincidence with a lunar eclipse (see below).

In 1990 astronomer Bradley E. Schaefer, following a similar method, arrived at the date 3 April, AD 33.124

J. P. Pratt argued that Newton's reasoning was effectively sound but was mistaken in using the "postponement rule" from the modern Hebrew calendar, which was not in use at the time. He argued for AD 33 as the correct date.30

Eclipse method

A solar eclipse, August 2008.
A lunar eclipse, March 2007.

Another approach involves the reference in the Synoptic Gospels to a period of darkness over the whole land (Matthew 27:45, Mark 15:33, Luke 23:44) on the first day of Passover beginning around noon ("the sixth hour") and continuing until 3 o'clock ("the ninth hour").125 Although many scholars view this as a literary device common among ancient writers rather than a description of an actual event,126127 some writers have attempted to identify a datable astronomical phenomenon which this could have referred to.

In the 6th century Aurelius Cassiodorus stated that the crucifixion occurred when there was a great eclipse, the same year Sejanus became the consul with Tiberius, AD 31.128129

Modern astronomers have dismissed the possibility of a solar eclipse during the crucifixion,130 since solar eclipses only occur during the new moon phase, and that the 14th of Nisan always corresponds to a full moon. Moreover, a solar eclipse takes about an hour for the moon to cover the sun, with total coverage lasting four to six minutes.131132

In 1983, astronomers Humphreys and Waddington of Oxford University argued that the reference was actually to a lunar eclipse, which can last a few hours, with total coverage lasting about an hour.133 They reconstructed the scenario for a lunar eclipse on 3 April 33 AD.134 Their argument depends on speculation that the Luke Gospel reference to the sun being darkened was a 'scribal error', a claim which historian David Henige describes as 'undefended' and 'indefensible'.135 Astronomer Bradley Schaefer points out that the eclipsed moon would not have been visible by the time the moon had risen.136137138

Date of birth and death

Day of birth

The nativity accounts in the New Testament gospels of Matthew and Luke do not mention a day for the birth of Jesus. Karl Rahner states that given that the gospels were written as theological documents they do not pay attention to such details.38 Scholars such as E.P. Sanders consider the birth narratives non-historical and not a reliable method for determining the day of birth.139

Neither gospel account mentions what time of year the birth took place. The Gospel of Luke reference to shepherds grazing their sheep in the fields implies a birth during the springtime, summer or early fall.140141142

The day of birth of Jesus, celebrated as Christmas, is based on a feast rather than historical analysis. In the 1st and 2nd centuries, the Lord's Day (Sunday) was the earliest Christian celebration and included a number of theological themes. In the 2nd century, the Resurrection of Jesus became a separate feast as Easter and in the same century Epiphany began to be celebrated in the Churches of the East on 6 January.143 The festival of the Nativity which later turned into Christmas was a 4th-century feast in the Western Church notably in Rome and North Africa, although it is uncertain exactly where and when it was first celebrated.144

The earliest source stating 25 December as the date of birth of Jesus is likely by Hippolytus of Rome, written very early in the 3rd century, based on the assumption that the conception of Jesus took place at the Spring equinox which he placed on March 25, and then added 9th months - festivals on that date were then celebrated.145 John Chrysostom also argued for a 25 December date in the late 4th century, basing his argument on the assumption that the offering of incense in Luke 1:8-11 was the offering of incense by a high priest on Yom Kippur (early October), and, as above, counting fifteen months forward. However, this was very likely a retrospective justification of a choice already made rather than a genuine attempt to derive the correct birth date.146

Day of death

A Papyrus 90 fragment of John 19

In the Synoptic Gospels the Last Supper took place on the first night of Passover, defined in the Torah as occurring after the daylight of the 14th of Nisan.147 However, the Gospel of John implies that at the time of the trial the Jewish leaders had not yet eaten the Passover meal148149 and that his sentencing took place on the day of Preparation of the Passover.[Jn. 19:14] John's account places the crucifixion on Nisan 14, since the law mandated the lamb had to be sacrificed between 3:00 pm and 5:00 pm and eaten before midnight on Nisan 14.150151152 This understanding fits well with Old Testament typology, in which Jesus entered Jerusalem to identify himself as the Paschal lamb on Nisan 10[Jn. Ex.] was crucified and died at 3:00 in the afternoon of Nisan 14, at the same time the High Priest would have sacrificed the Paschal lamb,[1 Cor. 5:7] [cf. Isa. 53:7-9] and rose before dawn the morning of Nisan 16, as a type of offering of the First Fruits.[1 Cor. 15:23] [cf. Lev. 23:9-14] However, "the day of preparation" has been seen to mean either the day before Passover or simply Friday; or both.153

It is problematic to reconcile the chronology presented by John with the Synoptic passages and the tradition that the Last Supper was a Passover meal,154 placing the crucifixion instead on Nisan 15. Some scholars have attempted to explain the contradiction by postulating differences in how post-exilic Jews reckoned time:155 for Jesus and his disciples, the Passover could have begun at dawn Thursday, while for traditional Jews (following Leviticus 23:5), it would not have begun until dusk that same day.156157 Another explanation that has been suggested is that Jesus chose to celebrate the Passover meal a day early with his disciples.[Mt. 26:18] [Lk. 22:15] 158

D.A. Carson points out that there is no evidence that the term 'day of preparation of Passover' in John 19:14 ever means the day before the Passover meal. The word translated 'day of preparation' (παρασκευὴ) is the common word for 'Friday'. It is always the preparation day for the Sabbath (which is Saturday). The word translated 'Passover' (πάσχα) can mean either the Passover meal, Passover lamb or the entire feast of Unleavened Bread, otherwise known as Passover week. Hence John 19:14 should be understood as 'preparation day of Passover week'.159

Hour of death

A Roman era sundial, at a museum in Turkey

The estimation of the hour of death of Jesus based on the New Testament accounts has been the subject of debate among scholars.160161 Mark's passion narrative has three hour segments: in the early part Jesus is before Pilate, the Crucifixion takes place at the third hour (9am) in Mark 15:25, darkness appears at the six hour (noon) and Jesus' death at the ninth hour (3pm).162 However, in John 19:14 Jesus is still before Pilate at the sixth hour.160

Some scholars have presented arguments to reconcile the accounts,160 although Raymond E. Brown, reviewing these, concluded that they can not be easily reconciled.161 Some have argued that the modern precision of marking the time of day should not be read back into the gospel accounts, written at a time when no standardization of timepieces, or exact recording of hours and minutes was available.160163 Andreas Köstenberger argues that in the first century time was often estimated to the closest three-hour mark, and any time between 9am and noon could have been described as about the third or the sixth hour, and that the intention of the author of the Mark Gospel was to provide the setting for the three hours of darkness while the Gospel of John seeks to stress the length of the proceedings, starting in the 'early morning'"164

In 1881, Brooke Foss Westcott suggested that the two accounts could be reconciled by assuming that John had followed the Roman practice of calculating the new day beginning at midnight, rather than the Jewish reckoning, although he admitted this would have been unusual at the time.165 In New Testament times, Jews regarded the day as beginning at sunset when precision was required, but otherwise, for practical purposes, at sunrise. The Evangelist John, writing primarily to Gentiles, it is suggested, chose the Roman legal use of time of reckoning, of counting the new day from midnight. Some scholars have postulated that the Roman reckoning was used by John, and that this is the reason for the apparent discrepancy with the other Gospel writers. Leon Morris, however, points out that this Roman practice was used only for dating contracts and leases, and days were normally counted from sunrise: "It is difficult to understand why this Evangelist alone should have such an unusual method of reckoning time".166167 William Barclay has argued that the portrayal of the death of Jesus in the John Gospel is a literary construct, presenting the crucifixion as taking place at the time on the day of Passover when the sacrificial lamb would be killed, and thus portraying Jesus as the Lamb of God.168

Other approaches

Other approaches to the chronology of Jesus have been suggested over the centuries, e.g. Maximus the Confessor, Eusebius, and Cassiodorus asserted that the death of Jesus occurred in 31 AD.citation needed The 3rd/4th century Roman historian Lactantius states that Jesus was crucified on a particular day in 29 AD, but that did not correspond to a full moon.169

Some commentators have attempted to establish the date of birth by identifying the Star of Bethlehem with some known astronomical or astrological phenomenon.170 There are many possible phenomena and none seems to match the Gospel account exactly,171 although new authors continue to offer potential candidates.172

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi by Karl Rahner 2004 ISBN 0-86012-006-6 pages 730-731
  2. ^ a b c Interpreting Gospel Narratives: Scenes, People, and Theology by Timothy Wiarda 2010 ISBN 0-8054-4843-8 pages 75-78
  3. ^ a b Brown, Raymond E. (1994). The Death of the Messiah: from Gethsemane to the Grave: A Commentary on the Passion Narratives in the Four Gospels. New York: Doubleday, Anchor Bible Reference Library. p. 964. ISBN 978-0-385-19397-9. 
  4. ^ Paula Fredriksen, 1999, Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews, Alfred A. Knopf Publishers, pages=6–7, 105–10, 232–34, 266
  5. ^ a b c Dunn, James DG (2003). Jesus Remembered. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 324. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible 2000 Amsterdam University Press ISBN 90-5356-503-5 page 249
  7. ^ a b c d e The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary: Matthew-Luke, Volume 1 by Craig A. Evans 2003 ISBN 0-7814-3868-3 pages 67-69
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Paul L. Maier "The Date of the Nativity and Chronology of Jesus" in Chronos, kairos, Christos: nativity and chronological studies by Jerry Vardaman, Edwin M. Yamauchi 1989 ISBN 0-931464-50-1 pages 113-129
  9. ^ a b c d e Craig Evans, 2006 "Josephus on John the Baptist" in The Historical Jesus in Context edited by Amy-Jill Levine et al. Princeton Univ Press ISBN 978-0-691-00992-6 pages 55-58 [1]
  10. ^ a b c d e f Herodias: at home in that fox's den by Florence Morgan Gillman 2003 ISBN 0-8146-5108-9 pages 25-30 [2]
  11. ^ a b c d e International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: E-J by Geoffrey W. Bromiley 1982 ISBN 0-8028-3782-4 pages 694-695 [3]
  12. ^ a b c The Riddles of the Fourth Gospel: An Introduction to John by Paul N. Anderson 2011 ISBN 0-8006-0427-X pages 200
  13. ^ a b c d e f Herod the Great by Jerry Knoblet 2005 ISBN 0-7618-3087-1 page 183-184
  14. ^ a b Funk, Robert W.; Jesus Seminar (1998). The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. San Francisco: Harper. 
  15. ^ a b The Word in this world by Paul William Meyer, John T. Carroll 2004 ISBN 0-664-22701-5 page 112
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i Jesus & the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament Times by Paul Barnett 2002 ISBN 0-8308-2699-8 pages 19-21
  17. ^ a b c d e The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 pages 77-79
  18. ^ a b c d Paul's early period: chronology, mission strategy, theology by Rainer Riesner 1997 ISBN 978-0-8028-4166-7 page 19-27 (page 27 has a table of various scholarly estimates)
  19. ^ a b c d e f g The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 page 114
  20. ^ a b Sanders (1993). pp. 11, 249.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  21. ^ Matthew by David L. Turner 2008 ISBN 0-8010-2684-9 page 613
  22. ^ a b Jesus in history, thought, and culture: an encyclopedia, Volume 1 by James Leslie Houlden 2003 ISBN 1-57607-856-6 pages 508-509 [4]
  23. ^ Sanders, EP (1995). The Historical Figure of Jesus. London: Penguin Books. p. 3. 
  24. ^ Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey by Craig L. Blomberg 2009 ISBN 0-8054-4482-3 pages 431-436
  25. ^ In a 2011 review of the state of modern scholarship, Bart Ehrman wrote: "He certainly existed, as virtually every competent scholar of antiquity, Christian or non-Christian, agrees" B. Ehrman, 2011 Forged : writing in the name of God ISBN 978-0-06-207863-6. page 285
  26. ^ Ramm, Bernard L (1993). An Evangelical Christology: Ecumenic and Historic. Regent College Publishing. p. 19. "There is almost universal agreement that Jesus lived" 
  27. ^ Borg, Marcus (1999). "A Vision of the Christian Life". The Meaning of Jesus: Two Visions. HarperCollins. p. 236. "some judgements are so probable as to be certain; for example, Jesus really existed" 
  28. ^ Christology: A Biblical, Historical, and Systematic Study of Jesus by Gerald O'Collins 2009 ISBN 0-19-955787-X pages 1-3
  29. ^ Jesus as a Figure in History: How Modern Historians View the Man from Galilee by Mark Allan Powell 1998 ISBN 0-664-25703-8 pages 168-173
  30. ^ a b c d Pratt, J. P. (1991). "Newton's Date for the Crucifixion". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 32 (3): 301–304. Bibcode:1991QJRAS..32..301P.  [5]
  31. ^ a b c Colin Humphreys, The Mystery of the Last Supper Cambridge University Press 2011 ISBN 978-0-521-73200-0, pages 45-48
  32. ^ a b c Newton, Isaac (1733). "Of the Times of the Birth and Passion of Christ", in Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John: "Thus there remain only the years 33 and 34 to be considered; and the year 33 I exclude by this argument... "
  33. ^ Rainer Riesner, Paul's Early Period: Chronology, Mission Strategy, Theology (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1998), page 58.
  34. ^ Josef Blinzler, Der Prozess Jesu (Pustet, 1960) cited in Colin J. Humphreys, The Mystery of the Last Supper: Reconstructing the Final Days of Jesus (Cambridge University Press, 2011) page 14.
  35. ^ Maier, P.L. (1968). "Sejanus, Pilate, and the Date of the Crucifixion". Church History 37 (1): 3–13. JSTOR 3163182. 
  36. ^ a b c New Testament History by Richard L. Niswonger 1992 ISBN 0-310-31201-9 pages 121-124
  37. ^ Marcus Borg, 'The Meaning of the Birth Stories' in Marcus Borg, N T Wright, The Meaning of Jesus: Two Visions (Harper One, 1999) page 179: "I (and most mainline scholars) do not see these stories as historically factual."
  38. ^ a b c d Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi by Karl Rahner 2004 ISBN 0-86012-006-6 page 731
  39. ^ Edwards, Ormond. "Herodian Chronology," Palestine Exploration Quarterly 114 (1982) 29–42
  40. ^ Filmer, W. E. "Chronology of the Reign of Herod the Great," Journal of Theological Studies ns 17 (1966), 283–298.
  41. ^ Keresztes, Paul. Imperial Rome and the Christians: From Herod the Great to About 200 AD (Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1989), pp.1–43.
  42. ^ Vardaman, Jerry; Yamauchi, Edwin M., eds. (1989). "The Nativity and Herod's Death". Chronos, Kairos, Christos: Nativity and Chronological Studies Presented to Jack Finegan (Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns): 85–92. 
  43. ^ Finegan, Jack.Handbook of Biblical Chronology, Rev. ed. (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1998) 300, §516.
  44. ^ Freed, Edwin D (2004). Stories of Jesus' Birth. Continuum International. p. 119. 
  45. ^ Miller, Glen M. (June 2013). "On an objection about Luke, Quirinius, and Herods". Retrieved March 2, 2014. 
  46. ^ Archer, Gleason Leonard (April 1982). Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Pub. House. p. 366. ISBN 0-310-43570-6. 
  47. ^ Frederick Fyvie Bruce, The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? (1943; republished Eerdman, 2003), page 87-88.
  48. ^ Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 289-290
  49. ^ Nikos Kokkinos, 1998, in Chronos, kairos, Christos 2 by Ray Summers, Jerry Vardaman ISBN 0-86554-582-0 pages 121-126
  50. ^ C.F. Evans, Tertullian's reference to Sentius Saturninus and the Lukan Census in the Journal of Theological Studies (1973) XXIV(1): 24-39
  51. ^ Some of the historians and Biblical scholars who place the birth and death of Jesus within this range include D. A. Carson, Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris. An Introduction to the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992, 54, 56
  52. ^ Michael Grant, Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels, Scribner's, 1977, p. 71.
  53. ^ Ben Witherington III, "Primary Sources," Christian History 17 (1998) No. 3:12–20.
  54. ^ a b c Christianity and the Roman Empire: background texts by Ralph Martin Novak 2001 ISBN 1-56338-347-0 pages 302-303
  55. ^ a b Hoehner, Harold W (1978). Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ. Zondervan. pp. 29–37. ISBN 0-310-26211-9. 
  56. ^ Jack V. Scarola, "A Chronology of the nativity Era" in Chronos, kairos, Christos 2 by Ray Summers, Jerry Vardaman 1998 ISBN 0-86554-582-0 pages 61-81
  57. ^ a b Luke 1-5: New Testament Commentary by John MacArthur 2009 ISBN 0-8024-0871-0 page 201
  58. ^ a b c d The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 pages 140-141
  59. ^ Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey by Craig L. Blomberg 2009 ISBN 0-8054-4482-3 page 224-229
  60. ^ Christianity: an introduction by Alister E. McGrath 2006 ISBN 978-1-4051-0901-7 pages 16-22
  61. ^ Who is Jesus?: an introduction to Christology by Thomas P. Rausch 2003 ISBN 978-0-8146-5078-3 page
  62. ^ a b The building program of Herod the Great by Duane W. Roller 1998 University of California Press ISBN 0-520-20934-6 pages 67-71 [6]
  63. ^ a b The Temple of Jerusalem: past, present, and future by John M. Lundquist 2007 ISBN 0-275-98339-0 pages101-103 [7]
  64. ^ The biblical engineer: how the temple in Jerusalem was built by Max Schwartz 2002 ISBN 0-88125-710-9 pages xixx-xx
  65. ^ Encyclopedia of the historical Jesus by Craig A. Evans 2008 ISBN 0-415-97569-7 page 115
  66. ^ Jesus in Johannine tradition by Robert Tomson Fortna, Tom Thatcher 2001 ISBN 978-0-664-22219-2 page 77
  67. ^ Ant 18.5.2-4
  68. ^ The new complete works of Josephus by Flavius Josephus, William Whiston, Paul L. Maier ISBN 0-8254-2924-2 pages 662-663
  69. ^ Women in scripture by Carol Meyers, Toni Craven and Ross Shepard Kraemer 2001 ISBN 0-8028-4962-8 pages 92-93 [8]
  70. ^ Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources by Morten H. Jensen 2010 ISBN 978-3-16-150362-7 pages 42-43 [9]
  71. ^ a b The Emergence of Christianity: Classical Traditions in Contemporary Perspective by Cynthia White 2010 ISBN 0-8006-9747-2 page 48
  72. ^ ''Herod Antipas'' by Harold W. Hoehner'' 1983 ISBN 0-310-42251-5 page 131. Books.google.com. 1983-01-28. Retrieved 2012-07-18. 
  73. ^ The relationship between John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth by Daniel S. Dapaah 2005 ISBN 0-7618-3109-6 page 48 [10]
  74. ^ a b Herod Antipas by Harold W. Hoehner 1983 ISBN 0-310-42251-5 pages 125-127
  75. ^ International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A-D by Geoffrey W. Bromiley 1995 ISBN 0-8028-3781-6 pages 686-687
  76. ^ Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1995), International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. vol. K-P. p. 929.
  77. ^ Matthew 27:27-61, Mark 15:1-47, Luke 23:25-54 and John 19:1-38
  78. ^ a b Theissen 1998, pp. 81-83
  79. ^ The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 page 104-108
  80. ^ Evans, Craig A. (2001). Jesus and His Contemporaries: Comparative Studies ISBN 0-391-04118-5 page 316
  81. ^ Wansbrough, Henry (2004). Jesus and the oral Gospel tradition ISBN 0-567-04090-9 page 185
  82. ^ James Dunn states that there is "broad consensus" among scholars regarding the nature of an authentic reference to the crucifixion of Jesus in the Testimonium.Dunn, James (2003). Jesus remembered ISBN 0-8028-3931-2 page 141
  83. ^ Skeptic Wells also states that after Shlomo Pines' discovery of new documents in the 1970s scholarly agreement on the authenticity of the nucleus of the Tetimonium was achieved, The Jesus Legend by G. A. Wells 1996 ISBN 0812693345 page 48: "... that Josephus made some reference to Jesus, which has been retouched by a Christian hand. This is the view argued by Meier as by most scholars today particularly since S. Pines..." Josephus scholar Louis H. Feldman views the reference in the Testimonium as the first reference to Jesus and the reference to Jesus in the death of James passage in Book 20, Chapter 9, 1 of the Antiquities as "the aforementioned Christ", thus relating the two passages.Feldman, Louis H.; Hata, Gōhei, eds. (1987). Josephus, Judaism and Christianity ISBN 978-90-04-08554-1 page 55
  84. ^ a b Van Voorst, Robert E (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence Eerdmans Publishing ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 pages 39-42
  85. ^ Backgrounds of early Christianity by Everett Ferguson 2003 ISBN 0-8028-2221-5 page 116
  86. ^ a b Green, Joel B. (1997). The Gospel of Luke : new international commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Mich.: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. p. 168. ISBN 0-8028-2315-7. 
  87. ^ Jesus and His Contemporaries: Comparative Studies by Craig A. Evans 2001 ISBN 0-391-04118-5 page 42
  88. ^ Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 2001 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 page 343
  89. ^ Pontius Pilate in History and Interpretation by Helen K. Bond 2004 ISBN 0-521-61620-4 page xi
  90. ^ Pontius Pilate: portraits of a Roman governor by Warren Carter 2003 ISBN 0-8146-5113-5 pages 44-45
  91. ^ The history of the Jews in the Greco-Roman world by Peter Schäfer 2003 ISBN 0-415-30585-3 page 108
  92. ^ Backgrounds of early Christianity by Everett Ferguson 2003 ISBN 0-8028-2221-5 page 416
  93. ^ a b New Testament History by Richard L. Niswonger 1992 ISBN 0-310-31201-9 page 172
  94. ^ a b Pontius Pilate: portraits of a Roman governor by Warren Carter 2003 ISBN 978-0-8146-5113-1 pages 120-121
  95. ^ The Synoptics: Matthew, Mark, Luke by Ján Majerník, Joseph Ponessa 2005 ISBN 1-931018-31-6 page 181
  96. ^ The Gospel according to Luke by Michael Patella 2005 ISBN 0-8146-2862-1 page 16
  97. ^ Luke: The Gospel of Amazement by Michael Card 2011 ISBN 978-0-8308-3835-6 page 251
  98. ^ "Bible Study Workshop - Lesson 228" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-07-18. 
  99. ^ Herod Antipas by Harold W. Hoehner 1983 ISBN 0-310-42251-5 page 262
  100. ^ All the people in the Bible by Richard R. Losch 2008 ISBN 0-8028-2454-4 page 159
  101. ^ The Content and the Setting of the Gospel Tradition by Mark Harding, Alanna Nobbs 2010 ISBN 0-8028-3318-7 pages 88-89
  102. ^ The Emergence of Christianity by Cynthia White 2010 ISBN 0-8006-9747-2 page 11
  103. ^ a b The Cambridge Companion to St Paul by James D. G. Dunn (Nov 10, 2003) Cambridge Univ Press ISBN 0521786940 page 20
  104. ^ a b c d Paul: his letters and his theology by Stanley B. Marrow 1986 ISBN 0-8091-2744-X pages 45-49
  105. ^ Bromiley, Geoffrey William (1979). International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A-D Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 689. ISBN 0-8028-3781-6.
  106. ^ Paul and His Letters by John B. Polhill 1999 ISBN 0-8054-1097-X pages 49-50
  107. ^ The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology by William Lane Craig, James Porter Moreland 2009 ISBN 1-4051-7657-1 page 616
  108. ^ a b c Christianity and the Roman Empire: background texts by Ralph Martin Novak 2001 ISBN 1-56338-347-0 pages 18-22
  109. ^ The Greco-Roman world of the New Testament era by James S. Jeffers 1999 ISBN 0-8308-1589-9 pages 164-165
  110. ^ The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary: Acts-Philemon by Craig A. Evans 2004 ISBN 0-7814-4006-8 page 248
  111. ^ The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament edition by John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck 1983 ISBN 0-88207-812-7 page 405
  112. ^ Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible Amsterdam University Press, 2000 ISBN 90-5356-503-5 page 1019
  113. ^ C. Philipp E. Nothaft, Dating the Passion: The Life of Jesus and the Emergence of Scientific Chronology (200–1600) page 25.
  114. ^ E. P. Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus (Penguin, 1993) 285-286.
  115. ^ "The Date of the Crucifixion", Colin Humphreys and W. Graeme Waddington, March 1985. American Scientific Affiliation website. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
  116. ^ holtz.org "Can you date the crucifixion of Jesus Christ using astronomy?" Retrieved 17 January 2014.
  117. ^ Colin Humphreys, The Mystery of the Last Supper Cambridge University Press 2011 ISBN 978-0-521-73200-0, page 37
  118. ^ Staff Reporter (18 April 2011). "Last Supper was on Wednesday, not Thursday, challenges Cambridge professor Colin Humphreys.". International Business Times. Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  119. ^ [11]
  120. ^ Pratt refers to S. Zeitlin's 1966 work "The Judean Calendar during the Second Commonwealth and the Scrolls," Jewish Quar. Rev 57, 28-45 regarding the use of the postponement rule.
  121. ^ Fotheringham, J.K., 1910. "On the smallest visible phase of the moon," Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 70, 527-531.
  122. ^ Fotheringham, J.K. 1910 "Astronomical Evidence for the Date of the Crucifixion," Journal of Theological Studies 12, 120-127.
  123. ^ Fotheringham, J.K. 1934. "The Evidence of Astronomy and Technical Chronology for the Date of the Crucifixion," Journal of Theological Studies 35, 146-162.
  124. ^ Schaefer, B. E. (1990). "Lunar Visibility and the Crucifixion". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 31 (1): 53–67. Bibcode:1990QJRAS..31...53S. 
  125. ^ The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament by John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck 1983 ISBN 978-0-88207-812-0 page 88
  126. ^ David E. Garland, Reading Matthew: A Literary and Theological Commentary on the First Gospel (Smyth & Helwys Publishing, 1999) page 264.
  127. ^ Geza Vermes, The Passion (Penguin, 2005) page 108-9.
  128. ^ Hales, William (1830). A New Analysis of Chronology and Geography, History and Prophecy 1. p. 70. 
  129. ^ Scaliger, Joseph (1629). Opus de emendatione temporum hac postrema Editione. p. 563. 
  130. ^ Exploring Ancient Skies: A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy by David H. Kelley, Eugene F. Milone 2011 ISBN 1-4419-7623-X pages 250-251
  131. ^ Astronomy: The Solar System and Beyond by Michael A. Seeds, Dana Backman, 2009 ISBN 0-495-56203-3 page 34
  132. ^ Meeus, J. (2003, December). The maximum possible duration of a total solar eclipse. Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 113(6), 343-348.
  133. ^ http://www.crh.noaa.gov/fsd/astro/suneclipse.php
  134. ^ Colin J. Humphreys and W. G. Waddington, The Date of the Crucifixion Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation 37 (March 1985)[12]
  135. ^ Henige, David P. (2005). Historical evidence and argument. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-299-21410-4. 
  136. ^ Schaefer, B. E. (1990, March). Lunar visibility and the crucifixion. Royal Astronomical Society Quarterly Journal, 31(1), 53-67
  137. ^ Schaefer, B. E. (1991, July). Glare and celestial visibility. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 103, 645-660.
  138. ^ Marking time: the epic quest to invent the perfect calendar by Duncan Steel 1999 ISBN 0-471-29827-1 page 341
  139. ^ Sanders, E. P. The historical figure of Jesus. Penguin, 1993 pages 85-88
  140. ^ "New Testament History" by Richard L. Niswonger 1992 ISBN 0-310-31201-9 pp. 121-124
  141. ^ Luke: an introduction and commentary by Leon Morris 1988 ISBN 0-8028-0419-5 page 93
  142. ^ Stories of Jesus' Birth by Edwin D. Freed 2004 ISBN 0-567-08046-3 pages 136-137
  143. ^ An introductory dictionary of theology and religious studies by Orlando O. Espín, James B. Nickoloff 2007 ISBN 0-8146-5856-3 page 237
  144. ^ Christian worship in Reformed Churches past and present by Lukas Vischer 2002 ISBN 0-8028-0520-5 pages 400-401
  145. ^ Mercer Dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Edgar V. McKnight and Roger A. Bullard 2001 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 page 142
  146. ^ Beckwith, p. 72
  147. ^ Lev 23:5-6
  148. ^ [Jn. 18:28]
  149. ^ Paul Barnett, Jesus & the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament Times, page 21 (InterVarsity Press, 1999). ISBN 978-0-8308-2699-5
  150. ^ Philo. "De Specialibus Legibus 2.145". 
  151. ^ Josephus. The War of the Jews 6.9.3
  152. ^ Mishnah, Pesahim 5.1.
  153. ^ The Complete Gospels, Robert J. Miller, ed., 1992, page 241, commentary on verse 19:31
  154. ^ Matthew 26:17-19; Mark 14:12-16; Luke 22:7-8
  155. ^ Stroes, H. R. (October 1966). "Does the Day Begin in the Evening or Morning? Some Biblical Observations". Vetus Testamentum (BRILL) 16 (4): 460–475. doi:10.2307/1516711. JSTOR 1516711. 
  156. ^ Ross, Allen. "Daily Life In The Time Of Jesus". 
  157. ^ Hoehner, Harold (1977). Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. 
  158. ^ Heawood, Percy J. (July 1951). "The Time of the Last Supper". The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series (University of Pennsylvania Press) 42 (1): 37–44. JSTOR 1452717. 
  159. ^ The Gospel According to John by D.A. Carson 1991 ISBN 0-85111-749-X page 604
  160. ^ a b c d Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 323-323
  161. ^ a b Death of the Messiah, Volume 2 by Raymond E. Brown 1999 ISBN 0-385-49449-1 pages 959-960
  162. ^ The Gospel of Mark, Volume 2 by John R. Donahue, Daniel J. Harrington 2002 ISBN 0-8146-5965-9 page 442
  163. ^ New Testament History by Richard L. Niswonger 1992 ISBN 0-310-31201-9 pages 173-174
  164. ^ The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 page 538
  165. ^ Brooke Foss Westcott, The Gospel according to St. John : the authorised version with introduction and notes (1881, page 282).
  166. ^ Hunt, Michal - The Passover Feast and Christ's Passion - Copyright © 1991, revised 2007 - Agape Bible Study. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
  167. ^ Leon Morris - The New International Commentary on the New Testament - The Gospel According to John (Revised) - William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan/Cambridge, U.K. - 1995, pages 138 and 708.
  168. ^ William Barclay (2001). The Gospel of John. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 340. ISBN 978-1-61164-015-1. 
  169. ^ Lactantius, Of the Manner In Which the Persecutors Died 2: "In the latter days of the Emperor Tiberius, in the consulship of Ruberius (sic) Geminus and Fufius Geminus, and on the tenth of the kalends of April, as I find it written".
  170. ^ For example, astronomer Michael Molnar identified April 17, 6 BC as the likely date of the Nativity, since that date corresponded to the heliacal rising and lunar occultation of Jupiter, while it was momentarily stationary in the sign of Aries; according to Molnar, to knowledgeable astrologers of this time, this highly unusual combination of events would have indicated that a regal personage would be (or had been) born in Judea. Michael R. Molnar, "The Star of Bethlehem: The Legacy of the Magi," Rutgers University Press, 1999.
  171. ^ Raymond E. Brown, 101 Questions and Answers on the Bible, Paulist Press (2003), page 79.
  172. ^ A recent example points back to a 1991 report from the Royal Astronomical Society, which mentions that Chinese astronomers noted a "comet" that lasted 70 days in the Capricorn region of the sky, in March of 5 BC. Authors Dugard and O'Reilly point to this event as the likely Star of Bethlehem. O'Reilly, Bill, and Dugard, Martin, "Killing Jesus: A History," Henry Holt and Company, 2013, isbn 0805098542, page 15.

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