Czesław Kiszczak

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Czesław Kiszczak
Czeslaw Kiszczak.jpg
Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Poland
11th and last Polish United Workers' Party Prime Minister of People's Poland
In office
2 August 1989 – 19 August 1989
President Wojciech Jaruzelski
Preceded by Mieczysław Rakowski
Succeeded by Tadeusz Mazowiecki
Minister of Interior of the People's Republic of Poland
In office
31 July 1981 – 6 July 1990
President Wojciech Jaruzelski
Prime Minister Wojciech Jaruzelski, Zbigniew Messner, Mieczysław Rakowski, Czesław Kiszczak, Tadeusz Mazowiecki
Preceded by Mirosław Milewski
Succeeded by Krzysztof Kozłowski
Personal details
Born (1925-10-19) 19 October 1925 (age 88)
Roczyny, Second Polish Republic
Political party Polish United Workers' Party

Czesław Kiszczak [ˈt͡ʂɛswaf ˈkiʂt͡ʂak] ( ) (born 19 October 1925) was a Polish communist-era soldier and Communist politician. A member of the PPR and later the Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR), during the years of the Polish People's Republic he served as a high-ranking officer of the Polish Army, a chief of secret services and Minister of Internal Affairs (MSW) between 1981 and 1990, during the years of Martial Law in Poland. An associate of Wojciech Jaruzelski, he was also the last Communist Prime Minister of Poland, serving briefly in 1989.1

Biography

Born in Roczyny (a part of Gmina Andrychów) near Bielsko-Biała in southern Poland in 1925.1 From November 1945 soldier in Main Directorate of Information of the Polish Army, then Military Counter-intelligence agency.1 Also from 1945 member of Polish Workers' Party (PPR) and later PZPR. In 1951 he was Chief of Department of Information in 18 infantry division in the city of Ełk, and in 1952 was transfer to Warsaw where he took over position of chief of Department of Information in Directorate of Information of Military District number 1. Later Kiszczak was moved to headquarters of the Ministry of National Defense (Ministerstwo Obrony Narodowej), and become chief of General Section in Department of Finances, and year later (1954) was a student in Academy of General Staff of the Polish Army. In 1957 he was moved to newly formed Counter-intelligence agency the Military Internal Service (WSW – Wojskowa Służba Wewnętrzna). From 1957 to 1965, he was the head of Counter-intelligence for the Navy, and in 1967 become deputy head of WSW.2

From the end of the 1960s Kiszczak occupied top positions in the Polish military and secret services. In 1972 he became the head of 2nd Directorate of General Staff of the Polish Army (Zarząd II Sztabu Generalnego Wojska Polskiego), that was Military Intelligence, he occupied this positions till 1979, and in 1978 he become deputy head of General Staff of the Polish Army. In June 1979 Kiszczak returned to military Counter-intelligence, and till 1981 was the head of Military Internal Service or WSW.

In July 1981 he became the Minister of Internal Affairs (Minister Spraw Wewnętrznych) which, beside Ministry of National Defense (MON), was one of biggest and most powerful administrations in Poland, responsible for – Intelligence, Counter-espionage, anti-state activity in country (SB), government protection, confidential communications, supervision of the local governments, militsiya, correctional facilities and fire service. On this position he participated in preparation and realization of martial law declared in Poland on 13 December 1981.3 He was a member of WRON (short for Military Council of National Salvation, Wojskowa Rada Ocalenia Narodowego), a Military dictatorship quasi-government administering Poland during the martial law (1981–1983). He issued orders for the pacification of the striking miners at the Wujek coalmine. Subsequently in 2004, after the fall of communism, he was judged responsible for the massacre that occurred and sentenced to four years in prison. As part of an amnesty, the sentence was commuted to 2 years suspended prison term.1 By 6 July 1990, he had been taken off from position as head of MSW. Kiszczak was also the last communist Prime Minister of Poland, a position he held briefly in 1989.1

References

Government offices
Preceded by
Mirosław Milewski
Minister of Internal Affairs
1981–1990
Succeeded by
Krzysztof Kozłowski
Preceded by
Mieczysław Rakowski
Prime Minister of Poland
1989
Succeeded by
Tadeusz Mazowiecki







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