Demographics of Haiti

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Population of Haiti (in thousands) from 1961 to 2003

Although Haiti averages approximately 255 people per square kilometer (650 per sq. mi.), its population is concentrated most heavily in urban areas, coastal plains, and valleys. The nation is multi-ethnic, home to peoples of different races and ethnic groups. About 70-75% of Haitians are of predominantly African descent.1not in citation given The remainder of the population is primarily mulattoes, Europeans, Asians and Arabs. Hispanic residents in Haiti are mostly Cuban and Dominican. About two thirds of the Haitian population live in rural areas.

Although there was a national census taken in Haiti in 2003, much of that data has not been released to the public. Several demographic studies, including those by social work researcher Athena Kolbe, have shed light on the current status of urban residents. In 2006, households averaged 4.5 members. The median age was 25 years with a mean average age of 27 years. People aged 15 and younger counted for roughly a third of the population. Overall, 52.7 percent of the population was female.2

Population

According to the 2012 revison of the World Population Prospects the total population was 9,896,000 in 2010, compared to 3,221,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 36.2%, 59.7% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 4.5% was 65 years or older .3

Total population
(x 1000)
Proportion
aged 0–14
(%)
Proportion
aged 15–64
(%)
Proportion
aged 65+
(%)
1950 3 221 39.6 56.7 3.7
1955 3 516 39.7 56.9 3.4
1960 3 869 40.3 56.5 3.2
1965 4 275 41.7 54.9 3.4
1970 4 713 41.8 54.5 3.7
1975 5 144 41.3 54.8 3.9
1980 5 692 41.1 54.9 4.0
1985 6 389 42.2 53.8 4.0
1990 7 110 43.1 52.9 4.0
1995 7 838 42.6 53.5 3.9
2000 8 578 40.3 55.7 4.0
2005 9 261 38.1 57.8 4.2
2010 9 896 36.2 59.7 4.5

Vital statistics

Registration of vital events is in Haiti not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. 3

Period Live births
per year
Deaths
per year
Natural change
per year
CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR* Life expectancy
total
Life expectancy
males
Life expectancy
females
1950-1955 154 000 89 000 65 000 45.7 26.5 19.2 6.30 220 37.6 36.3 38.9
1955-1960 165 000 87 000 78 000 44.6 23.6 21.0 6.30 194 40.7 39.4 42.0
1960-1965 177 000 86 000 91 000 43.5 21.1 22.4 6.30 171 43.6 42.3 44.9
1965-1970 183 000 84 000 99 000 40.7 18.6 22.1 6.00 150 46.3 44.9 57.6
1970-1975 188 000 85 000 104 000 38.2 17.2 21.1 5.60 135 48.0 46.8 49.3
1975-1980 217 000 87 000 129 000 40.0 16.1 23.9 5.80 131 50.0 48.5 51.5
1980-1985 259 000 94 000 164 000 42.8 15.6 27.2 6.21 122 51.5 50.2 52.9
1985-1990 264 000 94 000 170 000 39.1 13.9 25.3 5.70 100 53.6 52.2 55.0
1990-1995 265 000 93 000 172 000 35.5 12.5 23.1 5.15 85 55.3 53.7 56.8
1995-2000 268 000 93 000 175 000 32.7 11.3 21.3 4.62 70 56.9 55.2 58.7
2000-2005 265 000 95 000 171 000 29.7 10.6 19.1 4.00 56 58.1 56.4 59.9
2005-2010 265 000 90 000 175 000 27.7 9.4 18.3 3.55 49 60.7 59.0 62.4
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Disasters often cause human populations to increase long term, rather than decrease, by way of increased fertility exceeding the deaths caused by the initial disaster, as shell-shocked mothers replace every lost child with more than needed.citation needed In Haiti's case, the fertility rate nearly tripled after the quake, and is likely to remain elevated (above pre-quake levels) for long after.4

Languages

Taíno was the major pre-Columbian language in the region now known as Haiti. One of the country's official languages is Haitian Creole, a French-based creole with African influences, as well as minor Spanish and Taíno influences. French is the other official language. Spanish, though not official, is spoken by a growing amount of the population, and is spoken more frequently near the border with the Dominican Republic. English is increasingly spoken among the young and in the business sector.

Religion

The state religion is Roman Catholicism which 80-85% of the population professes. 15-20% of Haitians practice Protestantism. A percentage of the population practice Vodou. A small population also practice Islam.

Education

Although public education is free, private and parochial schools provide around 75% of educational programs offered. Less than 65% of children of primary school age are actually enrolled. At the secondary level, the figure drops to 55%. Of those enrolled in primary school, 63% will complete it. On average, it takes 16 years to produce a single graduate of the 6-year cycle.clarification needed Though Haitians place a high value on education,citation needed few can afford to send their children to secondary school.citation needed Remittances sent by Haitians living abroad are important in paying educational costs.citation needed

In the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince, home to 2.21 million of Haiti's 8.5 million people, 23 percent of adults have completed secondary school with 16 percent passing the state graduation exam.2 More than half (53.5 percent) of children aged 5–17 do not attend school.2

Labor

In 2004, 300,000 children were restavecs, which are somewhat like indentured service for minors. This was done by their parents in order that the children would be fed.5

Emigration

Large-scale emigration, principally to the United States, and Canada (predominantly to Quebec, with other areas of the country) - but also to Cuba, other areas of Europe and the Americas (like Argentina) such as France (with French Guiana), Spain, Belgium, the United Kingdom and Ireland; and Venezuela, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, the Bahamas and other Caribbean neighbors - has created what Haitians refer to as the Eleventh Department or the Diaspora. About one of every six Haitians live abroad.

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook (as of March 3rd, 2011).6 Population: 9,719,932 (2011 est.)

Nationality:

Noun: Haitian(s)
Adjective: Haitian
Ethnic groups: Black 75-80%(most are not purely of African descent), Mulatto and White 20-25%, Other 5-10%

Religions: Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3% (Islam, Bahá'í Faith, Judaism, Buddhism).

Languages: French (official), Haitian Creole (official), Spanish (non-official)

Literacy: (2008 est. by IHSI)7

Definition: Age 15 and over that can read and write
Total population: 52.9%
Male: 54.8%
Female: 51.2%

References

  1. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Haiti
  2. ^ a b c Kolbe, Athena R.; Royce A. Hutson (August 31, 2006). "Human rights abuse and other criminal violations in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: a random survey of households". The Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69211-8. Retrieved 20 June 2011. 
  3. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision
  4. ^ http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20101022/news/news1.html
  5. ^ Cohen, Gigi (2004-03-24). "Haiti's Dark secret:The Restavecs". National Public Radio. 
  6. ^ "Haiti". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 2011-03-03. 
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
    note: the preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009
  7. ^ Institut Haitien de Statistique et d'Informatique - IHSI







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