||It has been suggested that this article be merged into Maghrebi Arabic. (Discuss) Proposed since August 2013.|
Darija (Arabic: الدارجة), means "everyday/colloquial language";1 it also appears as ad-dārija, derija or darja. It refers to any of the varieties of colloquial Arabic subsumed under Maghrebi Arabic. Like all colloquial Arabic varieties, it is generally used for everyday speech, in TV plays, drama, some advertising, social networking, etc., with Modern Standard Arabic (الفصحى (al-)fuṣḥā), French, or other languages used for formal speech and for written communication. Darija shares the majority of its vocabulary with standard Arabic, but it also includes significant borrowings from Berber (Tamazight) substrates,2 as well as extensive borrowings from French, and to a lesser extent Castilian Spanish and even Italian (primarily in Libya) – the languages of the historical colonial occupiers of the Maghreb. Darija is spoken and to various extents mutually understood in the Maghreb countries, especially Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, but can often be unintelligible to speakers of other Arabic dialects. Darija continues to evolve by integrating new French or English words, notably in technical fields, or by replacing old French and Spanish ones with Standard Arabic words within some circles.
In contrast, the colloquial dialects of more eastern Arab countries, such as Egypt, Jordan and the Sudan, are usually known as al-‘āmmīya (العامية), though Egyptians may also refer to their dialects as el-logha-d-darga.
Darija can refer to:
- Algerian Arabic
- Ḥassāniyya, spoken by the Saharans in Mauritania, Western Sahara, Morocco and Algeria.
- Libyan Arabic
- Moroccan Arabic
- Tunisian Arabic
- Wehr, Hans: Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (2011); Harrell, Richard S.: Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic (1966)
- Tilmatine Mohand, Substrat et convergences: Le berbére et l'arabe nord-africain (1999), in Estudios de dialectologia norteaafricana y andalusi 4, pp 99–119