Climate of Armenia

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View of the Zangezur Mountains from east of Goris, Armenia.
A view of Lake Sevan from the Sevanavank monastery

Armenia's different varieties of climates depend on the absolute height of the land. They vary from the dry subtropical to the mountain tundra climate. The following six basic; types can be distinguished. Another type of climate is the dry continental type. It prevails along the middle reaches of the Arax up to an elevation of 1,300 m. It differs from the dry subtropical climate by its cold winters.

History

According to historical sources, in ancient times the winter was the same as it is today, fairly cold in the Armenian lowlands and high in the mountains. 4th century B.C. Greek historian Xenophon, in his Anabasis (The Retreat of the 10,000), which describes the retreat of 10,000 Greek mercenaries through the Armenian mountains into the autumn, related that at night, when the soldiers were asleep, snow fell in the mountains and covered the men and their weapons. He wrote that the snow that fell in one night was about one meter deep. In the same work he noted that the Armenians protected themselves against the freezing frost by rubbing fat or almond oil into their bodies. Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi (5th century A. D.) described the climate of the Ararat plain as hot and dry in the summer.

Human settlement Height Precipitation (mm) Daily mean °C Average snow depth Minimum snow depth Maximum snow depth Days of snow Humidity %
Bagratashen 453 444 11.7 72
Idjevan 732 563 10.6 10 28 1 38 73
Vanadzor 1350 586 7.4 17 38 3 72 71
Stepanavan 1397 683 6.6 19 53 4 73 73
Tashir 1507 713 5.8 17 37 2 72 75
Spitak 1552 439 7.1 12 56 2 63 69
Chambarak 1861 557 4.8 16 37 5 102 74
Meghri 627 259 13.8 5 27 0 21 61
Kapan 705 544 11.5 10 32 2 34 71
Artashat 829 235 11.1 10 44 0 39 65
Armavir 861 244 11.3 10 42 0 45 60
Yerevan 942 316 11.4 12 46 0 44 60
Eghvard 1317 407 9.8 28 68 0 74 62
Areni 1009 357 11.8 14 40 56
Eghegnadzor 1267 398 10.8 18 50 66
Sisian 1580 365 6.6 12 34 3 73 68
Gumri 1556 477 5.8 26 61 4 96 70
Talin 1582 435 7.9 24 64 2 82 59
Artik 1750 516 5.8 22 51 5 95 66
Fontan 1798 640 6.0 50 79 13 124 66
Aparan 1291 651 4.3 56 92 10 125 69
Sevan 1936 556 4.0 36 83 3 136 74
Mets Mazra 1940 390 4.2 21 35 7 109 69
Martuni 1995 457 5.6 26 75 2 98 67
Yankh 2334 488 2.7 64 102 33 160 72
Pakhakn (Shurabad) 2004 574 1.8 53 81 17 138 74
Aragats (mount) 3329 1065 -2.7 166 235 66 252 731

References

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