Demographics of Trinidad and Tobago

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Trinidad and Tobago, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Census population and average annual growth rate
Year Pop.   ±% p.a.  
1851 82,978 —    
1861 99,848 +1.87%
1871 126,692 +2.41%
1881 171,179 +3.06%
1891 218,381 +2.47%
1901 273,899 +2.29%
1911 333,552 +1.99%
1921 365,913 +0.93%
1931 412,783 +1.21%
1946 563,222 +2.09%
1960 834,350 +2.85%
1970 945,210 +1.26%
1980 1,079,791 +1.34%
1990 1,213,733 +1.18%
2000 1,262,366 +0.39%
2011 1,328,019 +0.46%
Source: 1

Population

The total population of Trinidad and Tobago was 1,328,019 according to the 2011 census,1 an increase of 5.2% since the 2000 census. According to the 2012 revison of the World Population Prospects the total population was estimeated at 1,328,000 in 2010, compared to only 646,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 20.7%, 71% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 8.3% was 65 years or older.2

Total population
(x 1000)
Proportion
aged 0–14
(%)
Proportion
aged 15–64
(%)
Proportion
aged 65+
(%)
1950 646 39.9 56.1 4.0
1955 740 42.2 54.2 3.7
1960 848 42.8 53.7 3.5
1965 912 43.4 53.2 3.4
1970 946 41.4 54.3 4.2
1975 1 011 37.6 57.5 4.8
1980 1 085 34.0 60.6 5.5
1985 1 171 34.3 60.2 5.6
1990 1 222 33.6 60.7 5.8
1995 1 255 30.8 63.2 6.1
2000 1 268 25.6 67.9 6.5
2005 1 297 21.8 70.9 7.2
2010 1 328 20.7 71.0 8.3

Due to decreasing fertility, the proportion of children below the age of 15 is decreasing, while the proportion of elderly is increasing. The median age has increased from 21.6 in 1980, 24.1 in 1990, 28.1 in 2000 to 32.6 in 2011.1 The estimated mid-year population of 2014 is 1,344,000 (medium fertility scenario of The 2012 Revison of the World Population Prospects).2

Emigration

Emigration from Trinidad and Tobago, as with other Caribbean nations, has historically been high; most emigrants go to the United States, Canada, and Britain. Emigration has continued, albeit at a lower rate, even as the birth-rate sharply dropped to levels typical of industrialised countries. Largely because of this phenomenon, as of 2011, Trinidad and Tobago has been experiencing a low population growth rate (0.48%).

Vital statistics34

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1934 428 12 743 7 970 4 773 29.8 18.6 11.2
1935 435 14 352 7 618 6 734 33.0 17.5 15.5
1936 442 14 625 7 230 7 395 33.1 16.4 16.7
1937 450 14 226 7 848 6 378 31.6 17.4 14.2
1938 458 15 119 7 283 7 836 33.0 15.9 17.1
1939 466 14 525 7 491 7 034 31.2 16.1 15.1
1940 476 16 535 7 499 9 036 34.7 15.8 19.0
1941 492 16 494 7 906 8 588 33.5 16.1 17.5
1942 510 17 729 9 028 8 701 34.8 17.7 17.1
1943 525 20 210 8 699 11 511 38.5 16.6 21.9
1944 536 20 944 8 055 12 889 39.1 15.0 24.0
1945 547 21 616 7 959 13 657 39.5 14.6 25.0
1946 561 21 767 7 734 14 033 38.8 13.8 25.0
1947 578 22 342 7 828 14 514 38.7 13.5 25.1
1948 600 23 940 7 293 16 647 39.9 12.2 27.7
1949 616 22 931 7 487 15 444 37.2 12.2 25.1
1950 646 23 722 7 665 16 057 37.5 12.1 25.4
1951 659 23 804 7 815 15 989 36.7 12.0 24.6
1952 676 22 923 8 000 14 923 34.6 12.1 22.5
1953 695 25 565 7 262 18 303 37.7 10.7 27.0
1954 717 29 253 6 807 22 446 41.9 9.8 32.2
1955 740 30 216 7 462 22 754 41.9 10.3 31.6
1956 763 27 447 7 136 20 311 36.9 9.6 27.3
1957 786 28 848 7 283 21 565 37.7 9.5 28.2
1958 809 29 667 7 288 22 379 37.6 9.2 28.4
1959 829 30 592 7 476 23 116 37.4 9.2 28.3
1960 848 32 858 6 608 26 250 39.1 7.9 31.2
1961 865 32 880 6 891 25 989 37.9 7.9 30.0
1962 880 34 107 6 465 27 642 37.9 7.2 30.7
1963 893 32 898 6 668 26 230 35.6 7.2 28.4
1964 903 32 955 6 675 26 280 34.7 7.0 27.6
1965 912 31 953 6 731 25 222 32.8 6.9 25.9
1966 920 30 079 7 060 23 019 30.2 7.1 23.1
1967 926 28 462 6 775 21 687 28.2 6.7 21.5
1968 931 28 107 7 116 20 991 27.5 7.0 20.6
1969 938 25 130 7 068 18 062 24.4 6.9 17.6
1970 946 25 151 6 956 18 120 24.4 6.8 17.6
1971 956 26 116 7 044 18 473 24.6 6.8 17.9
1972 969 28 049 6 955 20 099 26.3 7.0 19.2
1973 983 26 231 7 517 18 714 24.8 7.1 17.7
1974 997 26 138 6 716 19 422 24.5 6.3 18.2
1975 1 011 25 673 6 899 18 774 25.4 6.8 18.6
1976 1 026 27 149 7 388 19 761 26.5 7.2 19.3
1977 1 040 27 895 7 311 20 584 26.8 7.0 19.8
1978 1 054 28 295 6 824 21 471 27.0 6.5 20.5
1979 1 069 29 698 7 060 22 638 27.9 6.6 21.3
1980 1 085 29 869 7 506 22 363 27.6 6.9 20.7
1981 1 103 32 177 7 355 24 822 29.4 6.7 22.7
1982 1 121 32 537 7 641 24 896 29.2 6.8 22.3
1983 1 139 33 208 7 546 25 662 29.2 6.6 22.5
1984 1 156 31 599 7 819 23 780 27.0 6.7 20.3
1985 1 171 33 719 8 026 25 693 28.8 6.9 21.9
1986 1 184 31 886 7 699 24 187 26.9 6.5 20.4
1987 1 195 29 167 8 054 21 113 24.4 6.7 17.7
1988 1 205 26 983 8 036 18 947 22.4 6.7 15.7
1989 1 214 25 072 8 213 16 859 20.7 6.8 13.9
1990 1 222 23 960 8 196 15 764 19.6 6.7 12.9
1991 1 230 22 368 8 192 14 176 18.2 6.7 11.5
1992 1 237 23 064 8 533 14 531 18.6 6.9 11.7
1993 1 244 21 094 8 807 12 287 17.0 7.1 9.9
1994 1 250 19 682 9 265 10 417 15.7 7.4 8.3
1995 1 255 19 258 9 042 10 216 15.3 7.2 8.1
1996 1 258 17 992 9 376 8 616 14.3 7.5 6.8
1997 1 261 18 452 9 157 9 295 14.6 7.3 7.4
1998 1 263 17 898 9 365 8 533 14.2 7.4 6.8
1999 1 265 18 321 10 014 8 307 14.5 7.9 6.6
2000 1 268 18 160 9 478 8 682 14.3 7.5 6.8
2001 1 272 18 078 9 753 8 325 14.2 7.7 6.5
2002 1 278 16 990 9 797 7 193 13.3 7.7 5.6
2003 1 284 17 989 10 206 7 783 14.0 7.9 6.1
2004 1 290 17 235 9 872 7 363 13.4 7.7 5.7
2005 1 297 17 264 9 885 7 379 13.3 7.6 5.7
2006 1 303 18 090 9 668 8 422 13.9 7.4 6.5
2007 1 310 18 889 9 654 9 235 14.4 7.4 7.0
2008 1 316 19 888 10 463 9 425 15.1 7.9 7.2

Ethnic groups

Population of Trinidad and Tobago according to ethnic group3
Ethnic
group
Census 1946 Census 1960 Census 1980 Census 1990 Census 2000 Census 2011 1
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Amerindian 1,394 0.1
Indian 195,747 35.1 301,946 36.5 426,660 40.3 453,069 40.3 446,273 40.0 468,524 37.6
African 261,485 46.9 358,588 43.3 434,730 41.1 445,444 39.6 418,268 37.5 452,536 36.3
Mixed 78,775 14.1 134,749 16.3 175,150 16.5 207,558 18.4 228,089 20.5 301,866 24.2
White 15,283 2.7 15,718 1.9 9,850 0.9 7,254 0.6 7,034 0.6 8,669 0.7
Chinese 5,641 1.0 8,361 1.0 5,670 0.5 4,314 0.4 3,800 0.3 4,003 0.3
Syrian, Lebanese or Arab 889 0.2 1,590 0.2 1,010 0.1 934 0.1 849 0.1 1,029 0.1
Other 6,714 0.8 2,900 0.3 1,724 0.2 1,972 0.2 2,280 0.2
Unknown 150 0.0 291 0.0 2,350 0.2 4,831 0.4 8,487 0.8 5,472 0.4
Total 557,970 827,957 1,058,320 1,125,128 1,114,772 1,245,773

Indo-Trinidadian

Indo-Trinidadians make up the country's largest ethnic group (approximately 37.6%).1 They are primarily descendants from indentured workers from India, brought to replace freed African slaves who refused to continue working on the sugar plantations. The Indian community is divided roughly half-and-half between those who maintained their original religions and those who have converted to Christianity or have no religious affiliation. Through cultural preservation groups, Trinidadians of Indian descent maintain many of their customs and rites.

Afro-Trinidadian and Tobagonians

Afro-Trinidadian and Tobagonian make up the country's second largest ethnic group (approximately 36.3%).1 Although African slaves were first imported in 1517, they constituted only 11 percent of the population (310) in 1783.5 The majority of the African slaves were brought in the last few years of Trinidad's Spanish Colonial era, and the beginning of the British colonial period. The Cedula of Population transformed a small colony of 1000 in 1773 to 18,627 by 1797. In the census of 1777 there were only 2,763 people recorded as living on the island, including some 2,000 Arawaks. During this time there were many African slave owners. In 1807, the UK Parliament passed the Slave Trade Act 1807 that abolished the trading of slaves, and the Slavery Abolition Act 1833 abolished the practice of slavery.

Europeans

The European population is primarily descended from early settlers and immigrants. The recent census counted 8,669 people of European descent.1 These numbers do not include people who have at least some European ancestry or self-identify as African or Indian.

The French arrived mostly during the Spanish period to take advantage of free agricultural lands. Some Portuguese were brought to replace freed African slaves when they refused to accept low wages. The majority however arrived as religious refugees in mid nineteenth century and more came at the turn of the century for economic reasons. 6 The Europeans who remained in Trinidad live in areas in and around Port of Spain. In Tobago, most Europeans are retirees from Germany and Scandinavia who have recently arrived there.

Mixed ethnicity

Given the large number of ethnic identities in Trinidad and Tobago, most citizens have a mixed ethnic heritage due to influences from French, West African, Creole, Chinese, Indian, Irish, German, Swiss, Portuguese, British, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, Norwegian, Polish, Arab, Lebanese, Russian and African American ancestors. Additionally, there are also nationals of Hispanic ancestry, mostly of Amerindian descent, mainly from Venezuela along with a small number from Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Common ethnic mixtures include people of European and African descent, mulattos, and Indian and African descent (often colloquially known as dougla). This mixed population is estimated at around 22.8%, however it is much higher when considering the various degrees of African, Indian, European, and indigenous Amerindian ancestry of the total population. A person might self identify as Black or Indian based on physical appearance however they might be genetically more similar to a person of Indian and African descent (dougla).789

Other ethnic groups

There are groups of Chinese who, like the Portuguese and Indians, are descended from indentured labourers. They account for about 4,003 people and live mostly in Port-of-Spain and San Fernando.

"In Trinidad there were, about twenty years ago [i.e. about 1886], 4,000 or 5,000 Chinese, but they have decreased to probably about 2,000 or 3,000, [2,200 in 1900]. They used to work in sugar plantations, but are now principally shopkeepers,as well as general merchants, miners and railway builders,etc.10

There are also about 1,062 Arabs, originating from Syria and Lebanon who live mostly in Port-of-Spain. The Syrian and Lebanese communities of Trinidad are predominantly Christian, migrating from the Middle East in the 19th century while fleeing religious persecution received from the Ottoman Empire later landing in the Caribbean and Latin America. Other Lebanese and Syrians came in the early to middle 20th century to escape the war and turmoil in the region. Finally there are the mixed raced Caribs who are descended from the native, precolonial people of the islands. They are organized around the Santa Rosa Carib Community and live mostly in and around Arima.

Religion

In 2011, according to census, Roman Catholicism was again the largest religious denomination with 285,671 followers (21.6% of the total population), having declined from a membership of 289,711 in 2000 (26% of the population).1 Other religious denominations that experienced decreases in their membership in 2011 were Hinduism (from 22.5% in 2000 to 18.2% in 2011), Anglican (from 7.8% to 5.7%), Presbyterian/Congregational (from 3.3% to 2.5%) and Methodist (from 0.9% to 0.7%). The number of persons claiming affiliation to Pentecostal/Evangelical/Full Gospel more than doubled from 76,327 in 2000 (6.8%) to 159,033 in 2011 (12.0%). The number of Muslims slightly increased but as proportion of the total population there was a decrease from 5.8% in 2000 to 5.0% in 2011. Interestingly, the category ‘None’ rose from 1.9% to 2.2% and the category ‘Not Stated’ from 1.4% to 11.1%.

References








Creative Commons License