Culture of Kazakhstan
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The culture of Kazakhstan has a well-articulated culture based on their nomadic pastoral economy. Islam was introduced to Kazakhstan in the 7th to 12th centuries. Besides lamb, many other traditional foods retain symbolic value in Kazakh culture. Kazakh culture is largely influenced by Turkic nomadic lifestyle.
Because animal husbandry was central to the Kazaks' traditional lifestyle, most of their nomadic practices and customs relate in some way to livestock. Traditional curses and blessings invoked disease or fecundity among animals, and good manners required that a person ask first about the health of a man's livestock when greeting him and only afterward inquire about the human aspects of his life.
The traditional Kazakh dwelling is the yurt, a tent consisting of a flexible framework of willow wood covered with varying thicknesses of felt. The open top permits smoke from the central hearth to escape; temperature and draft can be controlled by a flap that increases or decreases the size of the opening. A properly constructed yurt can be cooled in summer and warmed in winter, and it can be disassembled or set up in less than an hour. The interior of the yurt has ritual significance; the right side generally is reserved for men and the left for women. Yurts are also frequently used as a decorative motif in restaurants and other public buildings.
Today's Kazakhstan is a modern culture, thriving in the post-Soviet era. The traditional Kazakh lifestyle has blended with influences from Western societies, as well as those from Kazakhstan's Russian and Chinese neighbors.
Islam is the largest religion in Kazakhstan, followed by Russian Orthodox Christianity. By tradition the Kazakhs are Sunni Muslims, and the Russians are Russian Orthodox. Approximately 70% of the population is Muslim.1 The majority are Sunni of the Hanafi school, including ethnic Kazakhs, who constitute about 60% of the population, as well as by ethnic Uzbeks, Uighurs, and Tatars.2 Less than 25% of the population is Russian Orthodox, including ethnic Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians.1 Other religious groups include Judaism, the Bahá'í Faith, Hare Krishnas, Buddhism, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.2
Kazakhstan has cultivated a strong interest in sports, physical education, and extracurricular activities. Kazakhstan has achieved some success in international competitions in weightlifting, ice hockey, and boxing. Kazakhstan won eight medals in the 2004 Summer Olympics, the largest tally for any nation in Western Asia.
Football is the most popular sport in Kazakhstan. The Football Federation of Kazakhstan (FFK) is the sport's national governing body. The FFK organises the men's, women's, and futsal national teams. The Kazakhstan Super League is the top-level competition for the sport in the country.
A lot of professional cyclists that compete on the European circuit come from Kazakhstan. Most notable is Alexander Vinokourov, whose achievements include two Paris–Nice's, third place in the 2003 Tour de France, and the Amstel Gold Race. Vinokourov leads Astana which is supported by a coalition of Kazakh companies. This team is registered as a UCI ProTeam and competes in the major races including the Tour de France.
Rugby union is a popular sport in Kazakhstan, with over 10,000 fans consistently turning up to watch the Kazakhstan national rugby union team play. Recent big wins over Sri Lanka and the Arabian Gulf Rugby Team have given the Kazakhstan side the reason to believe that they could be contenders to qualify for the 2011 Rugby World Cup.
Traditional Kazakh cuisine revolves around lamb and horse meat, as well as various milk products. For hundreds of years, Kazakhs were herders who raised fat-tailed sheep, bactrian camels, and horses, relying on these animals for transportation, clothing, and food. The cooking techniques and major ingredients have been strongly influenced by the nation's nomadic way of life. For example, most cooking techniques are aimed at long-term preservation of food. There is a large practice of salting and drying meat so that it will last, and there is a preference for sour milk, as it is easier to save in a nomadic lifestyle.
Besbarmak, a dish consisting of boiled horse or lamb meat, is the most popular Kazakh dish. Besbarmak is usually eaten with a boiled pasta sheet, and a meat broth called shorpa, and is traditionally served in Kazakh bowls called kese. Other popular meat dishes are kazy (which is a horsemeat sausage that only the wealthy could afford), shuzhuk (horsemeat sausages), kuyrdak (also spelled kuirdak, a dish made from roasted horse, sheep, or cow offal, such as heart, liver, kidneys, and other organs, diced and served with onions and peppers), and various horse delicacies, such as zhal (smoked lard from horse's neck) and zhaya (salted and smoked meat from horse's hip and hind leg). Pilaf (palaw) is the most common Kazakh rice dish, with vegetables and chunks of meat. The national drinks are kumys (fermented mare's milk) and tea.
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The main language spoken in Kazakhstan is Kazakh, a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. Other languages spoken in Kazakhstan include Russian, which is co-official with Kazakh, as well as Uzbek, Kyrgyz, Uyghur, Kazan Tatar, German, and Ukrainian.
In September 2006, the government announced that it is funding distribution of a multi million dollar movie called "Nomad", about the new-created by Kazakhstan government history of the nation. The movie started in 2003, and has been plagued with multiple development problems, finally released in 2006.
Since that time such movies like "Mongol", "Tulpan", and "Kelin" have been released. All three films were submitted for the Academy Award for the Best Foreign Languages Film.4 The movie 'Tulpan' won the Prix Un Certain Regard at the 2008 Cannes Film Festival.5 The speechless movie "Kelin" made the shortlist of the 82.Academy Awards.
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies. - Kazakhstan
- Bruce Privratsky, Muslim Turkistan, pages 76–77
- "Kazakhstan". United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. United States Department of State. 2009-10-26. Retrieved 2010-06-03.
- Kazakhstan - International Religious Freedom Report 2008 U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on 2009-09-07.
- The Customs and Traditions of the Kazakh By Betsy Wagenhauser
- Wikipedia pages List of Kazakhstani submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film
- Wikipedia pages Tulpan
- Embassy link for further culture questions
- Message Board in Kazakh Language
- The Musagetes Civic Charitable Foundation for Culture and Humanitarian Sciences Development
- Kazakhstan: history, geography, people, culture, traditions, holiday, living, life