Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province. It is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's northernmost warm water port, at the tip of the Liaodong peninsula. Dalian is the province's second largest city and has sub-provincial administrative status; only the provincial capital (Shenyang) is larger. The Shandong peninsula lies southwest across the Bohai Sea; Korea lies across the Yellow Sea to the east. Today a financial, shipping and logistics center for Northeast Asia, Dalian has a significant history of being used by foreign powers for its ports: Dalian proper was previously known as both Dalny (Russian: Дальний; Dal'nii) and Dairen but it was better known as both Port Arthur (Russian: Порт-Артур; Port-Artur) and Ryojun from its Lüshunkou district. In 2006, Dalian was named China's most livable city by China Daily.3
- 1 Names
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Administration
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Tourism
- 8 Transportation
- 9 Culture
- 10 Notable people
- 11 Education
- 12 Twin towns and sister cities
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 Bibliography
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
Modern Dalian originated from Qingniwa (Chinese: 青泥窪; pinyin: Qīngníwā; literally "blue mud swamp") or Qingniwaqiao (Chinese: 青泥窪橋; pinyin: Qīngníwāqiáo; literally "bridge over the blue mud swamp"), a small fishing village. Russia built a commercial town for the Kwantung Leased Territory after assuming control in 1898 and called it "Dalny" (Russian: Дальний Dal'nii,4 lit. "faraway" or "remote", rendered as 達里尼 Dálǐní in Chinese) from 1898–1905. After the Ruso-Japanese war, Japan occupied the Kwantung Leased Territory and renamed the city Dairen (Japanese: 大連 / だいれん?)4 after the Chinese name for Dalian Bay (simplified Chinese: 大连湾; traditional Chinese: 大連灣; pinyin: Dàlián Wān). English sources called the city "Dairen" in this period, from the Japanese.
In 1950, Dalian merged with nearby town called Lüshun (formerly "Port Arthur" and before that, "Ryojun") to form the city of Lüda4 (Chinese: 旅大; pinyin: Lǚdà), a name formed from the first syllable of each constituent's name which was usually rendered as Luta in English during that era. In 1981, the State Council again renamed the city, from Lüda to "Dalian" (simplified Chinese: 大连; traditional Chinese: 大連; pinyin: Dàlián, the same Chinese characters as Japanese Dairen), effective 5 March 1981.4
In the Qin and Han periods (221 BC–AD 220), Chinese colonized northern Korea through the Dalian region, then under the jurisdiction of Liaodong county.4 During the Sixteen Kingdoms era (3rd through 5th centuries), the kingdom of Goguryeo controlled this region. In the early Tang Dynasty (618–907), the Dalian region was part of Andong Prefecture in Jili state; during the Liao Dynasty (916–1125), it was part of Dong Jing Tong Liaoyang county. Dalian was named Sanshan in the period of Wei Jin (220–420), San Shanpu in the Tang Dynasty (618–907), Sanshan Seaport in the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), and Qingniwakou during the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911).
In the 1880s, Jinzhou, the north of downtown within Dalian, now Jinzhou District, was a walled town and center for political intrigue and economic activity. The Qing government built bridges and heavily fortified the peninsula, including with cannons and Western weaponry. Mining camps on the northern coast of Dalian Bay became the small town of Qingniwa or Qingniwaqiao, near what became downtown Dalian.
The British occupied Qingniwa in 1858,5 but it returned to Chinese control in the 1880s. Port Arthur at the peninsula's tip took its English name from Royal Navy Lieutenant William C. Arthur, but Chinese called it Lüshun. Although China heavily fortified the area, in which it allowed trade with foreigners, Japan swiftly overcame those defenses. Shocked Westerners deplored the invaders killing civilians in the Port Arthur massacre in November 1894. China conceded defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War, ceding Korea and making many other concessions in the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895.
The Triple Intervention by France, Germany and Russia forced Japan to return the Liaodong Peninsula to China, despite the treaty's terms; instead the Russian Empire leased the peninsula from the Qing Dynasty in 1898. For Russia the region of the peninsula was of particular interest as one of the few areas in the region that had the potential to develop ice-free ports.6 The Russians built a modern commercial port city, which they wanted to become the Paris of the Far East, and called it Dal'niy (Russian: Russian: Дальний).7 Linked to the Trans-Siberian Railway's branch line from Harbin, Dalny became Russia's primary port-city in Asia, and also served other western traders. Russia signed the Pavlov Agreement (1898) with China, which granted Russia a twenty-five year lease on Dalian and Lushun and exclusive right to lay a branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway to them—what would become the South Manchurian Railway.8 Russia spent more than 10 million golden rubles (equivalent to 11.5 billion of today's rubles) building the new tax-free port city.9
Russia heavily fortified both Dalny (Qingniwaqiao of Zhongshan District) and the Port Arthur naval base (Lüshunkou) before and after the Boxer Rebellion. Missionaries and converts were killed in the peninsula during the insurrection, although the massive massacres of ethic Chinese Christians including Metrophanes, Chi Sung occurred at Harbin.10 Also, Western expeditionary forces suppressed the Boxers across the Yellow Sea in Shandong.
During the Russo-Japanese War, the peninsula became a major battleground. Major-General Baron Anatoly Stoessel defended the siege of Port Arthur, for five months, but the Japanese army through long-distance fire in early December managed to sink several Russian ships attempting to relieve him. Admiral Eugene Alexeyeff was blamed for splitting precious resources shipped 5,000 miles (8,047 km) across the single tracked Trans-Siberian Railway and Manchurian Railway between the Dalian and Port Arthur. After the Japanese navy crippled the remaining Russian destroyer Sevastopol in three weeks of constant attacks, and explosives detonated in tunnels destroyed Fort Arthur's remaining defenses at year's end, Russia surrendered the port on 2 January 1905.
The Treaty of Portsmouth ceded Port Arthur to Japan, which set up the Kwantung Leased Territory or Guandongzhou, on roughly the southern half (Jinzhou District and south) of present-day Dalian. Japanese invested heavily in the region, which became the main trading port between Manchuria and Japan. Japan leased the area from Manchukuo after establishing the puppet state in 1932. In 1937, as the Second Sino-Japanese War began, Japan enlarged and modernized the trade zone as two cities: the northern Dairen (Dalian) and the southern Ryojun (Port Arthur or Lüshun).
With the unconditional surrender of Japan in August 1945, Dairen passed to the Soviets, whose Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation had liberated the city. The Soviets and Chinese Communists cooperated to develop the city, relatively undamaged during the war,4 especially its industrial infrastructure and the port. The Soviet government rented the port and in 1945 the first Chinese Communist mayor of the new Lüda Administrative Office (Chinese: 旅大行政公署) had been appointed.citation needed
In 1950, the USSR presented the city to the Chinese Communist government without any compensation. Dairen and Lüshun (Port Arthur) emerged as Lüda on 1 December 1950. From 12 March 1953 to 1 August 1954 it was a direct-controlled municipality and not part of Liaoning. Soviet troops left the city in 1955.4 After the Soviets left, the PRC made Lüda a major shipbuilding center.
In 1981, it was renamed Dalian, with Lüshunkou becoming a constituent district.4 In 1984, the Chinese Government designated the city a Special Economic Zone. At the time, Dalian was China's largest foreign trade port.11
The city was upgraded from a prefecture-level city to a sub-provincial city in May 1994, with no change in its administrative subdivisions. In the 1990s the city benefited from the attention of Bo Xilai (later Communist Party head of Chongqing) who was both the mayor of the city and one of the major leader in the province, who, among other things, banned motorcycles and planted large, lush parks in the city's many traffic circles. He also preserved much of Dalian's Japanese and Russian architectural heritage. He also worked as former Minister of Commerce of the PRC.
In 2010, one of the worst recorded oil spill in China's history occurred in Dalian.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
One of the most heavily developed industrial areas of China, Dalian City today consists of Dalian proper and the smaller Lüshunkou (formerly Lüshun city, known in western and Russian historic references as Port Arthur), about forty nautical miles farther along the Liaodong Peninsula. Historical references note that the Russian designed city of Dalny (Alt. Dalney), on the south side of Dalian Bay was 40 km (25 mi) from Port Arthur/Lüshun (known today as Lüshunkou or literally, Lüshun Port).
Dalian is located west of the Yellow Sea and east of Bohai Sea roughly in the middle of the Liaodong peninsula at its narrowest neck or isthmus. With a coastline of 1,906 km (1,184 mi), it governs the majority of the Liaodong Peninsula and about 260 surrounding islands and reefs. It is seated at south-south-west of the Yalu River, and its harbour entrance forms a sub-bay known as Dalian Bay.
Dalian has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), characterised by humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and cold, windy, dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone. Except for winter, the city experiences a one-month seasonal lag due to its position on the Liaodong Peninsula. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.9 °C (25.0 °F) in January to 24.1 °C (75.4 °F) in August. Annual precipitation averages 602 millimetres (23.7 in) but is heavily concentrated in the summer months and can vary greatly from year to year. Due to the coastal location, the mean diurnal temperature variation annually is small, at 6.75 °C (12.2 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 49% in July to 68% in September and October, with 2,740 hours of bright sunshine annually. The annual mean temperature is 10.90 °C (51.6 °F).
|Climate data for Dalian (1971–2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−0.4
|Average low °C (°F)||−6.8
|Precipitation mm (inches)||8.9
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||3.3||2.9||3.7||5.4||7.0||9.3||11.8||9.2||6.0||5.2||5.3||3.4||72.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||198.0||200.2||238.8||256.9||277.6||254.7||220.7||240.8||251.5||234.6||182.1||183.9||2,739.8|
|Percent possible sunshine||66||66||65||65||63||57||49||57||68||68||60||63||62.3|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration 15|
In 2001, The United Nations Environment Programme awarded the Dalian Municipal Government for its outstanding contribution to the protection of the environment.16
The average content of the four pollutants in the air reached Class Ⅱ of National Ambient Air Quality Standards and there were 353 days with air pollution index (API) over Class Ⅱ (Good), including 108 excellent days with Class Ⅰ(Superior).17 Dalian frequently ranks Grade 2 for air pollution according to SEPA.18 However, the environmental effects of economic growth are of concern, according to Dalian Environmental Protection Agency, during the first half of 2011, respirable particles in the air increased significantly, with an average 40% higher than 2010.19
The water quality of offshore marine space remained stable overall. The annual average content of monitoring indicators for water quality met Class-II of the national seawater quality standard, with the exception of Inorganic Nitrogen in Dalian Bay and the city's southern coast. The water quality of drinking water sources is considered good and complies with Class-III of Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water.17
Recent events have had a major environmental impact on the city. In July 2010, the explosion of two petroleum pipelines released 11,000 barrels of oil into the Yellow Sea, according to official statements. Rick Steiner, an American marine conservationist working with Greenpeace, says that the figure could be upwards of 400,000.20 It was reported as the largest oil spill to occur in China,2122 and involved 2,000 firefighters.23 The oil spill stretched for at least 50 square kilometres (19 sq mi). 800 fishing boats were mobilised for the cleanup.24 The incident caused President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao to intervene, and Vice Premier Zhang Dejiang moved in to help direct the rescue work 25 A researcher with the China Environmental Science Research Institute, said that "the impact on marine life and on humans – as the pollution enters the food chain – could last 10 years."26 This has compounded aquatic pollution, affecting the city's fishing industry.19
In August 2011, a dike protecting the petrochemical Fujia Factory in Jinzhou District was breached due to a typhoon. Authorities have ordered the plant to be shut down.27 Municipal authorities ruled that the facility must move leaving taxpayers to foot the cost of relocation.2829 Around 12,000 residents protested as the factory, which originally was intended to be based in Xiamen, did not receive official approval to operate in Dalian.3031 Municipal authorities ruled that the facility must move, leaving taxpayers to pay the expensive cost of relocation.2829
Concerns have been raised over mounting traffic due to "bad urban design" and that the growing rate of car ownership is affecting air quality.1932 The United States National Academy of Engineering have raised concern about rising traffic in Dalian stating that "rapid growth of traffic in Dalian and in similar Chinese cities will repeat the air quality and energy consumption mistakes of Los Angeles and other U.S. cities, if not better managed." 33
Dalian is the second largest city of Liaoning province, after Shenyang, the provincial capital. Dalian City is governed by the Mayor and its Dalian Municipal People's Government.
The municipal government is located in the main building on the north side of People's Square on Zhongshan Road, originally built as the Administrative Office of Kwantung Leased Territory, and other buildings in downtown Dalian. There are the Commerce, Foreign Economy & Trade, Hygiene, Information Industry, Police, Religion, Science & Technology, Transportation and other city-level bureaus, which work closely with the corresponding agencies at the district level.
There are, in addition, 4 national leading open zones (Chinese: 对外开放先导区):
- The Development Zone
- The Free Trade Zone (保税区)
- The Hi-Tech Industrial Zone (高新技术产业园区)
- The Golden Pebble Beach National Holiday Resort (金石滩国家旅游度假区)
- There are 92 sub-districts and 69 towns and townships.34
- Ganjingzi, Zhongshan, Xigang, and Shahekou Districts make up the urban centre. Changhai County is made up entirely of islands east of the peninsula.
|Map||#||Name||Simplified Chinese||Hanyu Pinyin||Population
|1||Xigang District||西岗区||Xīgǎng Qū||307,000||26||11,808|
|2||Zhongshan District||中山区||Zhōngshān Qū||354,000||43||8,233|
|3||Shahekou District||沙河口区||Shāhékǒu Qū||643,000||49||13,122|
|4||Ganjingzi District||甘井子区||Gānjǐngzi Qū||704,000||491||1,434|
|5||Lüshunkou District||旅顺口区||Lǚshùnkǒu Qū||209,000||506||413|
|6||Jinzhou District||金州区||Jīnzhōu Qū||717,000||1,390||516|
|10||Changhai County||长海县||Chánghǎi Xiàn||74,000||119||622|
The population of Dalian at the end of 2008 totaled 6.13 million. The total registered population on household was 5,833,700, with a net increase of 51,800 over the previous year, of which, non-farming population was 3,478,300, accounting for 59.6%; farming population 2,355,400, accounting for 40.4%.1
The city has had a continuous annual double-digit percentage increase in GDP since 1992.35 In 2009, the city's GDP registered a 15% increase, reaching RMB441.77 billion, while per capita GDP hit RMB71,833. According to a nationwide appraisal by the National Bureau of Statistics, Dalian ranks eighth among Chinese cities in terms of overall strength.35 The city’s main industries include machine manufacturing, petrochemicals and oil refining, and electronics.36
Dalian was originally an agriculture and aquaculture-based area, which, after the opening of the ferry between Yantai and Lüshun during the early 20th century, began to be populated by the farmers and fishers of Shandong, across the Yellow Sea during the Chuang Guandong era. Corn, vegetables, fruit such as apples, cherries and pearscitation needed are Dalian's typical agricultural products.
Even before and during the Sino-Japanese War, the shipbuilding and locomotives industries were located in the city such as the companies which later became Dalian Shipbuilding Co. and Dalian Locomotive & Rolling Stock Works (DLoco). After the War, Dalian became an important center of the heavy and light industries, including companies such as Dalian Heavy Industry Co., Dalian Chemical Group, and Wafangdian Bearing Co.; and of the distribution industry, including such as Dashang Group. Overseas retailing giants, such as Wal-Mart from the US., Carrefour from France and Metro from Germany have recently opened stores in Dalian. Mycal, the Japanese retailing chain store, was bought out by its Chinese partner, Dashang Group, and is operated as Mykal.citation needed
Dalian Port is emerging as a very important port for international trade. A new harbor for oil tankers, at the terminus of an oil pipeline from the Daqing oilfields, was completed in 1976. Dalian is the 6th largest port in China.37 Accordingly, Dalian is a major center for oil refineries, diesel engineering, and chemical production.
Also completed recently is a newer port on Dagushan Peninsula on the northern suburbs, specializing in import/export of mining and oil products. Together with its Dalian Railroad Station, Dalian International Airport and two major express roads to Shenyang (Shenda Expressway), Changchun(Changda Expressway), Harbin (Hada Expressway) in the north and to Dandong to the east, Dalian has become an important distribution center.38
Dalian has been given many benefits by the PRC government, including the title of "open-city" (1984), which allows it to receive considerable foreign investment (see Special Economic Zone). The Development Zone was established in Jinzhou District, to which many Japanese manufacturing companies, such as Canon, Mitsubishi Electric, Nidec, Sanyo Electric and Toshiba, followed by Korean, American and European companies (such as Pfizer). In 2007, Intel announced plans to build a semiconductor fabrication facility (commonly known as a fab) in the Development Zone, Dalian. It is Intel's first fab to be built at an entirely new site since 1992 The facility began operation in October 2010.39
Other zones in the city include the Dalian Economic and Technological Development Zone, Dalian Export Processing Zone, Dalian Free Trade Zone, and Dalian Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone.
Dalian is the financial center of Northeast China. There are the Dalian branches of China's five major banks: Bank of China, Industrial & Commercial Bank of China, China Construction Bank, Bank of Communications, and Agricultural Bank of China. Dalian Commercial Bank is now called Bank of China, which among other things handles processing of the Dalian Mingzhu IC Card for public transportation.Bank of Dalian opened three branches in Shenyang, Chengdu and Yingkou.
Dalian Commodity Exchange is the only one of its kind in China, expanding the futures market beyond soybeans. The futures industry leaped forward in its development. Dalian Commodity Exchange listed newly developed PVC futures, the varieties of futures trade reached 8 in total. Also Dalian Commodity Exchange has become the largest plastics futures market, and the second largest agricultural futures market, its comprehensive strength ranked ninth in the world.citation needed
Since the 1990s, Dalian City has emphasized the development of the IT industry, especially in Dalian Hi-tech Zone and Dalian Software Park in the western suburbs near Dalian University of Technology. Not only Chinese IT companies, such as DHC, Hisoft and Neusoft Group, but also American, European, Indian and Japanese IT companies are located there.citation needed Currently, the "Lushun South Road Software Industry Belt" Plan is proceeding, including Dalian Software Park Phase 2.
Dalian is a popular destination among domestic tourists and foreign visitors, especially from Japan, South Korea and Russia.4 Its mild climate and multiple beaches as well as its importance in the modern history of China have attracted tourists. Some of the most famous beaches are Tiger beach, Xinghai beach, Jinshitan beach and Fujiazhuang beach. In 2007, it was one of the three cities named "China's best tourist city", along with Hangzhou and Chengdu, recognized by the National Tourism Administration and the United Nations World Tourism Organization.41
- ZhongShan District: Zhongshan Square (including the Modern Buildings on Zhongshan Square in Dalian) and Friendship Square. It is also the economics center. Zhongshan Park is also part of this district.
- Laohutan, Fujiazhuang Beach and Discovery Land: Laohutan is noted for its natural scenery.citation needed There is the Underwater World, the Bird Park and the recently completed Polar Region Zoo. The dolphin show is a major attraction for the Polar Region Zoo. Discovery Land is a theme park which contains six different major scenic spots.
- Shahekou District: Xinghai Square, Xingghai Park and Heishijiao. Xinghai Square was built at the centennial of the City of Dalian (1998) and is slated to be East Asia's largest square. Xinghai beach is inside Xinghai Park. It is about 800m long and is an excellent place for swimming.
- Victory Square, an underground shopping mall which is 4 floors underground.
- Dahei Mountain
- Jinshitan Sightseeing Area
- Jinshitan beach, the Golden Pebble Beach is a tourist attraction with splendid coves and rock formations. There is also a golf course (Jinshitan International Golf Course), cross country motorcycling, a theme park (Dalian Discoveryland) and a game forest.
The fiercest battle site and the signing site of the ceasefire treaty, of the Battle of Lüshun during the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05).
- Anbo Hotspring and Ski Course, in Pulandian City
- Zhangxing Island International Golf Course, in Wafangdian City
- Binyugou Scenic Area and Buyun Mountain Hotspring, in Zhuanghe City
Dalian is the home of three zoological parks: Dalian Forest Zoo, Sun Asia Ocean World, and Polar World. The Forest Zoo has a free-range animal section as well as a more traditional zoo. Polar World is the only park devoted to polar animals in China. Dalian is also home to a number of public squares, including Xinghai Square..
Dalian is one of the many cities in China where there are no longer many bicycles, and where there are few motorcycles, because their sale is prohibited.citation needed The city has a comprehensive bus system and an efficient Dalian Metro system, usually called Qinggui (轻轨), which connects Dalian Development Zone and Jinshitan with downtown Dalian. The Dalian Tram system is the second oldest in China.
Dalian has a recently (2006) expanded international airport, Dalian Zhoushuizi International Airport, with direct flights to the most major cities in China, and to some cities in Japan and South Korea.
The city's location means that train trips to most Chinese cities outside China's northeastern region require changing trains in Shanghai or Beijing. Most of the direct city to city express trains are overnight trips. The city has two railway stations, namely Dalian Railway Station and Dalian North Railway Station (IATA: DBL), that latter being part of the Harbin–Dalian High-Speed Railway.
In addition to local and express bus service to Beijing and other areas in the northeast, Dalian is connected by passenger ship service to neighbouring coastal cities, such as Tianjin and Yantai, as well as Incheon, South Korea.
Standard Mandarin is usually spoken in Dalian because it is a city with people from various locations. Among the Dalianites, however, the Dalian dialect is used, which belongs to the Jiao Liao Mandarin subgroup spoken in parts of Shandong and Liaoning provinces. The majority of the original Dalianites were the poor farmers and fishermen who had come from Shandong Province in a large population move called "Chuang Guandong" during the Manchukuo era. Among the Dalian dialect's features are a few loanwords from Japanese and Russian, reflecting its history of foreign occupation,43 which is a very rare case in the Chinese language.
Sports play a big role in the local culture. The local football team have been caught out several times though and the heyday of the Super Team has passed. The city's football team has dominated the sport in China and Asia by winning 7 titles out of the past 9 years of Chinese professional football league. The Dalian's football club is Dalian Shide, one of fifteen teams in the Chinese Super League. Prior to 2000, they were known as Dalian Wanda.
Some other popular sports played in Dalian are golf, cycling, bowling and billiards.citation needed
Xinghai Square, the Xinghai Conference Center, the Dalian World Expo Center and the hotels on Renmin Road are the places where Dalian's major annual events are held: Fireworks Displays (Chinese New Year, 1 May and 1 October), Dalian International Walking Festival (May), Dalian Locust Flower Festival (May), Dalian International Marathon (June), China International Software & Information Service Fair (June), Dalian International Beer Festival (July–August), Dalian International Auto Show (August) and Dalian International Fashion Festival (Chinese: 大连国际服装节; pinyin: Dàlián guójì fúzhuāng jié; every September).
Japan Chamber of Commerce & Industry has about 700 corporate members. Those Japanese who had lived in Dalian before the War have organized the Dalian Society.
Daoist temples can be found in various districts including downtown Dalian (Hua Temple in Zhong Shan Park), in Lushunkou District (Longwang Temple), and in Jinzhou District (Jinlong Temple in Daweijia, Xiangshui Temple at the foot of Dahei Mountain, and Zhenwu Temple in Liangjiadian).
Buddhist temples are in downtown Dalian (Songshan Temple on Tangshan Street), on the northern side of Anzi Mountain (Anshan Temple), at Daheishi (Thousand-Hand Buddha & 500 Luohan Statues), in Lushunkou District (Hengshan Temple at Longwangtan), and in Jinzhou District (Guanyinge-Shengshui Temple on Dahei Mountain).
Dalian Catholic Church (built in 1926) is in downtown Dalian, west of Dalian Railway Station. Protestant churches are near Zhongshan Square (Yuguang Street Church, the former Dalian Anglican Church, built in 1928 in the British Consulate General's premises by the Church of England and Anglican Church of Japan jointly), on Changjiang Road (Beijing Street Church, now called Cheng-en Church, originally built in 1914 by the Danish Lutheran Church), on Xi'an Road (Christian Church for the Korean Chinese), east of the airport (the newly built Harvest Church, which can seat 4000 people), in Jinzhou (the newly built Jinzhou Church) and in Lüshunkou District (Lüshun Church, a former Danish Lutheran church). Dalian Mosque is on Beijing Street.44
- Bo Xilai, former mayor, removed from Politburo under corruption charges.
- Dong Jie, actress.
- Toshiro Mifune (三船 敏郎 Mifune Toshirō?), (1 April 1920 – 24 December 1997), Japanese actor who appeared in almost 170 feature films; raised in Dalian45 with his parents and two siblings.
- Harry Triguboff, Dalian born Australian property developer.
- Yu Nan, actress.
- Wei Son, Japanese fashion model who claims to have been born in Dalian.46
- Xia Deren, a former mayor from October 2006 to May 2009.4748
- Xue Jiye, Dalian born painter and sculptor.
There were 23 general institutions of higher education (and another 7 privately run colleges), 108 secondary vocational schools, 80 ordinary middle high schools, 1,049 schools for nine-year compulsory education and 1,432 kindergartens in Dalian. The students on campus of all levels (including kindergartens) totaled 1108 thousand.
There are the following schools of higher education and research centers:
- Dalian Jiaotong University (大连交通大学) (Founded in 1956)
- Dalian Maritime University (大连海事大学)（Project 211）
- Dalian Medical University (大连医科大学) (Founded in 1947)
- Dalian Nationalities University (大连民族学院) (Founded in 1997)
- Dalian Naval Academy of the PLA（中国人民解放军海军大连舰艇学院）
- Dalian Ocean University (大连海洋大学) (Founded in 1952)
- Dalian Polytechnic University (大连工业大学)
- Dalian University of Foreign Languages (大连外国语学院)
- Dalian University of Technology (大连理工大学)（Project 985、Project 211）
- Dalian University (大连大学)
- Dongbei University of Finance and Economics (东北财经大学)
- Liaoning Normal University (辽宁师范大学)
- Dalian Neusoft University of Information (大连东软信息学院)
Some universities are undergoing relocations from the metropolitan area to the suburban districts. In 2007, Dalian University of Foreign Languages (except for its Schools of Chinese Studies 汉学院 and Continuous Education 培训部) and Dalian Medical University (except its Hospital) were moved to Lüshunkou District, just east of Baiyin Mountain Tunnel (白银山).
Missouri State University Branch Campus Dalian is a dual management private school with a western director.
Notable high schools include:
- Dalian No. 24 High School（大连市第二十四中学）
- Dalian Yuming High School（大连育明高级中学）
- Dalian No. 8 High School（大连市第八中学）
- The Middle School Attached to Liaoning Normal University (辽宁师范大学附属中学）
Dalian is twinned with:
- Population and Employment at the Wayback Machine (archived July 7, 2011). Dalian China. english.dl.gov.cn (2010-03-23).
- GDP figure of Liaoning cities is from Liaoning Statisticlal Yearbook 2011 ISBN 978-7-89468-219-2/F.419
- Jing, Fu (2006-01-03). "Beijing drops out of top 10 'best city' list". China Daily. Retrieved 2014-02-12.
- Britannica Educational Publishing (2010). "The Major Cities of Northern China". The Geography of China: Sacred and Historic Places. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 165–168. ISBN 978-1-61530-182-9.
- They also renamed the bay for their queen Victoria. Kuramoto p. 19.
- Hess, Christian A. (2006). “From colonial jewel to socialist metropolis: Dalian, 1895–1955.” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, San Diego), p. 17.
- Kuramoto p. 20.
- Hess, p. 21.
- March, G. Patrick. Eastern Destiny: Russia in Asia and the North Pacific (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 1996)
- "Accounts of the Martyrs of the Chinese Orthodox Church who fell victim in Beijing in 1900". Nina Tkachuk Dimas. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
- China widens doors for foreign capital. Ottawa Citizen (1984-10-03)
- "Anti-Western Protests Flare in Several Chinese Cities – Fox News". Fox News. 2011-10-20.
- Protests continue; restraint urged at the Wayback Machine (archived April 22, 2008). China Daily (2008-04-21)
- Chinese premier calls for confidence in world economic recovery. News.xinhuanet.com (2011-09-14). Retrieved on 2013-01-02.
- "中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集（1971–2000年）" (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2009-11-19.
- Dalian Municipal Government of China, one of 18 Individuals and Organizations, to Receive United Nations Environment Aawrd – United Nations Environmen. Unep.org (2001-05-28). Retrieved on 2013-01-02.
- Dalian China – Environmental Protection at the Wayback Machine (archived January 18, 2010). english.dl.gov.cn (2008-04-07).
- Air Quality Daily at the Wayback Machine (archived May 5, 2010). Ministry of Environmental Protection of China
- Urban Security in China – A Case Study of Dalian – The Nautilus Institute. Nautilus.org (2011-09-06). Retrieved on 2013-01-02.
- Jacobs, Andrew (2010-07-30). "Group Says China's Official Oil Spill Figure May Be Too Low". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-08-17.
- "Rush is on to stem Yellow Sea oil spill". The Boston Globe.
- 1st details on China oil spill's cause emerge. The China Post (2010-07-24). Retrieved on 2013-01-02.
- "Oil Leak From Dalian Pipeline Explosion, Fires Is Under Control, CNPC Says". Bloomberg. 2010-07-17.
- Watts, Jonathan (2010-07-20). "China recruits 800 fishing boats to disperse Yellow Sea oil slick". The Guardian (London).
- China port city cleans up pollution belt after fire – People's Daily Online. English.peopledaily.com.cn (2010-07-18). Retrieved on 2013-01-02.
- Martin, Dan (2010-07-22) Clean-up crews use bare hands against China oil spill. AFP via mysinchew.com
- Watts, Jonathan (14 August 2011). "China orders petrochemical plant shutdown after protests". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2011-08-17.
- Tang Hao (2011-09-06) Public storm in Dalian. chinadialogue. Retrieved on 2013-01-02.
- dead link
- Thousands protest against Chinese chemical plant. BusinessWeek (2011-08-14). Retrieved on 2013-01-02.
- Lafraniere, Sharon; Wines, Michael (15 August 2011). "Plant Protest Shows China's Officials Under Pressure". The New York Times.
- In Fast-Growing China, a Warning About When Prosperity Isn't Enough – Christina Larson – International. The Atlantic. Retrieved on 2013-01-02.
- Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States. Nap.edu (2003-06-01). Retrieved on 2013-01-02.
- Dalian Statistics Yearbook 2008
- China Briefing Media (2006). "Dalian". Business Guide to Beijing and North-East China. China Briefing Media. pp. 199–200. ISBN 9889867338.
- Haft, Jeremy (2007). All the Tea in China: How to Buy, Sell, and Make Money on the Mainland. Penguin. p. 76. ISBN 1591841593. "[Dalian's] Key industries include food processing, machinery, IT, electronics, garments, petrochemicals, household goods, textiles, locomotives, shipbuilding, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and petroleum refining."
- Dalian port ideally placed on the cusp of prosperity – The National. Thenational.ae (2012-12-13). Retrieved on 2013-01-02.
- Eltschinger, Cyrill (2007). Source Code China: The New Global Hub of IT Outsourcing. John Wiley and Sons. p. 118. ISBN 0470106964.
- "Intel debuts new Dalian fab". People's Daily Online. 2010-10-27. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
- Nystedt, Dan (2010-10-25). "Intel opens first chip manufacturing plant in China". IDG. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
- Hangzhou, Chengdu, Dalian Named 'Best Tourist City'. china.org.cn (2007-02-10). Retrieved on 2013-01-02.
- Jing, Fu (3 January 2006). "Beijing drops out of top 10 'best city' list". China Daily.
- Mikami, Yoshi (2002-06-27) The Dalian Dialect in Chinese at the Wayback Machine (archived March 8, 2005). threeweb.ad.jp
- 《宗教概况》. Dalian: Ethnic Affairs Commission. Retrieved 11 September 2010
- Biography for Toshirô Mifune. IMDb.com
- "Wei Son's message arrives", Shibuhara Girls, MTV Japan (2011-01-24) (Japanese)
- Lippincott, Jonathan (2006). The World is Flat. New York, New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. p. 34. ISBN 0-374-29279-5.
- "Taiwan's logistics giant Evergreen Int'l Corp to expand investments in Dalian". What's on Dalian. Retrieved 2012-06-14.
- Frohmader, Andrea. "Bremen - Referat 32 Städtepartnerschaften / Internationale Beziehungen" [Bremen - Unit 32 Twinning / International Relations]. Das Rathaus Bremen Senatskanzlei [Bremen City Hall - Senate Chancellery] (in German). Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
- Florence, Jeanne. "Le Havre - Les villes jumelées" [Le Havre - Twin towns] (in French). Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- "Le Havre - Les villes jumelées" [Le Havre - Twin towns]. City of Le Havre (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-07-24. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- "Kontakty partnerskie Miasta Szczecin". Urząd Miasta Szczecin (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2012-08-18. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
- Dallas mayor inks friendship pact with North China port city | www.pegasusnews.com | Dallas/Fort Worth. www.pegasusnews.com (2008-04-29). Retrieved on 2013-01-02.
- "Sister Cities". Dallas-ecodev.org. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
- Kuramoto, Kazuko. Manchurian Legacy: Memoirs of a Japanese Colonist, 1st edition. Michigan State University Press. 1 October 1999. ISBN 0-87013-510-4, ISBN 978-0-87013-510-1, ISBN 0-87013-725-5, ISBN 978-0-87013-725-9.
- Hess, Christian A. (2006). "From colonial jewel to socialist metropolis: Dalian, 1895—1955." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, San Diego.
- Matz, Leigh. Blue Sky Red Tears, 1st edition. DigitalKu. 30 November 2004. ISBN 0-9763168-1-1, ISBN 978-0-9763168-1-7.
- McKnight, Tom, (ed.). Geographica: The Complete Illustrated Atlas of the World, 3rd revision. New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 2001. ISBN 0-7607-5974-X, ISBN 978-0-7607-2714-0.
- Perrins, Robert John (1998). "'Great connections': The creation of a city, Dalian, 1905–1931. China and Japan on the Liaodong Peninsula." Ph.D. dissertation, York University (Canada).
- Song Li. Everyday Dalian: Life In Modern Manchuria (Photography Book), Foreword by Phil Borges. 1st edition. DigitalKu. 8 February 2008. ISBN 0-9763168-5-4, ISBN 978-0-9763168-5-5.
- Theiss, Frank. The Voyage of Forgotten Men, 1st Ed. Indianapolis & New York: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1937.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dalian.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Dalian.|