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Comparative politics is a field and a method used in political science, characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method. In other words comparative politics is the study of the domestic politics, political institutions, and conflicts of countries. It often involves comparisons among countries and through time within single countries, emphasizing key patterns of similarity and difference. Arend Lijphart argues that comparative politics does not have a substantive focus in itself, but rather a methodological one: it focuses on "the how but does not specify the what of the analysis."1 In other words, comparative politics is not defined by the object of its study, but rather by the method it applies to study political phenomena. Peter Mair and Richard Rose advance a slightly different definition, arguing that comparative politics is defined by a combination of a substantive focus on the study of countries' political systems and a method of identifying and explaining similarities and differences between these countries using common concepts.23 Rose states that, on his definition: "The focus is explicitly or implicitly upon more than one country, thus following familiar political science usage in excluding within-nation comparison. Methodologically, comparison is distinguished by its use of concepts that are applicable in more than one country."3
When applied to specific fields of study, comparative politics may be referred to by other names, such as for example comparative government (the comparative study of forms of government) or comparative foreign policy (comparing the foreign policies of different States in order to establish general empirical connections between the characteristics of the State and the characteristics of its foreign policy).
"Comparative political science" as a general term for an area of study, as opposed to a methodology of study, can be seen as redundant. The political only shows as political when either an overt or tacit comparison is being made. A study of a single political entity, whether a society, subculture or period, would show the political as simple brute reality without comparison with another society, subculture, or period.
The highest award in the discipline of Comparative Politics is the Karl Deutsch award, awarded by the International Political Science Association. So far, it has been given to Juan Linz (2003), Charles Tilly (2006), Giovanni Sartori (2009), and Alfred Stepan (2012).
The comparative method is - together with the experimental method, the statistical method and the case study approach - one of the four fundamental scientific methods which can be used to test the validity of theoretical propositions, often with the use of empirical data i.e. to establish relationships among two or more empirical variables or concepts while all other variables are held constant.6 In particular, the comparative method is generally used when neither the experimental nor the statistical method can be employed: on the one hand, experiments can only rarely be conducted in political science;7 on the other hand the statistical method implies the mathematical manipulation of quantitative data about a large number of cases, while sometimes political research must be conducted by analyzing the behavior of qualitative variables in a small number of cases.8 The case study approach cannot be considered a scientific method according to the above definition, however it can be useful to gain knowledge about single cases, which can then be put to comparison according to the comparative method.9
Several different strategies can be used in comparative research.10
- Most Similar Systems Design/Mill's Method of Difference: it consists in comparing very similar cases which only differ in the dependent variable, on the assumption that this would make it easier to find those independent variables which explain the presence/absence of the dependent variable. Most Similar Systems Design, or MSSD, is very helpful because since it compares similar objects, it keeps many otherwise confusing and irrelevant variables in the research constant. In a basic sense, MSSD starts out with similar variables between subjects and tries to figure out why the outcome is different between the subjects. The main shortcoming that is said about this method is that when comparing countries, since there are such a limited number of them, all potential factors of explanation can never be kept altogether constant. As such, despite many possibilities of variables, there are only a limited number of cases to apply them to. There are two methods of applying MSSD, the first being a stricter application and the second being a more loose application. The stricter application implies that a researcher would choose various countries that have a number of similar variables, also called control variables, and would only different from each other by one single independent variable. The looser application uses the same general concept, but the researched chooses countries that have similar characteristics but those characteristics are not strictly matched to a set of control variables. Because of the complications of so many variables but not enough cases, a second method was devolved to be used in conjunction with MSSD.11
- Most Different Systems Design/Mill's Method of Similarity: it consists in comparing very different cases, all of which however have in common the same dependent variable, so that any other circumstance which is present in all the cases can be regarded as the independent variable. Most Different Systems Design, or MDSD, differs from MSSD with focus and the fact that it does not take a strict variable application. MDSD uses differences between countries instead of similarities between countries as variables because social scientists have found that differences between countries do not explain their possible similarities if they have any. A more basic idea of MDSD is it takes subjects with different variables within them and tries to figure out why the outcomes between them are similar in the end. When using MDSD as a comparative research method, scientists look at changing interactions between systems in countries and then after all data is collected, the results are compared between the different systems. If the results obtained from this research differ between each other, the researcher must move up to the system level and switch to the MSSD method. When using MSSD as a comparative research approach, there is the independent and depend variable that get introduced, specifically the dependent variable being something that is common in all the research subjects and the independent variable which would be the differing characteristic between the research subjects. MSSD is more precise and strict at finding the differing point along with similarities, but MDSD does not have so many variables and only focuses on finding one similarity or difference between a wide selection of systems.11
- In his work The Politics, Aristotle compares different "constitutions", by introducing a famous typology based on two criteria: the number of rulers (one, few, many) and the nature of the political regime (good or corrupt). Thus he distinguishes six different kinds of "constitutions": monarchy, aristocracy, and polity (good types), versus tyranny, oligarchy and democracy (corrupt types).
- In their work, The Civic Culture, Almond and Verba embark on the first major cross-national survey of attitudes to determine the role of political culture in maintaining the stability of democratic regimes.
- The Spirit of the Laws
- In Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World (1966) Moore compares revolutions in countries like England, Russia and Japan (among others). His thesis is that mass-led revolutions dispossess the landed elite and result in Communism, and that revolutions by the elite result in Fascism. It is thus only revolutions by the bourgeoisie that result in democratic governance. For the outlier case of India, practices of the Mogul Empire, British Imperial rule and the Caste System are cited.
- The Art of Not Being Governed
- Democracy in America and The Old Regime and the French Revolution
- The Third Wave and Political Order in Changing Societies
- Patterns of Democracy (1999), a comprehensive study of democracies around the world.
- Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post Communist Europe
- Political man (1960)
- Political Man: The Social Basis of Politics
- Strong Societies and Weak States.
- Making Democracy Work (1993), a major work assessing why some democratic governments work and other fail, based on the study of the Italian regional governments.
- In States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China Theda Skocpol compares the major revolutions of France, Russia and China: three basically similar events which took place in three very different contexts. Skopcol's purpose is to find possible similarities which might help explain the phenomenon of political revolution. From this point of view, this work represents a good example of a research conducted according to the Most Different Systems Design.
- Parties and party systems
- Arguing Comparative Politics
A major criticism of comparative politics is offered in Aili Tripp’s Why So Slow? The Challenges of Gendering Comparative Politics,12 in which she highlights the need for comparative political scientists to incorporate gendered perspectives into their research. Comparative gender politics research is not often published in journals, and therefore has not gained legitimacy or visibility in the political science academe. Due to this, the need to “engender” comparative politics has essentially been overlooked. The cause of this can be attributed partly to the composition of the boards of comparative political science journals, which generally do not include women, and very rarely include members who research gender issues (255).
Methodological differences also inhibit many comparative gender and politics studies to be featured in journals who are not open to these ‘alternative’ approaches to research. Specifically, the methodologies most typically used by comparativist gender and politics scholars include ethnography, interview, snowball survey, and focus group (258). These qualitative methodologies sharply contrast the more positivist, quantitative methodologies utilized by many mainstream comparative political scientists.
Due to the reluctance of comparative political scientists to incorporate gender into their studies, Tripp points out that most of the work on comparative gender politics has instead been carried out by anthropologists, historians, and sociologists. In fact, in the top 20 political science departments in the United States, there are only two comparativists working on gender (Pippa Norris and Aili Tripp, herself). Not only are comparative political scientists ignoring a potentially valuable perspective from which to conduct research, but Tripp also argues that comparative political scientists are often limited by their Eurocentrism, and do not collect data that can effectively represent global trends or regional differences. Indeed, a lack of collaboration between comparativists with different research interests, as well as between scholars ‘at home’ and abroad, inhibits comparative political scientists from many opportunities to enrich and expand their scholarship.
To alleviate these dilemmas within the field of comparative political science, Tripp suggests that more students be encouraged to go into the study of comparative gender political science, especially at the doctoral level. With this, ways to facilitate and educate these students must also be explored (261). Further, Tripp suggests that comparative gender political scientists make an effort to contribute to more journals, and for more journals to feature research that falls outside the mainstream work they often include. With this, a greater acceptance of methodological pluralism within the field of comparative political science is also necessary.
- Lijphart, Arend (1971). "Comparative politics and the comparative method". American Political Science Review 65 (3): 682–693. doi:10.2307/1955513. JSTOR 1955513.
- Mair, Peter (1996). "Comparative politics: An introduction to comparative.overview". In Goodin, Robert E.; Klingemann, Hans-Dieter. A New Handbook of Political Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 309–335. ISBN 0-19-829471-9.
- Rose, Richard; MacKenzie, W. J. M. (1991). "Comparing forms of comparative analysis". Political Studies 39 (3): 446–462. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9248.1991.tb01622.x.
- Hopkin, J. [2002 (1995)] "Comparative Methods", in Marsh, D. and G. Stoker (ed.) Theory and Methods in Political Science, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 249-250
- van Biezen, Ingrid; Caramani, Daniele (2006). "(Non)comparative politics in Britain". Politics 26 (1): 29–37. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9256.2006.00248.x.
- Lijphart, A. (1971), cit., p. 683
- Hopkin, J. [2002 (1995)], cit., p. 250
- It should be noted however that, as Lijphart points out in the article cited above, the experimental and statistical methods share the same logic as the comparative method: they all imply a comparison between cases which differ on the variable which is being studied, while remaining identical on all the other possible variables.
- Lijphart, A. (1971), cit., p. 691
- Anckar, Carsten. "On the Applicability of the Most Similar Systems Design and the Most Different Systems Design in Comparative Research." International Journal of Social Research Methodology 11.5 (2008): 389-401. Informaworld. Web. 20 June 2011.
- Tripp, Aili Mari (2006). "Why So Slow? The Challenges of Gendering Comparative Politics". CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES ON GENDER AND POLITICS 2: 249–263.
- Comparative Methods in Political & Social Research: useful resources from Prof. David Levi-Faur's course at the University of Haifa.
- Comparative Politics in Argentina & Latin America: Site dedicated to the development of comparative politics in Latin America. Paper Works, Articles and links to specialized web sites.
- Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method (Arend Lijphart)
- Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method (Arend Lijphart)