Chula Vista, California
|Chula Vista, California|
|City of Chula Vista|
Images from top, left to right: Chula Vista Bayfront, Sleep Train Amphitheatre, HMS Surprise, Third Avenue in Downtown
|Nickname(s): The City of Allure1
Lemon Capital of the World3
Location of Chula Vista within San Diego County, California
|• City Council||Mayor Cheryl Cox
|• City Manager||Jim Sandoval|
|• City||52.094 sq mi (134.925 km2)|
|• Land||49.631 sq mi (128.545 km2)|
|• Water||2.463 sq mi (6.380 km2) 4.73%|
|Elevation||69 ft (21 m)|
|Population (2010 Census)5|
|• Rank||2nd in San Diego County
14th in California
77th in the United States
|• Density||4,700/sq mi (1,800/km2)|
|• Metro||San Diego–Tijuana: 5,105,768|
|Time zone||PST (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC-7)|
|ZIP codes||91909–91915, 91921|
|GNIS feature ID||1660481|
Chula Vista (/ /; Spanish: beautiful view67 ) is the second largest city in the San Diego metropolitan area, the seventh largest city in Southern California, the fourteenth largest city in the state of California, and the 76th-largest city in the United States. The population was 243,916 as of the 2010 census.
Located just 7.5 miles (12.1 km) from downtown San Diego and 7.5 miles (12.1 km) from the Mexican border in the South Bay region of the metropolitan area, the city is at the center of one of the richest economic and culturally diverse zones in the United States. Chula Vista is so named because of its scenic location between the San Diego Bay and coastal mountain foothills.
Founded in the early 19th century, fast population growth has recently been observed in the city. Located in the city is one of America's few year-round United States Olympic Training centers and popular tourist destinations include Cricket Wireless Amphitheater, the Chula Vista marina, and the Living Coast Discovery Center, formerly known as the Chula Vista Nature Center°.8
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Culture
- 6 Government
- 7 Education
- 8 Media
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Notable people
- 11 Sister cities
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
In the year 3000 B.C. people speaking the Yuman (Quechan) language began movement into the region from the Lower Colorado River Valley and southwestern Arizona portions of the Sonoran desert. Later the Kumeyaay tribe came to populate the land, on which the city sits today, who lived in the area for hundreds of years.9
In the year 1542, a fleet of three Spanish Empire ships commanded by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailed into San Diego Harbor. Early explorations by Spanish conquistadors, such as these, led to Spanish claims of the land. The historic land on which Chula Vista sits became part of the 1795 land grant known as Rancho del Rey or The King's Ranch. The land eventually was renamed Rancho de la Nacion.9
During the Mexican-American War, California was claimed by the United States, regardless of the California independence movement that had briefly swept the state. Mexico received compensation for the annexed territories, to include a cash payment and assumption of debts, as agreed at the end of hostilities and documented by the treaty of Guadalupe-Hildago. Though California was now under the jurisdiction of the United States, land grants were allowed to continue in the form of private property.9
The San Diego Land and Town Company developed lands of the Rancho de la Nación for new settlement. The town began as a five thousand acre development, with the first house being erected in 1887; by 1889, ten houses had been completed.10 Chula Vista can be roughly translated from Spanish as "beautiful view."9
The citizens of Chula Vista voted to incorporate on October 17, 1911. The State approved in November.9
In 1916, the Hercules Powder Company opened a 30-acre bayfront site, now known as Gunpowder point, which produced substances used to make cordite, which was used extensively by the British military during World War I.7 Although the Great Depression affected Chula Vista significantly, agriculture still provided considerable income for the residents. In 1931, the lemon orchards produced $1 million in revenue and the celery fields contributed $600,000.9
The relocation of Rohr Aircraft Corporation to Chula Vista in early 1941, just months before the attack on Pearl Harbor, changed Chula Vista. The land never returned to being orchard groves again. The population of post-World War II Chula Vista tripled from 5,000 residents in 1940 to more than 16,000 in 1950.9 After the war, many of the factory workers and thousands of servicemen stayed in the area resulting in the huge growth in population. The last of the citrus groves and produce fields disappeared as Chula Vista became one of the largest communities in San Diego County.9 From 1960 to 2013, the South Bay Power Plant, a 700 megawatt four boiler plant, occupied 115 acres (47 ha) of the Chula Vista waterfront.11
In 1944, the state of California attempted to seize land in Chula Vista owned by Kajiro Oyama, a legal Japanese resident who was then interned in Utah. Oyama was correctly charged with putting the property in his son Fred's name with the intent to evade the Alien Land Law because Fred was a native-born citizen. The case went to the U.S. Supreme Court as Oyama v. California where the court found that Kajiro's equal protection rights had been violated.
In January 1986, Chula Vista annexed the unincorporated community of Montgomery which had previously rejected annexation in 1979 and 1982. At the time of the annexation the community was virtually surrounded by its larger neighbor.12 Over the next few decades, Chula Vista continued to expand eastward. Plans called for a variety of housing developments such as Eastlake, Rancho del Rey and Otay Ranch neighborhoods.7 In 1995, the United States Olympic Committee opened an Olympic Training Center in Eastlake on donated land;13 it is the USOC's first master-planned facility and is adjacent to Lower Otay Reservoir.14
During World War I and II The army maintained a base on what is now the corner of Main Street and Albany Avenue. It initially served as a border post during World War I, and was reestablished in December 1942. It was home to the 140th Infantry Regiment, 35th Infantry Division. The base was closed in February 1944, and the division went on to see combat in the European theater. All traces of the post have since been removed.15
In 2003, Chula Vista had 200,000 residents and was the second largest city in San Diego County.16
Chula Vista is growing at a fast pace,7 with major developments taking place in the Otay Valley near the U.S. Olympic Training Center and Otay Lake Reservoir. Thousands of new homes have been built in the Otay Ranch, Lomas Verdes, Rancho Del Rey, Eastlake and Otay Mesa Areas.17 The South Bay Expressway, a toll-road extension of state route 125, opened November 19, 2007, connecting freeways 805 and 905 with State Route 54.
On May 30, 2006 officials from Chula Vista and the San Diego Chargers met to potentially discuss building a new stadium that would serve as the home for the team. Yet, in June 2009 the Chargers removed Chula Vista as a possible location for a new stadium.18 In 2009, Chula Vista - along with nine other second tier metropolitan area cities such as Hialeah and Southern California's Santa Ana - was ranked as one of the most boring cities in America by Forbes Magazine;19 citing the large population but rare mentions of the city in national media. A current development plan in Chula Vista is to develop the bayfront.
Owning up to its Spanish name origins - beautiful view - Chula Vista is located in the South Bay region of San Diego County, between the foothills of the Jamul and San Ysidro Mountains (including Lower Otay Reservoir) and San Diego Bay on its east and west extremes, and the Sweetwater River and Otay River at its north and south extremes.20 In South Bay, Chula Vista has a large footprint and, aside from South San Diego, it is the largest geographic entity in the region.citation needed
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city covers an area of 52.1 square miles (135 km2), 49.6 square miles (128 km2) of it land, and 2.5 square miles (6.5 km2) or 4.73% of it water.
|This section requires expansion with: examples and additional citations. (August 2011)|
The original Chula Vista encompasses the area west of Hilltop Drive and north of L Street.7 The community of Montgomery was annexed by the city, after several failed attempts, in 1986.12 The community consist of most of the area south of L Street, west of Hilltop Drive and north of San Diego's city limit.7
|This section requires expansion with: examples and additional citations. (August 2011)|
Beginning in the late 1980s the planned communities of Eastlake, Otay Ranch, and Rancho del Rey began to develop in the annexed areas east of Interstate 805. These communities expanded upon the eastern annexations of the 1970s, including the area around Southwestern College.7
|Climate data for Chula Vista, California (1981−2010 normals)|
|Average high °F (°C)||68.5
|Average low °F (°C)||45.8
|Precipitation inches (mm)||1.87
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||5.0||6.6||5.6||3.1||0.7||0.5||0.3||0.3||0.6||1.9||3.3||4.5||32.4|
in pop. (raw)
in pop. (%)
The 2010 United States Census29 reported that Chula Vista had a population of 243,916. The population density was 4,682.2 people per square mile (1,807.8/km²). The racial makeup of Chula Vista was 130,991 (53.7%) White, 11,219 (4.6%) African American, 1,880 (0.8%) Native American, 35,042 (14.4%) Asian, 1,351 (0.6%) Pacific Islander, 49,171 (20.2%) from other races, and 14,262 (5.8%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 142,066 persons (58.2%).
The Census reported that 242,180 people (99.3% of the population) lived in households, 656 (0.3%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 1,080 (0.4%) were institutionalized.
There were 75,515 households, out of which 36,064 (47.8%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 42,153 (55.8%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 12,562 (16.6%) had a female householder with no husband present, 4,693 (6.2%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 3,720 (4.9%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 502 (0.7%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 12,581 households (16.7%) were made up of individuals and 4,997 (6.6%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.21. There were 59,408 families (78.7% of all households); the average family size was 3.60.
The population was spread out with 68,126 people (27.9%) under the age of 18, 24,681 people (10.1%) aged 18 to 24, 70,401 people (28.9%) aged 25 to 44, 56,269 people (23.1%) aged 45 to 64, and 24,439 people (10.0%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.7 years. For every 100 females there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males.
There were 79,416 housing units at an average density of 1,524.5 per square mile (588.6/km²), of which 43,855 (58.1%) were owner-occupied, and 31,660 (41.9%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.4%; the rental vacancy rate was 4.5%. 143,330 people (58.8% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 98,850 people (40.5%) lived in rental housing units.
In 2000, the city's population was 173,556. The racial make up of the city during the 2000 census was 55.1% White, 22.1% Other, 11% Asian, 5.8% of two or more races, 4.6% African American, 0.8% Native American, and 0.6% Pacific Islander. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 49.6%. Of these individuals, 28.7% were under the age of 18.2530
In 1990, the city's population was 135,163. The racial make up of the city during the 1990 census was 67.7% White, 18.1% Other, 8.2% Asian, 4.5% African American, 0.6% Pacific Islander, and 0.6% Native American. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 37.2%. Of these individuals, 26% were under the age of 18.26
In 1980, the city's population was 83,927.27 The racial make up of the city during the 1980 census was 83.1% White, 7.9% "Race, n.e.c.", 6.1% Asian and Pacific Islander, 2.1% African American, and 0.7% Native American. Persons of "Spanish Origin" made up 46.6% of the population.31
Chula Vista maintains a business atmosphere that encourages growth and development.32 In the city, the small business sector amounts for the majority of Chula Vista's business populous.32 This small business community is attributed to the city's growth and serves as a stable base for its economic engine.32
Tourism serves as an economic engine for Chula Vista. The city has numerous dining, shopping, and cinema experiences.33 As with many California cities, Chula Vista features many golf courses.34 Some of the city's notable attractions included the Chula Vista Nature Center, Otay Valley Regional Park, Sleep Train Amphitheatre, OnStage Playhouse, the Chula Vista Marina, and the U.S. Olympic Training Center.35 The Nature Center is home to interactive exhibits describing geologic and historic aspects of the Sweetwater Marsh and San Diego Bay. The Center has exhibits on sharks, rays, waterbirds, birds of prey, insects, and flora.35 Otay Valley Regional Park is located partially within Chula Vista, where it covers the area of a natural river valley.
The marina at Chula Vista is located in South Bay including multiple marinas and being home to the Chula Vista Yacht Club. Sports fishing and whale watching charters operate the regional bay area. The Olympic Training Center assists current and future Olympic athletes in archery, rowing, kayaking, soccer (association football), softball, field hockey, tennis, track and field, and cycling.35
Chula Vista Center is the city's main shopping mall, opened in 1962.
According to the City's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,36 the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Sweetwater Union High School District||4,364|
|2||Chula Vista Elementary School District||2,616|
|3||United Technologies Aerostructures||1,903|
|4||Sharp Chula Vista Medical Center||1,810|
|6||City of Chula Vista||1,215|
|7||Scripps Mercy Hospital Chula Vista||993|
Chula Vista is home to OnStage Playhouse the only live theater in South Bay, San Diego. Other points of interest and events include the Chula Vista Nature Center,37 the J Street Harbor,38 the Third Avenue Village,39 and the Olympic Training Center.40 Downtown Chula Vista hosts a number of cultural events, including the famous Lemon Festival, Starlight Parade, and Chula Vista Rose Festival.
SleepTrain Amphitheatre is a performing arts theatre that was the areas first major concert music facility. OnStage theater stages high quality productions;35 serving as a large contributor to the cultural arts setting in Chula Vista.
According to the city’s most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city’s various funds had $322.9 million in Revenues, $287.5 million in expenditures, $1,232.7 million in total assets, $258.6 million in total liabilities, and $181.0 million in cash and investments.41
Following the 2011 redistricting of electoral districts by the California Citizens Redistricting Commission, the city's federal representation was divided into the 51st and 53rd congressional districts.43 In the California State Senate the city remained entirely in the 40th Senate district, however in the California State Assembly the city was split between the 79th and 80th Assembly districts.44 At the state and federal level Chula Vista is represented by an all Democrat delegation. At the state level, the 40th Senate district is vacant,45 and in the Assembly Chula Vista is represented by Shirley Weber (79th) and Ben Hueso (80th).46 Special elections will be held on March 12 and May 14 to fill the vacant Senate seat.47 At the federal level, Senators Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer and Representatives Juan Vargas (51st) and Susan Davis (53rd) represent Chula Vista.46
As of January 2013[update], out of the city's total population, 114,125 are registered to vote, up from 103,985 in 2009; the three largest registered parties in the city are the Democratic Party with 47,986, Republican Party with 31,633, and Decline to State with 29,692.48 In a survey conducted by The Bay Area Center for Voting Research in 2004, it found that Chula Vista had a 50.59% conservative vote compared to a 49.41% liberal vote.49
The Sweetwater Union High School District, headquartered in Chula Vista, serves as the primary secondary school district.50 The Chula Vista Elementary School District, the largest K-6 district in the State of California with 44 campuses, serves publicly educated kindergarten through sixth grade students.51
Chula Vista is home to one of the four private colleges in San Diego County and is host to Southwestern College; a community college founded in 1961, that serves approximately 19,000 students annually.
Chula Vista is served by multiple Interstates and California State Routes. Interstate 5 begins to the south of the city and runs through its western edge. Interstate 5 connects Chula Vista to North County and beyond to Greater Los Angeles and Northern California. Interstate 805 serves as a bypass to Interstate 5, linking to the latter interstate in Sorrento Valley. Interstate 905 runs from the Otay Mesa Port of Entry and is one of three auxiliary three-digit Interstate to meet an international border. State Route 54 and State Route 125 serve as highways to East County cities via north and northeastern corridors.
- "Welcome to Chula Vista, CA - City of Allure". chulavistacentennial.com. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
- Bianca Bruno (October 6, 2010). "Growing up in "Chula-juana"". The Vista. Retrieved January 23, 2011.
Anne-Marie O'Connor (September 11, 2002). "Cross-Border Lifestyle Requires Patience". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
Tom Greeley (April 15, 1985). "S.D. County's Cities Defy The Negatives, Accent The Positives". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- "Heritage Museum". Public Library Chula Vista. City of Chula Vista. 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
"Happening Sunday, August 12th". Third Avenue Village. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
"Agenda". San Diego Magazine (CurtCo/SDM LLC) 63 (5-8): 134. 2011. ISSN 0036-4045. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
Carpenter, Allan (1993). Facts about the Cities. Wilson. p. 31. ISBN 9780924208003.
- U.S. Census
- Karen Kucher (March 8, 2011). "The faces of San Diego's changing demographics". U-T San Diego. Retrieved March 9, 2011.
- "About Chula Vista". City of Chula Vista. 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2013. "Chula Vista means “beautiful view” and there is more to see and do here than you can imagine!"
- "Chula Vista in Perspective, Chapter 3". Chula Vista General Plan. City of Chula Vista. December 13, 2005. Retrieved March 9, 2011.
- "Brief History of Chula Vista". City of Chula Vista. City of Cula Vista. Retrieved October 27, 2010.
- Nancy Ray (May 26, 1986). "Chula Vista, County's 2nd Largest City, Has Problem With Image". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- Katherine Poythress (January 30, 2013). "Imploding a bayfront fixture: If weather conditions cooperate, the now-defunct South Bay Power Plant in Chula Vista will be demolished on Saturday morning". San Diego Union. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- Keith A. Owens (January 3, 1986). "Montgomery Merging With City : Chula Vista Annexation Is Cause to Celebrate". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- Patrice Milkovich (August 8, 2004). "Chula Vista – where the world's best train". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- "Chula Vista". Olympic Training Centers/Sites & Tours. United States Olympic Committee. 2013. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- Los Angeles District, Corps of Engineers. "Camp Otay". California State Military Museum. California State Military Department. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- "Spotlight". Office of the City Manager. City of Chula Vista. 2003. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- "Horses Stampede Through Chula Vista Streets". KGTV. March 24, 2010. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- "Chula Vista Out As Possible Chargers Stadium Site". 10News.com (Internet Broadcasting Systems, Inc.). June 24, 2009. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- Zumbrun, Joshua. "America's Most Boring Cities". Forbes. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
- "City of Chula Vista Drainage Basins". Geographic Information System. City of Chula Vista. June 20, 2009. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- "Sweetwater Marsh". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. United States Department of the Interior. July 9, 2010. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- "Open Space". Public Works Operations. City of Chula Vista. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- "Mediterranean Climate". County Television Network. County of San Diego. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
- "Chula Vista (city), California". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. July 8, 2009. Retrieved March 9, 2011.
- "Detailed Tables". 1990 Census of Population and Housing. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- "Number of Inhabitants, California". 1980 Census of Population. U.S. Bureau of the Census. March 1982. Retrieved March 9, 2011.
- Katz, Bruce; Robert E. Lang (2003). Redefining urban and suburban America: evidence from Census 2000. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-8157-4859-5. Retrieved March 9, 2011.
- All data are derived from the United States Census Bureau reports from the 2010 United States Census, and are accessible on-line here. The data on unmarried partnerships and same-sex married couples are from the Census report DEC_10_SF1_PCT15. All other housing and population data are from Census report DEC_10_DP_DPDP1. Both reports are viewable online or downloadable in a zip file containing a comma-delimited data file. The area data, from which densities are calculated, are available on-line here. Percentage totals may not add to 100% due to rounding. The Census Bureau defines families as a household containing one or more people related to the householder by birth, opposite-sex marriage, or adoption. People living in group quarters are tabulated by the Census Bureau as neither owners nor renters. For further details, see the text files accompanying the data files containing the Census reports mentioned above.
- "DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000". Census 2000. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 9, 2011.
- "General Social and Economic Characteristics". 1980 Census of Population. U.S. Bureau of the Census. July 1983. Retrieved March 9, 2011.
- "City of Chula Vista: Small Business". City of Chula Vista. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "Shopping in Chula Vista". City of Chula Vista. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "Golf Courses in Chula Vista". City of Chula Vista. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "Chula Vista Attractions". City of Chula Vista. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "City of Chula Vista, California Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, for the Year ended June 30, 2010". Retrieved September 30, 2011.
- "Nature Center". Community Services. City of Chula Vista. Retrieved November 9, 2009.
- "Chula Vista Launch Ramp". SD Boating.com. Retrieved November 9, 2009.
- "Third Avenue Village". Third Avenue Village Association. Retrieved November 7, 2009.
- "Chula Vista Olympic Training Ctr". United States Olympic Committee. Retrieved November 9, 2009.
- City of Chula Vista CAFR Retrieved August 7, 2009
- "Chula Vista City Government". Office of Mayor & City Council. City of Chula Vista. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- Ken Stone; Hoa Quách, and Steven Bartholow (July 29, 2011). "State GOP Chairman Slams Remap Plan as Favoring Democrats". LaMesa-MountHelix Patch. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
- "SWDB Web GIS". Statewide Database, Berkeley Law School. University of California, Berkeley. 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
- Mark Walker (January 19, 2013). "2 Republicans Join State Senate Race". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
- Debra Bowen (Statement of Vote). "Statement of Vote". California Secretary of State. State of California. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- Julie Small (January 7, 2013). "Gov. Brown schedules special election for 2 vacant SoCal state Senate seats". KPCC. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
- "Report of Registration - State Reporting Districts". Registrar of Voters. County of San Diego. January 14, 2013. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
- Jason Alderman; Gitanjali Gurudatt Borkar, Amanda Garrett, Lindsay Hogan, Janet Kim, Winston Le, Veronica Louie, Alissa Marque, Phil Reiff, Colin Christopher Richard, Peter Thai, Tania Wang and Craig Wickersham. "The Most Conservative and Liberal Cities in the United States". The Bay Area Center for Voting Research. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- "Sweetwater Union High School District". SUHSD. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- "Community". 2011 Membership & Resource Guide. Chula Vista Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved July 25, 2011. "Located between the City of San Diego and United States/Mexico International Border, the Chula Vista Elementary School District is the largest K-6 district in the state"
- "SCI: Sister City Directory". Sister Cities International. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
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